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IN placing the "History of Allen County/' as an integral part of 
the "History of the Maumee River Basin," before the citizens of 

the county, the publishers can conscientiously claim that they 
have carried out in full every promise made in the prospectus. The 
historical articles from the pen of Col. Robert S. Robertson, as well 
as the special articles by other able and well-known writers, compose 
a valuable collection and will prove not only of interest to the 
present generation, but of inestimable value to future historians, be- 
ing the result of patient toil and deep research. Every biograph- 
ical sketch in this work has been submitted to the party interested 
for approval and correction, and therefore any error of fact, if there 
be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch was pre- 

The publishers w r ould here avail themselves of the opportunity 
to thank the citizens of Allen county for the uniform kindness with 
which they have regarded the undertaking and for their many 
services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. Confi- 
dent that our efforts to please will fully meet the approbation of the 
public, we are 




AND BAR — First Settlements — Beginning of Law and Order — 
First Courts in Northwest Territory — Early Fees — Indiana Ter- 
ritory Organized — Admission of Indiana as a State — Early Hap- 
penings — Formation of Counties — Early County Courts and Judges 
— Probate Courts — Court of Common Pleas — Criminal Circuit 
Court — Superior Court — Board of Commissioners — First Court 
House — Second Court House — Present Court House — Internal Im- 
provements 18 

Traders — The Old Fort — A Forgotten Hero — Early Missionary Ef- 
forts — The Village — Primitive Traffic — Social Events — Old Portraits 
— Old Advertisements — Auntie Vance 60 

Associate Judges — Probate and Common Pleas Judges — Criminal 
Judges — Superior Judges — Prosecuting Attorneys, Circuit Court — 
Prosecuting Attorneys, Common Pleas Court — Prosecuting Attor- 
neys, Criminal Court — Clerks of the Circuit Court — Auditors — 
Treasurers — Sheriffs — Recorders — Surveyors — Coroners — 
County School Superintendents — County Board of Trustees — 
County Commissioners — Members of General Assembly — Repre- 
sentatives — Miscellaneous Officials 82 

CHAPTER IV — MUNICIPAL MATTERS — Original Plats — Municipal 
Incorporation — Early Officials — Corporation Seal — Mayors — City 
Treasurers — City Attorneys — City Clerks — Street Commissioners — 
Foremen of Street Repairs — Civil Engineers — Assessors — Marshals 
—-Aldermen — Board of Health — Department of Public Works — De- 
partment of Public Safety — Water Works Board — Trustees of Pub- 
lic Schools — Superintendents of Public Schools — City Building. ... 93 

ALLEN COUNTY— Branch of State Bank of Indiana— Hugh Mc- 
Culloch — Fort Wayne National Bank — Bond Brothers — Old Na- 


tional Bank — Allen Hamilton & Company — The Hamilton Bank — 
Hamilton National Bank — First National Bank — Merchants' Na- 
tional Bank — White National Bank — German-American National 
Bank — Nuttman & Company — Fort Wayne Savings Bank — Isaac 
Lauferty — The Cheney Bank — Commercial Bank — Straus Brothers 
& Company — Bank of Wayne — Citizens' State Bank of Monroeville 
— Woodburn Banking Company — Zanesville State Bank — Fort 
Wayne Trust Company — Citizens' Trust Company — Tri-State Loan 
and Trust Company — People's Trust and Savings Company 113 

Building and Loan Association — Fort Wayne Building, Loan-Fund 
and Saving Association — German Building, Loan and Saving Asso- 
ciation — Teutonic Building and Loan Association — Tri-State Build- 
ing and Loan Association — Wayne Building and Loan Association. 146 

velopment — Saw-Mills — Flour Mills — Bass Foundry and Machine 
Company — Western Gas Construction Company — Kerr Murray Man- 
ufacturing Company — Electrical Works — Jenney Electric Light 
Company — Fort Wayne Electric Works — Bowser Oil Tank Industry 
— Foundries and Machine Shops — Central Foundry Company — Meni- 
fee Foundry Company — Fort Wayne Foundry and Machine Com- 
pany — Indiana Machine Works — J. H. Bass Manufacturing Com- 
pany — Centlivre Manufacturing Company — Haberkorn Engine Com- 
pany — Indiana Road Machine Company — Wagon and Carriage In- 
dustry — City Carriage Works — Olds Wagon Works. — Fort Wayne 
Spoke and Bending Company — Paul Manufacturing Company — 
Louis Ras tetter & Son — Fort Wayne Windmill Company — The Pack- 
ard Company — Peters Box and Lumber Company — White Wheel 
Works — Box Industry — Fort Wayne Box Company — Olds Wheel 
Works — Cooperage — Noble Machine Company — Furniture — Fort 
Wayne Furniture Works — D. N. Foster — Pape Furniture Com- 
pany — Fort Wayne Special Furniture Company — Brewing Indus- 
try — Centlivre Brewing Company — Berghoff Brewing Company — 
Fort Wayne Knitting Mill — Economy Glove Company — The Para- 
gon Company — Union Manufacturing Company — Hoosier Manufac- 
turing Company — Boss Manufacturing Company — Shirt Waist In- 
idustry — Bread and Biscuit Industry — Perfection Biscuit Company 
— Craig Biscuit Company — National Biscuit Company — Plumbing 
Supplies — Knott, VanArnum Company — Washing Machine Industry 
— Anthony Wayne Manufacturing Company — Peerless Manufactur- 
ing Company — Horton Manufacturing Company — Superior Manu- 
facturing Company — The Packing Industry — Fred Eckart Pack- 
ing Company — Bash Packing Company — Carpets and Rugs— Sad- 
dlery and Harness— Patent Medicines — Moellering Medicine Com- 
pany — Rundell Proprietary Company — Live Stock Proprietary Rem- 
edy Company — Brick, Tile, Etc. — Marble and Granite Works — Arti- 
ficial Stone — Summit City Soap Works — The Cigar Industry 148 


CHAPTER VIII — EDUCATION — Early Schools — First School House in 
Fort Wayne — The Ladies' Seminary — Methodist College — Presby- 
terian Academy — Westminster Seminary — State School System — 
Growth of City Schools — Erection of School Houses — The High 
School — Music and Reading — Drawing — Physical Culture — Train- 
ing School for Teachers — Primary Supervisor — The Kindergartens 
— Fort Wayne School Trustees — School Accommodations — Parochial 
and Other Schools 224 

The Pioneer Farmers — Early Cabin Homes — First Crops — Construc- 
tion of First Roads — First Agricultural Society — Allen County 
Horticultural Society — Indiana State Fair — Indiana Horticultural 
Society — Northern Indiana Agricultural and Horticultural Associ- 
ation — Farmers' Institutes 244 

Republic — Post No. 1 — Jesse Adams Post, No. 493 — First Memorial 
Day — Sion S. Bass Post, No. 40 — Anthony Wayne Post, No. 271 — 
George Humphrey Post, No. 530 — General Lawton Post, No. 590 — 
Post No. 3— David K. Stopher Post, No. 75— Post No. 4— William 
H. Link Post, No. 301 — Union Veteran Legion — Woman's Relief 
Corps — Ladies of the G. A. R. — Sons of Veterans — Union Ex-Pris- 
oners of War Association of Northeastern Indiana — United Span- 
ish War Veterans — Society Army of the Philippines — The Wayne 
Guards — Fort Wayne Light Guard — Fort Wayne College Cadets — 
The Hibernian Rifles — Fort Wayne Rifles— Fort Wayne Veterans — 
Battery B, Indiana National Guard — Company L, Third Regiment, 
I. N. G. — Company G, Third Regiment. I. N. G. — Company D, 
Eighty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Association — Sons of the Amer- 
ican Revolution — Daughters of the American Revolution 251 

guished Practitioners — Medical Periodicals — Allen County Medical 
Society — Fort Wayne Academy of Medicine — St. Joseph's Hospital 
— City Hospital — Hope Hospital — Fort Wayne College of Medicine 
— Physicians as Military Surgeons 289 

CHAPTER XII— POLICE DEPARTMENT— Organization of Department 

— Police Station — Past and Present Officials 297 

CHAPTER XIII— FIRE DEPARTMENT— Early Volunteer Companies- 
Fire Limits Established — First Apparatus — Fire Alarm Telegraph 
System Installed — Engine Houses — Officials of the Department and 
Personnel of the Companies— Firemen's Pension Fund 301 

CHAPTER XIV— WATER WORKS— First Action by the City Council- 
Construction of Works — Sources of Water Supply — Additional 
Equipment — Officials 309 


CHAPTER XV — TELEPHONES — The Lumbard Exchange — Western 
Union Lines — Bell Telephone Company — Home Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company — National Telephone and Telegraph Company .... 316 

Legislative Provision — Made an Independent Institution — Construc- 
tion of Buildings — Superintendents — Aim of the School — Official 
Staff 320 

visions — Allen County Public Library — Workingmen's Institute and 
Library — Lectures — Township Libraries — Monroe Township School 
Library — Monroeville Public School Library — Emerine J. Hamil- 
ton Library — Fort Wayne Free Public Library — Donation by An- 
drew Carnegie for Library Building — Books in Library and Their 
Comparative Circulation — Library Staff — Concordia College Li- 
braries 327 

Randall Library, and those of Rev. S. and Mrs. Wagenhals, Miss 
Margaret Hamilton, Montgomery Hamilton, Andrew H. Hamilton, 
F. J. Hayden, Hugh T. Hanna, Mrs. Helen F. Fleming, Bishop 
Alerding, R. S. Taylor, R. S. Robertson, John H. Jacobs, and the 
Railroad Young Men's Christian Association 348 

COUNTY — Necessity for Women's Clubs— Indiana's First Club — 
Allen County Woman's Rights Association — The Clut> — Qui Vive 
Club— Woman's Reading Club— The Other Club — T. M. C. C. Club 
— The Seven Club — The Saturday Club — Woman's Club League — 
Morning Musical Society — Art School Association — The Carroll 
Clut> — Current Literature Club — Young Women's Christian Associ- 
ation — The Needlework Guild — Duodecimo Club, New Haven — 
Ladies' Aid Society, Dunfee — Minerva Club, Hoagland — Harlan 
Literary Club, Harlan — Home-makers' Association 394 

thedral of the Immaculate Conception — First Missionary Efforts — 
Mother of God Church— St. Peter's Church — St. Paul's Church — 
St. Patrick's Church — Church of the Precious Blood — St. Joseph's 
Chapel — St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum — St. Leo Church, Leo — 
St. Louis Church, Jefferson Township — Church of St. John the 
Baptist, New Haven — St. Joseph's Church, Hesse Cassell — St. Vin- 
cent's Church, Academy — St. Patrick's Church, Areola — Church of 
St. Rose of Lima, Monroeville — St. Aloysius Church, Pleasant 
Township 413 


Methodism, and its Potential Influence — Early Ministrations in 
Allen County — Class Organized in 1830 — Early Preachers — First 
Methodist Episcopal Church — Wayne Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church — Simpson Methodist Episcopal Church — St. Paul's Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church — Bethany Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Free Methodist Church — African Methodist Episcopal Church 437 

Minister in Fort Wayne a Presbyterian — "Father Ross" — First 
Presbyterian Church — Semi-Centennial — Second (Westminster 
Presbyterian Church — Third Presbyterian Church — Bethany Pres- 
byterian Church. 448 


Isaac McCoy — Beaver Chapel — German Baptist (Dunker) Church. 460 

Lutheran Church (English) — German Evangelical Lutheran 
Churches — St. Paul's Church — St. John's Church — Emanuel Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church — Zion's Evangelical Lutheran Congrega- 
tional Church — Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church (German) — 
Emmaus Evangelical Church — Christ's Evangelical Lutheran 
Church — Lutheran Church of the Redeemer — Evangelical Concordia 
Congregation — Grace Evangelical Church — Martin's Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Adams Station — St. Peter's Church, St. Joseph 
Township — German Evangelical Church, New Haven — German 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, Gar Creek — St. John's Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Marion Township — St. John's Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Hoagland 467 

formed Church — Second German Reformed Salem Church — Grace 
Reformed Church 480 


Church — St. Andrew's Mission 484 


gregational Church — South Congregational Church 492 


Church — West Creighton Church 495 




Brethren Church — Second United Brethren Church 498 



CHAPTER XXXIII— HEBREW— Achd'uth Veshalom Synagogue, of B'Nai 

Israel 506 



COUNTY — Wayne Lodge, No. 25 — Early Masonic Events — Anti-Ma- 
sonic Movement — Troublous Times — Summit City Lodge, No. 170 
— Sol D. Bayless Lodge, No. 359 — Home Lodge, No. 342 — Leo 
Lodge, No. 224, Leo — Olive Branch Lodge, No. 248, Poe — Monroe- 
ville Lodge, No. 293 — Harlan Lodge, No. 296, Harlan — Newman 
Lodge, No. 376, New Haven — Henry King Lodge, No. 382, Hunter- 
town — Fort Wayne Chapter, No. 19, R. A. M. — Fort Wayne Coun- 
cil, No. 4, R. & S. M — Fort Wayne Commandery, No. 4, K. T — 
Lodge of Perfection, A. A. S. R. — Darius Council, Princes of Jeru- 
salem, A. A. S. R. — Order of the Eastern Star — Summit City Chap- 
ter, No. 45, O. E. S— Shiloh Chapter, No. 141, O. E. S.— Clandestine 
Masonry — The Masonic Temple 516 

Fort Wayne Lodge, No. 14 — Fort Wayne Encampment, No. 152 — 
Fort Wayne Canton, Patriarchs Militant — Harmony Lodge, No. 19 
— Summit Encampment, No. 16 — Deborah Lodge, No. 110, Daugh- 
ters of Rebekah — Degree of Honor Lodge, No. 23 — Concordia 
Lodge, No. 228 — Concordia Lodge, No. 41, Daughters of Rebekah.. 536 


101 — Rathbone Sisters — Fort Wayne Lodge, No. 116 544 

DERS — Fort Wayne Lodge, No. 155, Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks — Fraternal Order of Eagles — Independent Order 
B'nai B'rith — Independent Order of Foresters — Improved Order of 
Red Men — Degree of Pocahontas — Knights of the Maccabees — 
Ladies of the Maccabees — Brotherhood of American Yeomen — 
Royal Arcanum — Order of Ben Hur — Knights and Ladies of Honor 
— Ancient Order of United Workmen — Hebrew Benevolent Society 
— Loyal League — Miscellaneous Societies 549 




From the beginning of the twentieth century we have only to 
glance backward over the highway of the century past to measure 
the birth and growth of the county which is our pride and boast. 
To be sure, Fort Wayne was built and garrisoned before the dawn 
of the nineteenth century, but settlers came slowly, and the first 
quarter post of that century was nearly reached before the county 
of Allen was carved from the vast wilderness which had once been 
honored by the name of the conqueror, Wayne. 

One hundred years ! How few they seem ! How small a period 
in the measureless ages, and yet, in that short span, how great the 
development of America, and of the world ! One hundred years ago 
the same sun shone, the same moon glimmered over the forests, and 
over the rivers St. Joseph and St. Mary's, which then rippled and 
flowed between verdurous banks, until here their waters were wed- 
ded, and together swept on through unbroken forests to where they 
were absorbed in Erie's waves. 

But naught else was the same. No beautiful city, with its thou- 
sands of happy homes, its busy marts and workshops, pointed its 



spires to the sky. No stately "palace of justice" reared on high its 
magnificent and imposing dome to point out and emphasize the 
power and majesty of government and law. Courts there were, but 
not like ours. The arching sky formed the dome, a cleared spot 
among the trees the court room, where the simpler trials of the time 
were held. Few were the questions decided, the first being, "Shall 
he live or die?" The second and final one, the duration and kind of 
torture the victim should endure before the boon of death should be 
given. It was a democratic court, for the whole people participated 
in the three-fold capacity of judge, jury and executioner. No law- 
yers were needed. 

Less than a century ago, within rifle shot of the Allen county 
court house, at the meeting of the rivers, the last man convicted 
here by such a court was bound to a stake by a long rawhide thong. 
About him twigs and fagots were piled and fired, near enough to 
shrivel the skin and slowly roast the flesh, but not near enough to 
hasten the death he longed and prayed for. And there, blinded by 
fire and smoke, tortured by thrusts of sharpened poles, with hot 
ashes and live coals showered over his head and shoulders by his 
cruel tormentors, he trod the circle of his tether, over a pathway of 
burning coals, goaded on by his pitiless executioners. If he fell, he 
was lifted up and driven again around and around that fiery footpath 
till the welcome, but tardy, angel of death at last claimed him. 
Thank heaven, that dread court, with its attendant horrors, has for- 
ever passed away. The century just gone brought that wilderness 
under the reign of law and into the full light of the world's best 
civilization and jurisprudence. 

We who have always enjoyed a reign of law, seldom think of 
the beginnings from which our judicial system has grown. Under 
the regular administration of justice in our generation, we can 
hardly realize the condition of the people who came here when the 
territory northwest of the Ohio was claimed as a possession of 
France; as part of the domain of Spain; as part of the British do- 
minion, and as a county of Virginia. And yet, the laws of all these 
nations have been at varying periods enforced, or attempted to be 
enforced, throughout all that region now comprising the great 
states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and the four- 
teen counties of Minnesota lying east of the Mississippi river. In 


our own state the administration of Spanish law, under the 
claim that it belonged to Louisiana, was of feeble character, and can 
hardly lay claim to historic certainty. No so with the administra- 
tion of the laws of France, for the settlement of St. Vincent's, now 
Vincennes, was controlled by governors and a judiciary of that na- 
tion, and when our own form of government succeeded to it, many 
of the French forms and customs were recognized as having the 
form of law. 

But the real beginnings of judicial administration through county 
organizations and established courts came through Virginia. Vir- 
ginia at its first settlement was almost the antipodal of New Eng- 
land. It was a bit of mosaic out of old England, with the aristocratic 
landholder lording it over the black slave and the white serf. It had 
the laws of England, only modified by the "orders in council," adapt- 
ed for the filling of the treasure boxes of the councilors. It had the 
law of primogeniture and entail, by which the land was to be kept 
in the family by going to the eldest son, virtually disinheriting the 
younger sons and the daughters. Society was composed of all 
classes, grading from the manor to the slums, and they brought with 
them the customs and the habits of the same classes in England. 
Thus the grades were established — the landowner, the slave, the 
"poor white." Lofty character, a culture wonderful for the age, 
existed side by side with the most servile degradation. They had a 
state church, and between agriculture, politics and the church, men 
were trained to thought, until in the new atmosphere and the new 
surroundings they threw off the trammels of the church and the 
unjust laws of primogeniture, and from that time the growth of the 
state was marvelous. Its position among the other states was al- 
most anomalous. It led in great statesmen, in devoted patriots, who 
gave us the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights and aided 
in giving us the Constitution as it now is. It gave to us of the 
great Northwest its assent to the Ordinance of 1787, which devoted 
a vast territory to freedom. We need not be ashamed to acknowl- 
edge Virginia's claim to our parentage. 

The first charter of the Virginia colony was granted April 10, 
1606, and in November of the same year King James issued articles 
for the government of the colony, and named Sir William Wade, 
knight, and lieutenant of the Tower of London, with twelve asso- 


dates, as the King's council of Virginia, who should "give direc- 
tions to the councils of the several colonies, for the good ordering 
and disposing of all causes happening within the same, as near to 
the common laws of England, and the equity thereof, as may be." 

The local council of the colony was vested with judicial powers. 
In civil cases the president and council acted as judges, and heard 
and determined the cause, but in criminal cases the council sat as 
presiding judges and called a jury of twelve "honest, indifferent 
persons, sworn upon the evangelists," who were to render a verdict 
under instruction of the council. No written pleadings were re- 
quired, but the judgment had to be recorded and signed. 

On the 26th of April, 1607, Capt. Newport landed the first colo- 
nists at Jamestown. By a later charter other forms of local courts 
were established, limited in term to one month in the year, and com- 
plaints of consequence were required to 1 be recorded. 

The first general assembly whose record has been preserved sat 
at Jamestown March 5, 1623-4. It made provision for regularly 
organized courts, to sit monthly, the judges to be appointed monthly 
and to have jurisdiction to the value of one hundred pounds of to- 
bacco. In criminal cases and petty offenses an appeal lay to the 
council, but as the unsuccessful appellant was mulct in double dam- 
ages, this kind of appeal was doubtless little sought for. 

But the first known courts in the Northwest Territory were held 
under the French rule, about 171 7, at Fort Chartres, near Kaskas- 
kia, and it was ordained by a charter of Louis XIV, granted to Sir 
Anthony Crozat, that "the Edicts, Ordinances and Customs, and 
the usages of the Mayoralty and Shrievalty of Paris, shall be ob- 
served for laws and Customs in said Country." John Law's cele- 
brated "Western Company" succeeded to governmental powers in 
the Mississippi valley, and in 1723 the country was divided into nine 
districts. The seventh was "The District of Illinois and Wabash," 
under a commandant and judge, who administered military and civil 

In 1763, by the Treaty of Paris, France relinquished her claim 
to the territory and Great Britain assumed its control. In 1765 Cap- 
tain Sterling was sent to Fort Chartres as commandant of the Illi- 
nois country, with authority to organize a government under Brit- 
ish laws and usages. Dying soon after, Major Frazer was ordered 


there as his successor, but in 1766 Colonel Reed succeeded Frazer, 
and was so despotic and disliked that he was superseded by Colonel 
John Wilkins in September, 1763. He, on the 21st of November 
of that year, issued a proclamation, establishing a monthly court, 
appointed seven judges with jurisdiction to ' 'settle all disputes and 
controversies, and all claims to property, real and personal," but 
without the right to trial by jury. 

This control lasted until the wonderful campaign of that great but 
neglected hero, Gen. George Rogers Clark (whose mother was a de- 
scendant of John Rogers, the Smithfield martyr), brought the Brit- 
ish occupation to an end in 1778, and Virginia, by right of his con- 
quest, and by the terms of her charter, which denned her eastern 
and western boundaries as "from sea to sea," assumed sovereignty 
over it, and by act of October, 1778, erected all this vast Northwest 
Territory into the "County of Illinois." On the 12th of December 
of that year Governor Patrick Henry appointed John Todd lieuten- 
ant commandant. It was decreed that the civil officers were to be 
elected by the people, and "to exercise their several jurisdictions, and 
conduct themselves agreeable to the laws which the present settlers 
are now accustomed to." 

This government continued in force until, in 1784, Virginia 
ceded her claims and jurisdictions to the United States, and the 
famous Ordinance of 1787 was substituted for it. 

By this ordinance a governor and three judges were appointed 
under the authority of the United States, who composed the general 
council, enacted laws and sat as a general court, until the territory 
passed to the second grade, i. e., had five thousand inhabitants, when 
the people were authorized to elect a council and house of repre- 
sentatives, to be known as the general assembly. 

When the governor and judges sat as a legislative council they 
were authorized only to adopt laws of the original states as laws 
to govern the territory, and before they could go into effect they 
must have the sanction of congress, but it is a peculiar fact that 
nearly every law put in force by the council was refused sanction by 
congress, and that they were not "adopted," but "adapted," from 
the laws of the states to suit the ideas of the governor and judges 
as to what the laws should be, and not as they were. Hence the 
questions later raised as to their validity. 


When they sat as a court it was to hear appeals from the lower 
courts. It could affirm or reverse such decisions at their pleasure, 
but from their decision there was no appeal, a strange oversight on 
the part of congress, which thus established a tribunal to make the 
laws, and then sit in final judgment to construe those laws. It is 
not at all remarkable that the legality of these laws was not ques- 
tioned, for so long as the "general court" existed, if the question 
were raised by some presumptuous lawyer, the court which enacted 
the law could, and probably did, pronounce it a good law, and at 
the same time could, and probably did, make the atmosphere of the 
court unhealthy for the meddling lawyer, who had the temerity to 
trouble the court with such foolish arguments. 

For their services these three judges, who were appointed by the 
President, received the munificent salary of five hundred dollars 

Gen. Arthur St. Clair was the first governor, and Winthrop Sar- 
geant secretary. The first judges were Samuel Holden Parsons, 
James Mitchell Varnum and John Armstrong. The latter declined, 
and John Cleves Symmes was appointed. 

July 9, 1788, the governor and judges arrived at Marietta and 
established the civil government provided by the ordinance, and on 
the 26th a court of common pleas was organized, with three judges, 
a clerk and sheriff. The first term began September 2d of that year 
and, in presence of the governor and council, Justices Rufus Putnam 
and Benjamin Tupper took the bench, divine blessing was invoked, 
and the high sheriff, Ebenezer Sproat, opened court by proclaiming 
at the open door, "Oyez, Oyez, a court is opened for the administra- 
tion of even-handed justice to the poor and rich, to the guilty and 
the innocent, without respect of persons ; none to be punished with- 
out trial by his peers, and in pursuance of the law and evidence in 
the case." Thus, in the county of Washington, in Marietta (now 
in the state of Ohio) as the county seat, was inaugurated the judi- 
ciary system under which our fathers and we have lived for more 
than a century — the beginnings of a judicial system that has grown 
to proportions then not thought of — like the century oak from the 
acorn sprig. All these five great states and more was then the 
county of Washington, Northwest Territory. 

In January, 1790, the governor and territorial judges, sitting as 


the legislative council, formed the county of Hamilton, with Cin- 
cinnati as the county seat. Its boundaries were from the Hockhock- 
ing to the Great Miami. 

From Cincinnati they went to Vincennes and formed the county 
of Knox, with Vincennes as the county seat. Its boundaries were 
from the Great Miami to the Wabash. A strict constructionist 
would contend that Fort Wayne was not within its jurisdiction, for 
it was not geographically on the hither side of the Wabash, but the 
criminal at Fort Wayne found himself in the meshes of the court at 
Vincennes, and we find no record of the jurisdictional question be- 
ing raised. Thence they went to Cahokia, where they formed the 
county of St. Clair, with its boundaries from the Wabash to the 
Mississippi. Possibly those charged with offenses at Fort Wayne 
preferred being tried at Vincennes rather than at East St. Louis, 
and so failed to raise the jurisdictional point suggested. 

The Ordinance of 1787 provided that the legislative council 
might adopt such laws of the "original states" as they might deem 
proper for the government of the territory. 

The laws adopted came from Massachusetts, New York, Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia. In 1798 four were adopted from the Ken- 
tucky code, but they were declared invalid because Kentucky was 
not an "original state." 

In 1788 laws were enacted establishing courts of general quarter 
sessions of the peace, and courts of common pleas, and the single 
judges were empowered to hear and determine finally upon causes 
arising out of small debts and contracts. A probate or orphans' 
court was established the same year. 

In 1790 these courts were required to divide the counties into 
townships, and to alter the boundaries thereof whenever necessary. 

The terms of the general court were fixed as follows : In the 
county of Knox on the first Tuesday of May; in the county of St. 
Clair on the second Tuesday of June; in the county of Hamilton on 
the first Tuesday of October; in the county of Washington on the 
second Tuesday of November. The common pleas courts were to 
meet every four months. 

In 1 79 1 the court of general quarter sessions was to meet in each 
county every four months, as well as the common pleas, and by act 
of August 1, 1792, a court house, county jail, pillory, whipping post 


and stocks were ordered built in every county. At the same ses- 
sion an act was passed requiring attorneys to pass examination be- 
fore a judge, and to take an oath as follows : "I swear that I will 
do no falsehood, nor consent to the doing of any in the courts of 
justice, and if I know of an intention to commit any, I will give 
knowledge thereof to the justices of the said courts or some of them, 
that it may be prevented. I will not willingly promote or sue any 
false, groundless or unlawful suit, not give aid or consent to the 
same, and I will conduct myself in the office of attorney within the 
said courts according to the best of my knowledge and discretion, 
and with good fidelity as well to the courts as my clients, so help 
me God." 

This will be easily recognized as the foundation stone upon which 
has been built the well-known high character for truth and veracity 
which down to the present has been attributed, and justly so, to the 
members of the legal profession of the Northwest. It was further 
enacted that neither party litigant could employ more than two at- 
torneys, and if but two were present at any term of court, neither 
party could employ more than one of them. 

It is of interest to know that by the early fee bills lawyers were 
not expected to grow rich by the practice of their profession, for in 
1795 the fees of "counsellors and attornies" were fixed at three dol- 
lars and fifty cents for the maximum retainer, one dollar and twen- 
ty-five cents for arguing motions, and a trial fee of one dollar and 
a half. A few cents were allowed for each paper drawn. 

Later, when Indiana territory was formed, attorneys* fees were 
fixed at two and one-half dollars in civil cases, unless title to land 
was involved, when five dollars was allowed. For advice when no 
suit was pending one dollar and twenty-seven cents was allowed. 
Why "twenty-seven" is not apparent. 

By an act of June 6, 1795, the times and places of holding the 
general quarter sessions were more particularly fixed, in Knox 
county, on the first Tuesdays of February, May, August and No- 
vember, and a common pleas and an orphans' court was established 
in each county. 

At that session of the legislative council composed of Arthur St. 
Clair, governor, John Cleves Symmes and George Turner, judges, 


a number of laws were made pertaining to the judiciary and proceed- 
ings of courts. 

It provided that lands might be subjected to the payment of 
debts, except "That the messuage, lands or tenements upon which 
the defendant is chiefly seated, shall not be exposed for sale before 
the expiration of one whole year after judgment is given, to the in- 
tent that the defendant, or any other for him, may redeem the 

It provided for writs of garnishment to reach goods or property 
of the debtor held by others, and to reach the goods of absconding 
debtors, and for immediate process in case of small debts. The 
body of the debtor was not to be taken where he could produce ef- 
fects sufficient to satisfy the sum contained in the execution, other- 
wise the "body" was to be taken to the jail, there to be safely kept 
by the sheriff until the judgment and costs were fully paid. If the 
judgment defendant escaped, the sheriff had the judgment and costs 
to pay. 

It also provided for the punishment of persons stealing "under 
the value of five shillings" (now equal to one hundred and fifty 
cents) by being "immediately and publicly whipped, upon his or her 
bare back, not exceeding fifteen lashes, or be fined in any sum, at 
the discretion of the said justices, not exceeding three dollars ; and, 
if able, to make restitution besides to the party wronged, paying 
also the charges of prosecution and whipping; or otherwise, shall 
be sent to the workhouse, to be kept at hard labor." 

It also prescribed the oaths for witnesses — "those of the people 
commonly called Quakers, by taking the solemn affirmation; and 
those of the persuasions who swear by the uplifted hand, or hands, 
by taking an oath in the following words : T, A. B., do swear by 
Almighty God, the searcher of all hearts (and so forth) * * * 
And that as I shall answer to God at the great day/ " All of these 
laws were "adopted from the Pennsylvania code," and some of them 
will be recognized as familiar friends by the lawyers of today, but 
not all of them. 

It is of interest to record that the law establishing courts of 
judicature in 1795, one hundred and ten years ago, were adopted 
from the Pennsylvania code, and it may be of greater interest to 


follow the terms of the laws which placed the foundation stones of 
the judiciary for the ages to follow. 

The law is entitled "Territory of the United States Northwest 
of the Ohio. A law establishing Courts of Judicature, adopted from 
the Pennsylvania code, and published at Cincinnati, the 
sixth day of June, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, 
by Arthur St. Clair, governeur, and John Cleves Symmes 
and George Turner, judges, in and over said territory." 

"Section i. There shall be a court, stiled the General Quarter 
Sessions of the peace, holden and kept four times in every year, in 
every county, viz: In the county of Washington, at the town of 
Marietta, on the third Tuesdays of March and June, and the first 
Tuesdays of September and December, yearly and every year ; in the 
county of Hamilton, at the town of Cincinnati, on the first Tuesdays 
of February, May, August and November, yearly every year; in the 
county of St. Clair, to be holden as followeth (to-wit) in the District 
of Kaskaskia, on the first Tuesdays of January, March, June and 
August; in the district of Kahokia, on the first Tuesdays of Febru- 
ary, April, July, and October; and in the District of Prairie-du- 
Roches, on the first Tuesdays of May, August, November, and Feb- 
ruary, yearly and every year; and in the county of Knox, on the 
first Tuesdays of February, May, August, and November, yearly 
and every year." 

"A competent number of justices in every county, nominated and 
authorized by the governor" were authorized to hold these courts if 
three of them were present. The expenses of the judges, clerks and 
attorney general, with their servants in travelling the circuits, where 
they should not hold any courts, were to be paid by the territory, but 
where they held court, "by the treasurer of the county, out of the 
county stock." The ferrymen must pass them "without fee or re- 

By the same act a court of common pleas was established to be 
holden four times a year, in each county "at the place where the 
general quarter sessions of the court shall be respectively kept," and 
a "competent number" of justices were to be commissioned by the 
governor of the territory to hold such courts. They were "to hear 
and determine all and all manner of pleas, actions, suits and causes, 
civil, personal, real and mixed, according to law." 



"The orphans court" for each county was to be held by the 
justices of the quarter sessions of the peace, who were empowered 
to summon before them "all guardians, trustees, tutors, executors, 
administrators accountable for any property belonging to orphans 
or persons under age, to probate wills, and grant letters of adminis- 
tration." The terms of the statute were broad enough to cover all 
the powers and duties of probate courts generally, and these laws 
were also taken from the Pennsylvania code, and it is remarkable 
that few changes have been made in the administration of probate 
affairs in the one hundred and ten years which have passed since 
the laws were adopted. The probate lawyer of 1795, could he return 
in 1905, would have little to learn or unlearn to fit himself for a pro- 
bate court practice in the state of Indiana. 

The general and circuit courts had sole jurisdiction in cases for 
divorce, and absolute divorces and the causes for absolute divorce 
were fewer than now. If either party had a husband or wife living 
at time of solemnizing the second marriage, or was impotent, or 
guilty of adultery, the absolute divorce was decreed. "Extreme 
cruelty" was cause for "divorce from bed and board," and no other 
causes were recognized. If the defendant was a non-resident, publi- 
cation had to be made in a newspaper published in the territory 
where there was none in the county once a week for forty weeks. 

The last session of the legislative council for the Northwest terri- 
tory sat in 1798, and in October of that year the general assembly 
was elected, and commenced its first session September 16, 1799. 
The counties then organized, with dates of organization and county 
seats, were as follows: 

Washington, July 26, 1788, Marietta; Hamilton, January, 1790, 
Cincinnati; Knox, February, 1790, Vincennes ; St. Clair, March, 
1790, Kaskaskia; Wayne, July, 1796, Detroit; Adams, July 10, 
1797, Adamsville; Jefferson, 1797; Ross, August 20, 1798, Chili- 
cothe. Henry Vanderburg, of Knox, was president of the council, 
and Shadrach Bond represented the county in the lower house. 

That general assembly, by its first act, ratified nearly all the laws 
of the governor and judges then in force, the preamble of the act re- 
citing that, "Whereas, it hath been represented to the general assem- 
bly by his Excellency the Governor of the territory, that, on several 
occasions, laws have been enacted by the governor and judges of 


their own authority, and that those laws are of very doubtful obli- 
gation, and that they have been spoken of from the bench ; therefore, 
to confirm and enforce those laws, Be it enacted," etc. 

It passed "an act regulating the admission and practice of attor- 
nies and counsellors", containing thirteen sections, and covering 
more than eight printed pages of the statute book. He must be li- 
censed as such attorney and counsellor by the governor, and could 
then practice during "good behavior", and demand and take only 
such fees as might be established by law. Before he could be licensed 
by the governor, he must procure the certificate of at least two 
judges of the general court, that he had been regularly examined 
and found duly qualified. He could not be admitted to such exam- 
ination without having obtained a rule of the general court for the 
purpose, and he could not obtain that rule without producing, in 
support of the motion for it, a certificate from a practising attorney, 
residing in the territory, setting forth that he was of good moral 
character, that he had "regularly and attentively studied law under 
his direction, within the territory for the space of four years, and 
also that he believes him to be a person of sufficient abilities and 
legal knowledge to discharge the duties of an attorney at law." 
After all these preliminaries, the examination was held by two or 
more of the judges, or by such person or persons as they might ap- 
point, after three days' notice previously given in open court, and 
the judges were required to grant a certificate without "unreason- 
able" delay, "stating truly" whether they believed him qualified or 
not. Then he must take the oath of office and subscribe the roll of 
attorneys. If he did not, the clerk could enter it for him by direc- 
tion of the judges. If neither were done, he was not suffered to 
practice law in the territory after the second term had passed. The 
judges could strike his name from the roll for misconduct after no- 
tice of the charge. They could punish him in a summary way for 
contempt of court. They could proceed summarily against him if 
he collected moneys for his client and failed to pay it when de- 
manded, and could order him arrested and held to bail. No one not 
a citizen, no judge of any court, justice of the peace, clerk of court, 
prothonotary, coroner, sheriff, deputy sheriff, jailor or constable 
could practice law in any county where he so served. If any one 
received a fee without securing the license above mentioned, it could 


be recovered back with costs, and a forfeiture of three times the sum 
could be sued for and recovered, one-half for the use of the plain- 
tiff and one-half for the county in which the suit was brought. 

It would seem that the lawmakers of 1799 had a more exalted 
opinion of what a lawyer should be than did the framers of the con- 
stitution of 1 85 1, who declared citizenship and good moral character 
were the only qualifications necessary. 

On the 4th of July, 1800, Indiana territory came into existence 
as a territory of the first grade, with a form of government similar 
to that of the Northwest territory. The executive and the law- 
making council consisted of Governor William Henry Harrison and 
Judges William Clark, Henry Vanderburg and John Griffin. On 
that day they met at Vincennes, as the seat of government of the 
new territory, and proceeded to organize a government which had 
jurisdiction from the Ohio line to the Mississippi. There were 
then three organized counties in that great domain, with less than 
five thousand white inhabitants in all of them, to-wit: Knox, St. 
Clair and Randolph. By August 1st a full set of officers had been 
appointed in each, and the governmental machinery was in work- 
ing order. 

The last session of the governor and judges as a legislative body 
was held in 1803, as the territory numbered five thousand inhab- 
itants in the beginning of 1804, and passed to the second grade. 
Clark, Wayne and Dearborn had been added to the list of counties, 
and we were in Wayne, extending from the Ohio river to the Brit- 
ish possessions, and westward indefinitely. 

Illinois territory was organized in 1809, and Indiana took its 
present shape and dimensions, and in 1816 passed to the dignity of 
a state. In 181 5 a census was taken under a legislative order pre- 
paratory to statehood, with the following result, as taken from the 
official report: "Wain county, 6,406; Franklin county, 7,370; 
Dearborn county, 4,424; Switzerland county, 1,332; Jefferson 
county, 4,223; Clark county, 7,153; Washington county, 7,317; 
Harrison county, 6,946; Knox county, 8,062; Gibson county, 5,650; 
Posey county, 1,811; Warrick county, 1,415; Perry county, 
1,700; total, 63,649." 

At this time there was not a house north of Fort Wayne, nor 
between Fort Wayne and Chicago, and there were but three weekly 


newspapers in the state, one at Vincennes, one at Vevay and one at 

By an act of the first legislature, approved December 24, 18 16, 
the state was divided into three circuits, with a president and two 
associate judges in each. Knox, Gibson, Warrick, Posey, Perry, 
Pike and Davies composed the first circuit ; Harrison, Clark, Wash- 
ington and Orange the second, and Wayne, Franklin, Dearborn, 
Switzerland and Jefferson the third. By act approved January 10, 
1 818, Randolph county was formed from Wayne, and comprised 
all the territory north to the Indiana boundary and the Ohio line. 

Captain Riley, the author of "Riley's Narrative," visited Fort 
Wayne in 1819, and says there were less than thirty houses around 
the fort. In 1823 there were thirteen weekly newspapers in the 
state. The first daily was the New Albany Gazette, established in 
1838. The first steamboat to pass up the Wabash was the "Flor- 
ence," Captain Donne, in May, 1824. The complaint was made 
that too many steamboats monopolized the Ohio river to the exclu- 
sion of flat boats. In 1822 Samuel Hanna was appointed the first 
postmaster of Fort Wayne, and a regular mail, once a week, was 
established from Maumee and Piqua, Ohio. Prior to that time the 
people depended for the mails upon the military express, and upon 
chance. The land office was established in Fort Wayne the same 
year, and the first sale of lands was held October 22, 1823. The 
land on which the settlers around the fort had built was bid in by 
John T. Barr and John McCorkle, who in 1824 laid off into one 
hundred and eighteen lots what is now known as the old, or original, 
plat of Fort Wayne. 

In 1823 the state had but two congressional districts, and when 
Judge Test was elected from this district there were not more than 
fifty votes in the county. 

There was a case disposed of in 1824 outside the usual custom 
of courts. A Miami stabbed and killed an Ottawa at the southwest 
corner of Clinton and Columbia streets, Fort Wayne, rather, where 
that corner now is. The Ottawas formed a war party of several 
hundred, and came to demand reparation or blood, threatening an 
immediate attack upon the Miamis. Chief Richardville called a 
council of his tribe, and agreed that five thousand dollars might be 
taken out of the Miami annuity and paid as blood money to the 


Ottawas. Samuel Hanna and James Barnet advanced goods to that 
amount, and took an order for the annuity, thus averting bloodshed, 
and at the same time ''turning an honest penny." 

The constitution of the new state of Indiana, formed in 18 16, 
provided that "the judiciary power of the state, both as to matters 
of law and equity, shall be vested in one supreme court, in circuit 
courts, and in such other inferior courts as the general assembly 
may from time to time direct and establish." The supreme court 
was to consist of three judges, two of whom should form a quorum, 
and have appellate jurisdiction only. The judges of all the courts 
were to hold office for the term of seven years, "if they shall so 
long behave well." The judges of the supreme court were to be ap- 
pointed by the governor, by and with the advice of the senate. The 
circuit courts were provided for as follows : 

"The circuit courts shall each consist of a president and two asso- 
ciate judges. The state shall be divided by law into three circuits, 
for each of which a president shall be appointed, who, during his 
continuance in office, shall reside therein. The president and asso- 
ciate judges, in their respective counties, shall have common law and 
chancery jurisdiction, as also complete criminal jurisdiction, in all 
such cases, and in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. The 
president alone, in the absence of the associate judges, or the presi- 
dent and one of the associate judges, in the absence of the other, 
shall be competent to hold a court, as also the two associate judges, 
in the absence of the president, shall be competent to hold a court, 
except in capital cases, and cases in chancery." 

The presidents of the circuit courts were to be chosen by joint 
ballot of both branches of the general assembly; and the associate 
judges were to be elected by the qualified electors in the respective 
counties. The circuit courts were to be held in the respective coun- 
ties as directed by law. There was a provision that as many circuits 
might be created as the exigencies of the state from time to time 
demanded. The clerk was also to be elected by the voters of each 
county for a term of seven years, and was not eligible until he had 
obtained from one of the judges of the supreme court, or from one 
of the presidents of the circuit courts, a certificate that he was quali- 
fied to execute the duties of the office. 


The first general assembly which met divided the state into 
three circuits. The counties of Wayne, Franklin, Dearborn, Swit- 
zerland and Jefferson formed the third circuit, in which court was 
to be held once in each county during each year. It was enacted 
that the president and associate judges should, before entering upon 
their duties, take an oath or affirmation to administer justice with- 
out respect to persons, and to perform all the duties incumbent on 
him, according to the best of his abilities and understanding, agree- 
ably to the constitution and laws of the state, which oath or affir- 
mation was to be endorsed on their respective commissions. The 
court in Wayne county, in which was Fort Wayne, was to be held 
on the second Mondays in March, June and October, and was to 
"sit six judicial days, if the business before them 1 shall require it." 
If two of the three judges failed to appear on the first day of the 
term, the judge present, or the sheriff, if no judge were present, 
could adjourn court for two successive days, when, if a quorum of 
the judges did not appear, court stood adjourned for the term. 

At the same session, justices of the peace for each county, with 
jurisdiction over misdemeanors, holding to bail, and in civil matters 
in the sum of fifty dollars, were provided for. 

A board of county commissioners for each county was also es- 
tablished at the same session, to consist of three persons, the one 
receiving the highest number of votes to serve three years, the next 
highest two years, and the next highest one year, but if two or 
more should be equal, their grade was to be determined by lot. It 
was created "a body politic and corporate," "to sue and be sued" and 
"to do and transact on behalf of said county all business that shall be 
assigned to them by law." It was to meet at the court house on the 
second Mondays of February, May, August and November, and 
continue in session three days if the business required it. 

By an act of January 10, 1818, the county of Randolph was 
formed from the north end of Wayne, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed to fix the seat of justice for the new county, and until suit- 
able accommodations could be provided at such county seat, all 
courts were to be held at the house of William Way. 

In 1 8 18 change of venue was provided for in case any of the 
judges were father, son, brother, uncle, first cousin or brother-in- 
law, or were interested, but there was a fine of five dollars if the 


applicant for change failed to appear or to prove that he had proper 
cause for the change, "for his false clamor." 

There was also a probate court, but sometimes it was presided 
over by a judge of probate, and at times the associate judges of the 
circuit court had jurisdiction in the matter of guardianships and 

As the county seat of Knox county was Vincennes, that of 
Wayne county, Centreville, and of the new county of Randolph, 
Winchester, and no courts were held at Fort Wayne until 1824, 
there is no record here of the judges, prosecuting attorneys and 
sheriffs who served prior to the latter date. Wayne county extended 
from the Ohio river north to the boundary of Canada, and from the 
Ohio state line west to the west line of Jefferson county extended 

In 1876 the writer found among the old papers of the Astor 
trading post on the island of Mackinac, a warrant addressed "to 
any constable of Wayne township, Indiana territory," which was 
placed in the State Library at Indianapolis, as a legal memento of 
ancient times. 

By the act of December 17, 1823, the county of Allen, named for 
Col. John Allen, of Kentucky, who was killed at the battle of the 
River Raisin, July 22, 18 13, was organized from Randolph and 
Delaware, with its present boundaries, but what is now Wells, 
Adams and Huntington, and all north to the Michigan line was at- 
tached to it for jurisdictional purposes. The act took effect April 
1, 1824, commissioners were named to fix the seat of justice and 
were to convene at the house of Alexander Ewing in Allen county 
on the fourth Monday of May to discharge their duties. This was 
a log tavern on the southwest corner of Barr and Columbia streets. 
The circuit court was also to meet there, but with power to remove 
to any other place until the public buildings should be completed, 
when it was to meet at the court house. The board of county com- 
missioners were also to meet at Ewing's house on the Monday fol- 
lowing the election, and to proceed within twelve months to erect 
the necessary buildings. The election was to be held May 22, 1824. 

By the act of January 14, 1824, the state was divided into five 
circuits, and Allen, Randolph, Wayne, Union, Fayette, Franklin, 
Dearborn, Switzerland and Ripley formed the third circuit. The 



court in Allen county was to be held the second Mondays of Feb- 
ruary and August. 

The important provisions of the act organizing Allen county, 
and defining its boundaries read : 

"Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state of Indiana, 
That from and after the first day of April next, all that tract of 
country included within the following boundaries, shall form and 
constitute a new county, to be known and designated as the county 
of Allen, to-wit : 

"Beginning at a point on the line dividing this state and the 
state of Ohio, where the township lines dividing townships Twenty- 
eight and Twenty-nine north, intersects the same; thence north 
with said state line twenty-four miles ; thence west to the line divid- 
ing ranges Ten and Eleven east; thence south to the line dividing 
townships Twenty-eight and Twenty-nine north; thence east to the 
place of beginning. 

"The said new county of Allen shall, from and after the first day 
of April next, enjoy all the rights, privileges and jurisdictions which 
to separate counties do and may properly belong and appertain. " 

The jurisdictional power over unassigned territory would in 
these days seem curious. It reads, "That all of that part of the new 
purchase lying south of the county of Allen, and north of the town- 
ship line dividing townships Twenty-five and Twenty-six north, so 
far west as the line dividing ranges Seven and Eight east, and also 
that part of the new purchase lying north of said county of Allen, 
including all that territory contained within the line of said county, 
and the northern boundary of the state, shall be attached to the said 
county of Allen ; and the inhabitants residing within the said bounds 
shall enjoy all the rights and privileges that to the citizens of the 
said county of Allen shall or may properly belong; and that the 
said county of Allen shall have jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, 
over the territory so attached, in all cases as though the same were 
a constituent part of the said county of Allen." 

The good citizen would go far if he desired to exercise a voter's 
privilege, and the wrong doer would have just as far to go to answer 
to his misdemeanors or crimes, and in this way the privileges and 
burdens of the dweller in the wilderness were in some part equal- 


The commissioners to locate the county seat, Lot Bloomfield, of 
Wayne, Abiather Hathaway, of Fayette, William Connor, of Ham- 
ilton, and James M. Ray, of Marion, met at the house of Alexander 
Ewing on the 24th of May, and among the propositions they had to 
consider was one from John McCorkle and John T. Barr, proprie- 
tors of the town plat, which they had just laid out, offering to pay 
five hundred dollars cash and to donate to the county "all of that 
oblong square or piece of ground situate and being in the town of 
Fort Wayne aforesaid, and stained red on the plat of said town as 
recorded in the recorder's office of Randolph county in said state, 
which is granted as a public square, whereon public buildings for 
said county are to be erected, and bounded by Main, Court, Berry 
and Calhoun streets." This is probably the first recorded instance 
of "painting the town red," and takes that phrase out of the realm 
of slang into that of history, if not the classics. 

They also offered the lot at the northwest corner of the town 
plat, four rods square, "for a church, to be of no particular de- 
nomination, but free to all" ; and another of the same size east of the 
same "for a seminary of learning"; and lots 8, 9, 101, 102, 103 and 
104 to 118 inclusive, with the tier of lots opposite 104 to 118. This 
was accepted, and thus the seat of justice was located. Of course 
the judge of this immense circuit was obliged to travel far and dili- 
gently if he held court in nine such counties twice a year, and he 
was not always present. 

When Allen county was formed, Hon. William W. Wick was 
judge of the circuit, but he failed to put in an appearance at the 
opening of the first term of court in the new county of Allen. In 
the meantime, an election for associate judges, clerk of the court, 
recorder of the county, and three commissioners had been held on 
the 22d of May, 1824, and Samuel Hanna and Benjamin Cush- 
man were elected associate judges, Anthony L. Davis as clerk, and 
William Rockhill, James Wyman and Frances Comparet a.s com- 
missioners. These associate, or "side" judges, as they were com- 
monly known, were not always chosen from the legal profession, 
and could not always be called "lawyers", but they could hold 
court in the absence of the presiding judge, and, when present, 
could overrule him in the decision of causes, if they chose to do so. 

At the first term of the Allen circuit court, held at Fort 


Wayne at the tavern of Alexander Ewing, as prescribed by law, 
associate judges Hanna and Cushman presented their commissions, 
took the oath of office, and, in the absence of Judge Wick, the pre- 
siding judge, opened the court. Anthony L. Davis presented his 
commission as clerk, and Allen Hamilton as sheriff, and were duly 
qualified by bond and oath, and thus the Allen circuit court was 
fully equipped and ready for business. Charles W. Ewing was 
appointed by the court as prosecuting attorney. The sheriff re- 
turned the grand jury venire, with the following jurors: John Tip- 
ton, Paul Taber, William Suttonfield, Alexander Ewing, James 
Hackley, Charles Weeks, John Davis, William Probst, Horace 
Taylor, James Wyman, James Cannon and Peter Felix. The lat- 
ter was excused by the court, and the sheriff ordered to fill the 
panel from the traverse jury and Cyrus Taber and William N. 
Hood were summoned. Why the supposed unlucky "thirteen" was 
taken for the first grand jury is not apparent. General John Tip- 
ton, of heroic and historic fame, was chosen foreman of this first 
grand jury of Allen county, and the jury was sworn and charged in 
due form. 

The first business of the court was the admission of William G. 
Ewing as an attorney of the court, and a license was granted to 
Alexander Ewing to keep a tavern in the town of Fort Wayne. 
The first case docketed was that of "Richard Swain vs. Joseph 
Trantner, Trespass on the Case." It was continued to the next 
term. Two divorce cases were docketed and publication ordered 
in the "Enquirer," of Richmond, Indiana. Francis Aveline, alias 
St. Jule, was the first foreigner to be naturalized in Allen county. 
The name still exists on the Aveline House, southeast corner of 
Calhoun and Berry, but in no other way. 

The grand jury found work ready for its hands. Sixteen in- 
dictments were returned by it, two for adultery, one for playing 
cards, or gambling, one for assault and battery, and the others for 
illegal sale of spirituous liquors. Both the judges and one of the 
grand jury were caught in this net. The latter was fined three 
dollars and costs, while indictments against the judges went over 
the term, and at the next term were "nolle prossed". It would 
seem that the judges in those days had some influence in their own 
courts. Nine of the ten charged with illegal sale of spirituous 


liquors pleaded guilty and were fined three dollars and costs each, 
except one who had sinned a dollar's worth more than the others, 
and got a four dollar sentence. Two of those charged with "playing 
games" pleaded not guilty, demanded a jury, and drew ten dollars 
and costs each for their folly. 

By act of February 12, 1825, Allen county was attached to the 
fifth circuit, of which Indianapolis was part. 

Allen Hamilton was sheriff, and was allowed sixteen dollars 
and sixty-six and two-thirds cents for his services at the first term 
and for the four months preceding, and the prosecuting attorney 
was happy over an allowance of five dollars. The grand jury re- 
ceived one dollar and fifty cents each, and Robert Haas, as con- 
stable of the court, was allowed seventy-five cents per day for the 
four days of court. 

June 6, 1825, the record shows that the court convened at the 
house of William G. Ewing, and Hon. Bethuel F. Morris, of Indi- 
anapolis, who had been appointed by the governor circuit judge, vice 
William W. Wick, resigned, appeared and held court w T ith Hon. 
Samuel Hanna as "side" judge. "The woman taken in adultery" 
was tried, acquitted on the first, and found guilty on the second 
count of the indictment, and sentenced to fifteen days' imprison- 
ment. Her alleged paramour was acquitted. A motion for a new 
trial was entered, she admitted to bail, and at the next term was 
discharged on a motion in arrest of judgment. James Rariden and 
Calvin Fletcher, of Indianapolis, were present and admitted to the 
bar. The first final judgment in a civil case was rendered in favor 
of John P. Hedges vs. William Suttonfield, trespass on the case ; for 
twenty-five cents and costs of suit. The first decree of divorce was 
at that term to Anna Cannada. She was ordered to pay the costs 
within ninety days or be attached. A publication was ordered to be 
made in the "Western Emporium, " printed at Centreville, Wayne 

At the November term, 1825, the associate judges held court 
in the absence of the president. John Tipton was indicted for as- 
sault and battery, pleaded guilty, and was fined three dollars, "for 
the use of the county seminary of Allen county." His fighting days 
were not yet over. 

The first indictment for murder was of an Indian. It alleged 


that "Saganaugh, an Indian man late of the county of Allen afore- 
said, laborer, of sound memory and discretion, not having the fear 
of God before his eyes, but being moved and seduced by the instiga- 
tion of the devil," did stab and kill one "Natwatine, an Indian man, 
and a reasonable creature in being, in the peace of God, etc." The 
case was continued several terms for process, which seems not to 
have been served, and was finally dropped from the docket. He 
seems to carry the honors as the first inmate of the Allen county 

At the August term, 1826, Hon. Miles C. Eggleston, of Madi- 
son, presented his commission as circuit judge, and took his seat. 
Allen county had been, by act of January 21, 1866, taken from the 
fifth and transferred back to the third circuit. Associate Judge 
Cushman was his associate judge, but was himself tried for re- 
tailing liquors illegally and acquitted. He was not so fortunate a 
year later, when tried for carrying concealed weapons, for he was 
fined twenty-five cents and costs. The late prosecuting attorney was 
tried and fined three dollars and costs for gambling. 

The courts were sometimes held at William Suttonfield's tavern, 
on the northeast corner of Barr and Columbia streets. He seemed 
to be frequently a defendant in minor cases, and Judge Smith, in 
"Early Trials and Sketches," tells an interesting story of his being 
charged before 'Squire Hood with having marked a sow with in- 
tent to steal it. The old hero indignantly demanded an immediate 
trial, and by jury. Only eleven men were present beside the prose- 
cutor. "Put the prosecutor on," roared Suttonfield, and it was done 
and the jury sworn. The 'squire ordered the constable to call the 
roll of the jury, and each answered "not guilty" until the prosecutor 
squeaked out "guilty." "The vote is almost unanimous," exultantly 
cried the Colonel, and the justice held him unanimously acquitted, 
as the prosecutor was governed by malice prepense. We presume 
this was when Judge Smith came to attend court in 1825, when he 
says there were but two hundred inhabitants in Fort Wayne, and 
Allen county had but fifty votes. When he ran for congress he 
made the long and difficult journey to Fort Wayne to look after 
his political fences, and only received ten votes in the county, while 
in the district his majority was one thousand five hundred. 

At the February term, 1826, held by Associate Judges Hanna 


and Cushman, it was "ordered by the court that the town plat of 
the town of Fort Wayne be considered and established as the prison 
bounds for Allen county, in the state of Indiana." 

At the August term, 1826, Judge Eggleston presided, with 
Judge Cushman as "side" judge. At this time the grand jury pre- 
sented a report on the condition of the jail, which resembles the de- 
scription of the gun which had no lock, stock or barrel. It reported 
that "the criminals' rooms are not a place of safety for persons com- 
mitted thereto, and that the debtors' room is not in a suitable condi- 
tion for the reception of debtors from the want of locks, floors and 
bedding." There seems to have been no thought in the mind of the 
grand jury that both criminals and debtors might disagree with its 
report and consider their personal safety better conserved by the ab- 
sence of locks and floors. Something always depends upon the 
standpoint from which we view things. 

To Judge Eggleston belongs the credit of requiring a record of 
marriages to be kept in Allen county. 

It has been overlooked that at the November term, 1825, Charles 
W. Ewing, as prosecuting attorney, presented, pursuant to order, a 
device for a seal to be used by the court. For some reason unknown 
his device was ignored and the clerk was authorized to order a seal, 
"with such a device as he may deem best." At the same term Cal- 
vin Fletcher, later a prominent banker of Indianapolis, presented 
his commission as prosecutor, and was sworn in, and in August, 
1826, Amos Lane, of Lawrenceburg, succeeded him. 

The next term of the court was held at the house of William 
Suttonfield on the 13th of August, 1827. The president judge and 
both associate judges were present. Oliver H. Smith, then of Con- 
nersville, author of "Indiana Trials and Sketches," presented his 
commission as prosecuting attorney. He served with ability, was 
later a member of the general assembly, a member of congress and 
senator from Indiana in the United States senate. He was a lawyer 
of ability, a statesman of good ideals and ranked among the good 
lawyers of the state. His reminiscences of his experiences as lawyer 
on the circuit, prosecutor and judge of the court, as congressman 
and senator, embodied in "Early Indiana Trials and Sketches," 
are well worth the study of those seeking the foundation stones of 
our state history. At this term of the court Associate Judge Cush- 


man was indicted for carrying concealed weapons. He had already 
been convicted on another charge, and it is curious to note that he 
was generally regarded as a good citizen and had the confidence of 
the voters of the county without regard to the indictments which 
were found against him. 

The next term, May 12, 1828, was held at the house of Benja- 
min Archer. Associate Judges Cushman and William H. Hood, the 
latter having been lately elected, held the court in the absence of the 
presiding judge. David Wallace was appointed and sworn as 
prosecuting attorney for the term. It is well to stop and notice this 
appointment. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1799 and was 
brought by his father to Ohio when a small boy and settled near the 
residence of Gen. William H. Harrison, who, then in congress, had 
young Wallace appointed a cadet at West Point. After graduation 
he served about a year, resigned and located at Brookville, Indiana, 
and studied law under Judge Eggleston. From 1828 to 1830 he 
was a member of the legislature. In 1831 he was elected lieutenant- 
governor and again in 1834. In 1837 he was elected governor and 
issued the first Thanksgiving proclamation issued by a governor of 
Indiana, establishing a precedent which has been followed ever 
since. After his term as governor expired he opened an office for 
the practice of law in Indianapolis, and in 1841 was elected to con- 
gress from that district. From 1848 to 1850 he resided at Fort 
Wayne, but in the latter year returned to Indianapolis, and in 1856 
was elected judge of the common pleas court, which position he held 
until his death, in 1859. His business ventures while in Fort 
Wayne proved unfortunate, and are said to have cost him the accu- 
mulations of a lifetime, and left him poor. His son, a major-gen- 
eral of volunteers in the Civil war, and the author of "The Fair 
God," the "Prince of India" and "Ben Hur," added lustre to 
the name. 

At the term commencing May 11, 1829, with Judges Eggleston, 
Hood and Cushman, Martin M. Ray was sworn in as prosecuting 

In 1830 the legislature created a new judicial circuit, composed 
of the counties of Randolph, Henry, Wayne, Union, Delaware, Fay- 
ette, Rush, Elkhart and Allen. It was the sixth circuit. Its dimen- 
sions can not be accurately defined owing to uncertainty as to the 


boundaries of some of the counties, but it was large enough to tax 
the powers of endurance of the presiding judge and circuit-riding 
lawyers. Hon. Charles H. Test was the first president judge and 
held the position until 1833. When elected there were two hun- 
dred and fifty-two voters in Allen county. He was a lawyer of 
prominence, and in 1845 Governor Whitcomb nominated him for 
a position on the supreme court bench, but the senate, 
being on unfriendly terms with the governor, refused to 
confirm the appointment. He became secretary of state for one term 
and later became a circuit judge, in which capacity he served for 
many years. He opened the tenth term of the Allen circuit court, 
with Hood as associate judge. James Perry was prosecuting attor- 
ney. He was' from Centreville, Wayne county, and remained in the 
practice of law there until he was nearly ninety years old. At that 
term David H. Colerick, a lawyer of great repute in Indiana, and 
the progenitor of a famous line of lawyers, sons and grandsons, who 
have been ornaments to the Allen county bar, was admitted ex 
gratia to this bar as an attorney of the Ohio bar. He had a long, 
useful and brilliant career as a lawyer in Fort Wayne, and his name 
is yet potent at the bar and among litigants. William J. Brown and 
Samuel C. Sample were successive prosecuting attorneys during 
Judge Test's tenn of service, and Messrs. Hood and Cushman re- 
mained associate judges until the April term, 1831, when L. G. 
Thompson was chosen associate in place of Cushman. It is said 
that Judge Thompson was a man of dignified appearance and not 
easily approached, and upon one occasion a visitor at the court room 
asked his name and on being informed, asked what the initials stood 
for. The irreverent reply was, "Why, 'Lord God,' of course ; what 
do you suppose they stand for ?" 

In 1832 Lagrange county, named for the residence of La Fay- 
ette, was formed and added to the circuit, but without changing the 
jurisdiction already exercised over that part of Indiana. 

One of the first cases to come before Judge Test, and one of his- 
toric note, was a trial for murder of a Miami chief. 

"Now-ee-ling-qua, otherwise called Naw-way-ling-quah," was in- 
dicted May nth and tried May 12th for the murder of Wish-mah, 
a woman slave of his, half Indian, half negro. She disobeyed him 
while drunk. He lifted her left arm and stabbed her to death. This 


was near Barr and Columbia streets. Two of Indian blood were 
on the jury, Jean Baptiste Godfrey and Henry Ossem. He was con- 
victed and sentenced to prison for two years, with a fine of one cent 
and a recommendation to the mercy of the governor. Some writers 
of history have said he was sentenced to death and pardoned by the 
governor, but the record disproves the fact of a death sentence. The 
story is that while awaiting trial he was told he might be hanged 
and the process was described to him. He asked for a rope and 
hung his dog, watching his death struggles. It was not to his liking 
and he begged to be shot if he had to die. His tribe offered a sub- 
stitute to take his place — a worthless member of the tribe, who, they 
said, "was a rascal of no account, but would do for hanging." 

In January, 1833, the legislature created several new counties 
and also the eighth judicial circuit, comprising the counties of Al- 
len, Cass, Carroll, Lagrange, Elkhart, St. Joseph, Laporte, Hunting- 
ton, Wabash and Miami, nearly one-half of the area of the state. 
Hon. Gustavus A. Evarts, of South Bend, became judge of this large 
circuit, and filled the bench, rather that part of it not occupied by 
the "side judges," for three years. The associates during his term 
were Hood, Thompson, William G. Ewing, David Rankin and Peter 
Huling. John B. Chapman was prosecuting attorney for the two 
years following the change and Samuel C. Sample for the third. In 
1834 Carroll county was assigned to the first circuit and Whitley 
organized and attached to the eighth. Noble and Adams counties 
were at the session of 1836 created and attached without adding to 
the territorial jurisdiction. Thus, in 1836, the eighth circuit was 
composed of Allen, Cass, Miami, Wabash, Huntington, Lagrange, 
Elkhart, St. Joseph, Laporte, Porter, Marshall, Fulton, Kosciusko, 
Noble and Adams, fifteen counties, together with a large unas- 
signed territory for jurisdictional purposes. 

Hon. Samuel C. Sample, of South Bend, became president judge 
of this vast circuit in 1836, but did not long occupy the bench. 
After a year's service he became a member of congress and on leav- 
ing that position, took one with the branch of the State Bank at 
South Bend. He had been prosecuting attorney for two terms prior 
to becoming judge. During his term Joseph L. Jernegan, of South 
Bend, was prosecuting attorney. He removed to New York City 


and became one of the most brilliant, successful and opulent mem- 
bers of the bar of New York. 

During January and February, 1837, Steuben, DeKalb and 
Wells counties were fully organized and Jay had been a year pre- 
vious. By act of December 9, 1837, the eighth judicial circuit was 
reduced in size and number of counties to thirteen — Allen, Adams, 
Cass, Wells, Miami, Wabash, Huntington, Jay, DeKalb, Steuben, 
Noble, Lagrange and Whitley. Charles W. Ewing, of Allen, be- 
came president judge in 1837 and remained such until the March 
term, 1839, when he met an unfortunate death. He is said to have 
been a good lawyer, but eccentric and dissipated. He had been 
prosecuting attorney at the first organization of the Allen circuit 
court. While he was president judge Thomas Johnson was prose- 
cuting attorney and Peter Huling, Nathaniel Coleman, Michael 
Shiras and Marshall S. Wines associate judges. 

By the act of January 30, 1839, the eighth circuit was reduced 
to ten counties — Allen, Cass, Miami, Wabash, Whitley, Hunting- 
ton, Noble, Lagrange, Steuben and DeKalb — and Henry Chase, of 
Logansport, became president judge by appointment in August of 
that year. He is reported to have been an excellent judge. During 
his incumbency his associates were Nathaniel S. Coleman and Mar- 
shall S. Wines. John W. Wright, of Logansport, was the prose- 
cuting attorney, and in 1840 he became president judge of the cir- 
cuit. After retiring from the bench about 1842 he was elected 
mayor of Logansport, and was prominent in railroad and banking 
affairs. He was elected as a Democrat to the legislature in 1856, 
but declined to serve and went to Kansas to take part in defeating 
the effort to make it a slave state. He was elected a member of the 
Kansas constitutional convention, later to the legislature and was 
chosen speaker of the house. After Lincoln became President he re- 
moved to Washington, D. C, became an active and prosperous 
practitioner at the bar and died there October 9, 1889. While he 
was president judge of the Allen circuit, Nathaniel Coleman, Mar- 
shall S. Wines and J. H. McMahon were associate judges. 

Lucian P. Ferry, a brother of the Michigan senator of that 
name, was prosecuting attorney, succeeded by William H. Coombs, 
a prominent and able lawyer, and once judge of the supreme court 
by appointment to fill a vacancy. 


The legislature, by act of December 14, 1841, changed the judi- 
cial circuits materially and created the twelfth circuit, with Allen, 
Adams, Wells, Huntington, Whitley, Noble, Steuben, Lagrange 
and DeKalb as its boundaries. 

Hon. James W. Borden, of Allen county, became president judge 
in 1842 and held the office until 1857. He was afterwards judge 
of the common pleas and of the criminal court of Allen county, and 
died in Fort Wayne. During his term the associate judges were 
Nathaniel Coleman, R. Starkweather, J. H. McMahon and Andrew 
Metzgar. William H. Coombs was prosecutor for a time and L. C. 
Jacoby for the latter part of the term. The latter was said to be an 
able lawyer, but to possess some peculiar eccentricities which finally 
impelled him to leave Fort Wayne and "go West" Robert L. 
Douglass then became prosecutor. He was a lawyer of good prac- 
tice in Steuben county and in 1851 removed to Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
prospering in his chosen profession, and died while sojourning in 

Elza McMahon, of Allen county, succeeded him in 1846, when 
Joseph Brackenridge was chosen and served for three years. He 
was one of the legal lights of northern Indiana and served many 
years as counsel for the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
way and Pennsylvania Company. Full of humor, as he was of law, 
he was a friend of all and all were his friends at the bar and in the 
community. He became judge of the criminal court and died loved 
and respected by all who knew him. James L. Worden succeeded 
him as prosecuting attorney, serving till 1853. He later became 
judge of the supreme court of the state and resigned to accept an 
appointment of judge of the superior court of Allen county. Edwin 
R. Wilson succeeded him as prosecuting attorney. 

By the act of June 7, 1852, the state was redistricted for judicial 
purposes, and the tenth judicial circuit was formed, comprising Al- 
len, Adams, Wells, Huntington, Wabash, Whitley, Noble, DeKalb, 
Lagrange, Steuben, Elkhart and Kosciusko. By act of January 21, 
1853, Huntington and Wabash were assigned to another circuit, 
and the circuit was then composed of only ten counties. 

In 1855 Hon. James L. Worden became judge. He had been 
prosecuting attorney under two of the judges who preceded him. 
The writer knew him well, and regarded him highly, and gives the 


estimate of him that he was not a close logician, but that by intui- 
tion he recognized the crucial point in the cases brought before him, 
aimed to be right in his decisions and generally succeeded. He knew 
where to find the seeds and cut to the core to find them. His was a 
remarkably clear, legal and equitable mind. He remained judge of 
the circuit until 1858. In January of that year he resigned and 
Reuben J. Dawson was appointed by the governor to fill out his un- 
expired term. S. J. Stoughton, of Auburn, DeKalb county, was 
prosecutor under Worden and Dawson. He subsequently removed 
to Kansas and after an honorable legal career there died. At the 
fall election Edwin R. Wilson, of Bluffton, Wells county, was elected 
and remained judge of the court until 1864. He was born in Ohio, 
came to Indiana with his parents in 1840, studied law with Gov- 
ernor Wright, was admitted to the bar in 1850 and located in Bluff- 
ton in 1853, was appointed prosecuting attorney in 1854 and in the 
fall was elected over John W. Dawson, the Whig candidate. After 
serving his term of six years as judge he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Johnson as bank examiner. Later he located at Madison and 
finally returned to Bluffton, where he died. 

James L. Defreese, of Goshen, was elected prosecutor in 1858, 
but died in a few months and John Colerick was appointed to the va- 
cancy. At the fall election in that year Moses Jenkinson was placed 
upon the ticket and elected, but the governor decided that Colerick's 
appointment was for the remainder of the term and refused to com- 
mission Jenkinson, and Mr. Colerick held the office until after the 
election of i860. He was a young man of singularly pure character 
and a lawyer of great ability. 

In October, i860, Augustus A. Chapin, of Kendallville, Noble 
county, was elected prosecutor and served until 1862. He was after- 
wards judge of the superior court and later referee in bankruptcy for 
the United States district court. James H. Schell, of Goshen, Elk- 
hart county, succeeded him in 1862, and was twice elected after- 

In 1864 Robert Lowry, of Goshen, Elkhart county, was elected 
judge of the circuit. In March, 1867, the legislature reduced the 
circuit by taking from it six counties to form a new one, leaving the 
tenth circuit composed of Allen, Adams, Wells and Whitley. In 
anticipation of this event Judge Lowry had become a resident of 


Fort Wayne and so remained judge of the circuit. During- his in- 
cumbency of the bench several changes were made in the circuit. 
Huntington county was added to it in 1869 an< ^ taken from it again 
in 1872. 

In 1873 the state was redistricted for judicial purposes and Allen 
and Whitley counties were formed into the thirty-eighth judicial 
circuit. By the act of March 9, 1875, Allen county alone was con- 
stituted the thirty-eighth judicial circuit, and has so remained to 
the present day. Thomas M. Wilson, of Bluffton, was elected pros- 
ecuting attorney in 1866. Joseph S. Dailey, of Bluffton, in 1868, 
again in 1870 and 1872. Wilson located in Fort Wayne, and is still 
practicing law there. Dailey served as judge of the Wells and 
Huntington circuit court and of the supreme court of the state, his 
death occurring in October, 1905. Jacob R. Bittinger, of Fort 
Wayne, was elected prosecuting attorney in 1873 and held the posi- 
tion until October, 1877. In 1875 Judge Lowry resigned to enter 
upon the active practice of the law, and became the head of the law 
firm of Lowry, Robertson & O'Rourke, composed of himself, Robert 
S. Robertson and Edward O'Rourke. Later he was elected 
to and served in congress, being defeated by Hon. James 
B. White for the second term. He returned to the prac- 
tice and bravely kept to the front until he died in 1904, 
"full of years and honors." On Judge Lowry's resig- 
nation Hon. William W. Carson was appointed by Governor Hen- 
dricks to fill the vacancy. It is perhaps proper to notice the cir- 
cumstances of this appointment. The bar, with one exception, had 
united in a recommendation to the governor to appoint another man 
to the position. The recommendation was for a Republican, and 
was signed by every Democrat at the bar, save one. Governor Hen- 
dricks appointed that one to the bench. Judge Carson was a good 
man, but with some human failings. He was not a good lawyer and 
did not shine as a judge, but his service brought his good qualities 
as a man into full relief. 

At the general election of 1876 Hon. Edward O'Rourke, junior 
member of the firm of Lowry, Robertson & O'Rourke, above re- 
ferred to, was elected judge of the circuit and by re-election in 1882, 
1888, 1894 and 1900, has held the bench to date, serving with 
honor to himself and to the people who have so repeatedly elected 


him. During" his incumbency of the judicial bench James F. Morrison 
was elected in 1877, and again in 1879, but resigned in 1880 to re- 
move to Kokomo, where he is yet in the practice of the law ; Charles 
M. Dawson, appointed in 1880, elected same year and again nomi- 
nated and elected until 1887, and who became judge of the superior 
court and died in office; James M. Robinson, elected in 1886 and 
again in 1889, and later served four terms as a member of congress 
from the twelfth congressional district; Philemon B. Colerick, who 
was succeeded by Newton B. Doughman, later county attorney and 
now (1905) assistant general counsel for the New York, St. Louis 
& Pacific Railroad (the Nickel Plate) at Cleveland, Ohio; E. V. 
Emrick, now a practicing attorney at Fort Wayne, and Ronald 
Dawson, son of Judge Dawson, heretofore mentioned, now in office, 
have been the prosecuting attorneys of the circuit. No mention has 
been made thus far of the prosecuting attorneys of the criminal 
court of the county, that being a court of extra territorial jurisdic- 
tion from the circuit court. 

As noted heretofore, the seal of the court, as reported by Charles 
W. Ewing, was rejected. It would be worth while to know the 
reason, but the record is silent on that subject. The first seal known 
to be used has the legend, "Allen County Circuit Court, Indiana." 
This was declared to be "erroneous," no doubt because the constitu- 
tion and law said that the courts should be known as " — Circuit 
Court," with the name of the county prefixed, and so on the 5th of 
September, 1887, the court ordered it to be changed, and the present 
seal has the legend, "Allen Circuit Court, Indiana." The device in 
the center is a figure of Justice holding a sword in the right hand 
and scales in the left. 


> An act of the legislature of January 29, 1829, provided for a pro- 
bate court in each county, the judge of which was to be elected by 
the people. There were no qualifications prescribed in the act, but 
in order to be commissioned by the governor it was provided that 
a judge of the circuit court or supreme court must certify to the 
fact that the judge-elect "was qualified to discharge the duties of the 
office, but that this condition should not be construed so as to require 
any applicant to be a professional character." 


William G. Ewing was elected probate judge in 1830 and served 
three years, when he resigned. He was admitted to the bar, as al- 
ready noted, in 1824, at the first term of court held in Allen county, 
and was a brother of Charles W. Ewing, the prosecuting attorney. 
He went into business with his brother and was too much engaged 
in affairs of the Indian agency and tradership of that day to give 
close attention to the law. 

In 1834 Hugh McCulloch became probate judge and served 
about one year, when he resigned to become cashier and manager of 
the Fort Wayne branch of the State Bank of Indiana, organized in 
Indianapolis in 1834 and in Fort Wayne in 1835. He had graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1826, taught school and graduated in law in 
Boston in 1832. He came west in April, 1833, spent a few weeks in 
the office of Judge Sullivan (a judge of the supreme court), went 
from there to Indianapolis and was admitted by the supreme court 
to practice law. He came from Indianapolis to Fort Wayne and, 
believing in its future, decided to remain. As cashier of the branch 
of the State Bank, president of the State Bank, president of the 
banking house of Allen Hamilton & Company, secretary of the 
United States treasury under Lincoln, Johnson and Arthur, his 
financial fame is assured. The Allen Hamilton & Company Bank 
merged later into the Hamilton National Bank, with his son, Charles 
McCulloch, as president and his grandson, John Ross McCulloch, as 
assistant cashier. 

In the latter part of the year Governor Noble commissioned 
Thomas Johnson to fill the vacancy caused by McCulloch's resigna- 
tion and he held the office until after the election of 1836. After he 
ceased to be probate judge he became prosecuting attorney of the 
circuit court and died in 1843 from the effects of a cold contracted 
while riding the circuit. 

Lucian P. Ferry, of Fort Wayne, was elected probate judge, but 
resigned in 1840 to become prosecuting attorney of the circuit 
court. He died at the age of thirty-three. One of his sons became 
governor of the state of Washington and a brother was United 
States senator from Michigan. 

Reuben J. Dawson was appointed to fill the vacancy and held the 
position until after the fall election of 1840, when Samuel Stophlet 
was elected and served until 1844, when he resigned. Governor 


Whitcomb appointed George Johnson to fill the vacancy, and he was 
elected at the fall election in that year, and held the office until 1847, 
when he resigned, to go through a course of theological lectures, 
but in December, 1850, he was killed by the accidental discharge of 
a gun. 

Nelson McLain was elected in 1847, an< ^ served until the estab- 
lishment of the common pleas court in 1852, to which all probate 
business was transferred, and the probate court was abolished. This 
change became necessary from the adoption of the new constitution 
and although it has been of doubtful expediency, it has been half a 
century or more without the system being re-established, 


By an act of the legislature of May 14, 1852, courts of common 
pleas were created with full probate and limited civil jurisdiction. 
The counties of Allen, Adams, Huntington and Wells formed a 
common pleas district, and a judge was to be elected in October, 
with a four-year tenure of office. Hon. James W. Borden, already 
mentioned in connection with the circuit court, was elected and 
opened the court in Allen county January 3, 1853. He was re- 
elected in 1856 and served until 1857, when he resigned. Hon. Jo- 
seph Brackenridge was appointed by the governor to fill the va- 
cancy and was elected in 1858, and again in i860, holding the office 
until 1864. He was a man of strong character, a clear mind and 
good heart. He was noted for the strong sense of humor which 
pervaded his social and official life, and until his death, at a ripe age, 
full of honors, he was almost universally known as "Joe." For 
years he was attorney for the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railroad and died while in that work. 

- In 1864 Judge Borden was again elected, but was absent and 
failed to qualify for the office for several months. His name had 
been connected in some way with Milligan and others, who were 
apprehended by the military authorities of the United States on a 
charge of treason in connection with the secret organization known 
as the "Knights of the Golden Circle," and it was generally believed 
that his absence was prolonged by reason of those arrests. He had 
been United States envoy to the Sandwich Islands under President 



Buchanan and was a man of much ability, except in the law. His 
personality was a strong one and he was a delightful conversational- 
ist, with much historical knowledge to draw upon. He resigned Oc- 
tober 29, 1867, and Robert S. Taylor was appointed by Governor 
Conrad Baker to fill the vacancy. 

At the October election, 1868, Hon. David Studebaker, of De- 
catur, was elected and held the bench until in 1870, when he re- 
signed. He was actively engaged there in banking and business en- 
terprises of magnitude until his death in 1904. Hon. William W. 
Carson, mentioned heretofore as presiding on the circuit bench, was 
elected to the vacancy and filled out the unexpired term until 1872. 

At the October election in that year Hon. Samuel E. Sinclair 
was elected and held the position until the court was abolished and 
its business transferred to the circuit court in March, 1873. He 
was a native of Fort Wayne and without having lived to demon- 
strate greatness in the practice of the law, he was esteemed by his 
associates at the bar for his many sterling qualities. He was repre- 
senting this legislative district in the general assembly when he was 
stricken by the disease which ended his career in 1887. 

David Studebaker, who later became judge of the court, was the 
first prosecuting attorney, serving two years, and was succeeded by 
Joseph Brackenridge in 1854, serving two years. He also became 
judge of the court later. In 1856 W. B. Spencer was elected and 
served one year. 

At the election in 1867 William S. Smith was elected to the 
office to fill the vacancy and served one year. He was city attorney 
of Fort Wayne in 1861 and was appointed enrolling and draft com- 
missioner for the war. He commenced life as a gunsmith and 
studied law while engaged in that work. He was a man of consid- 
erable ability and quite an eccentric character, a formidable opponent 
in the legal forum. John Colerick was elected in 1858 and served 
two years, resigning to accept a commission as prosecuting attorney 
for the circuit court, tendered him by Governor Willard. He died 
in 1872. Joseph S. France was appointed to fill the vacancy, and in 
i860 D. T. Smith, of Bluffton, was elected and served for two 
years. In 1862 David Colerick, a brother of John Colerick, was 
elected prosecuting attorney, re-elected in 1864 and served until 
t866. He died in 1872, a young man of great promise. In 1866 


Joseph S. Dailey, of Bluffton, was elected, holding the office for two 
years. He has since been judge of the Wells circuit and of the su- 
preme court of the state. Benjamin F. Ibach, of Huntington, was 
elected in 1868 and re-elected in 1870. He was later city attorney 
of Huntington, a member of the legislature and manager of the 
Knightstown Soldiers' Orphans' Home. Jacob R. Bittinger was 
elected in 1872 and served until the court was abolished in 1873. 

As a court of limited civil jurisdiction it served its purpose in 
the times for which it was created, and was useful in relieving the 
circuit court from a burden of business for which its machinery was 
inadequate, but it failed to become popular and so takes its place 
in history as an experiment, among such other courts as may be 
provided by law. 

The seal of the court was a sheaf of wheat, canal and canal boat, 
with the legend, "Common Pleas, Allen County." 


The criminal court was established in 1867, with sole criminal 
jurisdiction, and Hon. James A. Fay became judge by appointment. 
One of the first orders by Judge Fay fixed a seal as follows : The 
legend, "The Allen Criminal Circuit Court," around the border, with 
the word "Sigillum" at the bottom. Underneath the border above 
the design the motto, "Lex Suprema Est." Device, the near front 
view represented the judge's desk with an open book, signifying the 
equal right of all in the law ; a naked sword leaning against the desk, 
emblematic of the penalty that goes with the law to enforce its com- 
mands. In the rear is seen on the left a field of grain and men har- 
vesting; on the right, rising grounds, and beyond open country, in- 
dicating the security of industry, and its rewards under the main- 
tenance of the law. We can find no order changing this seal, but 
one was used in 1884, smaller than the old, and with the device 
changed to a man sitting at the judge's desk, with all else omitted. 

As stated, Hon. James W. Borden, who had been judge of the 
circuit and of the common pleas courts, was elected in 1867, and 
resigned from the common pleas to accept it. In 1870 Hon. Joseph 
Brackenridge, mentioned as judge of the common pleas, was elected 
to the office and held it until 1875. Judge Borden had been elected 


in 1874 and was re-elected in 1878, dying in office April 26, 1882. 
Hon. Warren H. Withers, a prominent member of the bar, was ap- 
pointed judge by Governor Albert G. Porter to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Judge Borden, and served until the fall elec- 
tion of 1882. Samuel M. Hench was then elected judge and served 
until the court was abolished by act of the legislature passed Febru- 
ary 27, 1883, to take effect October 31, 1884. Judge Hench was 
formerly prosecutor and later held a position as auditor of the treas- 
ury under President Cleveland. 

When the criminal court was organized Robert S. Taylor was 
appointed prosecuting attorney. At the October election in 1867, 
Edward O'Rourke was elected, and held until 1870, when he was 
re-elected and served until 1872, when Joseph S. France was elected 
his successor. He died in July, 1874, and Samuel M. Hench was 
appointed to the vacancy, was elected in the fall, and re-elected in 
1876 and 1878, serving until January, 1881. At the October elec- 
tion, 1880, William S. O'Rourke was elected to the office, and served 
until the court ended under the act referred to. 

The business of the criminal circuit court was transferred to the 
circuit court, which still holds exclusive criminal jurisdiction. 


The superior court was established in 1877, with nearly equal 
civil jurisdiction with the circuit court, but without criminal or pro- 
bate powers. Hon. Allen Zollars became judge by appointment 
from Governor Williams and held the first term, but resigned and 
Hon. Robert Lowry was appointed in the same year, elected at the 
next election in 1878, and served till his election to congress in 
1882. Hon. James L. Worden, judge of the supreme court, re- 
signed and became judge in 1882, serving till his death, June 2, 
1884, when Hon. Lindley M. Ninde was appointed. Hon. Samuel 
M. Hench was elected in that year and served until 1886, when Hon. 
Augustus A. Chapin succeeded him, serving four years. Hon. 
Charles M. Dawson was elected in 1890. He died October 4, 1899, 
and William J. Vesey was appointed by the governor to fill the va- 
cancy, serving nearly three years. At the November election, 1902. 
Owen N. Heaton was elected judge and is still ( 1905) serving his 


term. The seal has in the border "Superior Court of Allen County, 
Indiana." The centre has an eagle, holding the arrows and olive 
branch, with thirteen stars above. 


The first board of commissioners consisted of William Rockhill, 
James Wyman and Francis Comparet. They met at the house 
of Alexander Ewing May 26, 1824. 

Allen county was made a township called Wayne. It might be 
interesting to trace the foundation of the twenty townships this one 
original township was divided into, but space forbids. There was a 
Riley township in 1830, changed to Orange in 1831, and now 
disappeared. There was also a Clinton township formed 
in 1834, which also disappeared. There was a Murray 
township in 1831, but it was the attached territory lying 
west of Allen county. Mongoquining township was formed 
the same year, but was all the attached territory lying 
north of Allen county. Wells and DeKalb townships, formed in 
1836, were attached territory lying south and north, created town- 
ships for election purposes. It was all done without authority of 
law, so far as the writer has discovered. 

The first board appointed John Tipton county agent and ordered 
him to sell part of the lots donated by Barr and McCorkle. The 
thirty-six lots sold brought six hundred ninety dollars and fifty 
cents, an average of a little less than twenty dollars per lot. The jail 
was in process of erection in 1826, probably the one which stood at 
the southwest corner of the square. 

In that year the board of commissioners was superseded by a 
board of three justices of the peace, called "the board of county jus- 
tices," but in 1829 the law providing for them was repealed and the 
board of commissioners, much as now existing, was again organ- 

Although the board of commissioners was a court of record, as 
well as the business agent of the people, it seems not to have had a 
seal until 1841, and, curiously enough, on September 9th of that 
year the board ordered that the seal should be the device, "Brittania 
seated on a shield and grasping the Trident of Neptune," with the 


words, "Brittania Rex. Fid. Def.," to be used until such time as 
another seal could be procured. At the same session one was or- 
dered to be procured. Device, "A sheaf of wheat in an upright po- 
sition, with a sickle sticking therein, and in the background a field 
of corn with a reaper at work, and in a circle surrounding said de- 
vice the following words, 'Commissioners of Allen County, la. 
seal.' The word seal to be in 'M. and the sheaf of wheat' " We can 
but wonder whether a seal left from the British occupation had been 
found, and thus utilized for temporary purposes, for such a lapse 
towards royalty in the backwoods of the American republic is a no- 
ticeable and anomalous affair. 

Notwithstanding the law required it to commence the erection 
of public buildings within twelve months, we find no steps recorded 
as being taken to that end until 1831. At the May session, on the 
7th, it was decided to build a court house, and plans were agreed 
upon. It was to be of brick, with stone foundations twenty inches 
in thickness, and the walls eighteen inches above ground forty feet 
square, and advertisement for bids was ordered. On August 9th 
of that year the county agent was ordered to let a contract to the 
lowest bidder, "to cut the brush and stumps off the public square," 
but at the same time the board leased to James Wilcox for four 
years, if desired, thirty by fifty feet at the corner of Main and Cal- 
houn streets for ten dollars per annum, a similar piece at the corner 
of Main and Court for eight dollars and the corner of Court and 
Berry for six dollars. In 1834 David H. Colerick got a lease for 
eight years of twenty-five by forty feet at the northwest corner, 
fronting on Main street, for ten dollars per annum. At the fall ses- 
sion the contract was let for $3,321.75. Citizens subscribed $499 
in work and materials, and $149 cash. The remainder was paid out 
of the treasury. Court met in the unfinished building May 7, 1832. 
A visitor here in 1838 wrote in 1858 of it, "Coming from the south, 
we beheld the steeple of the old brick court house, which stood on 
the spot where now is dug the foundation of a new and spacious one 
on the public square." 

This building evidently failed to meet the necessities of the 
times, for in January, 1840, the commissioners appointed a com- 
mittee of citizens to inspect the court house and report whether the 
building was worth repairing; the cost of repairs as per a proposal 


of Colonel Spencer, and whether the proposed repairs were suitable 
to repair the building. The report could not be found, but plans 
were advertised for, and September 9, 1841, an allowance was made 
to A. Miller for the best draft of a plan for a court house to cost not 
more than fifteen thousand dollars, and the county agent was au- 
thorized to sell the old one and have it removed. At the December 
session the board gave Colonel Spencer three hundred dollars and 
the building "for his buildings on the public square." At the same 
time a building was ordered erected on the northeast corner for the 
auditor's and treasurer's office. The clerk's office was on the north- 
west corner, and the recorder's office on the southwest corner, 
where the log jail once stood. 

The new court house was not completed and occupied until 1847, 
and was a two-story brick, with a steeple. Samuel Edsall was the 
contractor. In the meantime, the old Presbyterian church, east of 
Barr, on Berry, was used for a time, and the county gave the church 
a lot as rent for the old structure. Then a temporary court house 
was built on the southeast corner of the square. It was a frame, 
with a court room and two small rooms for jury rooms. In 1853 
a new clerk's office was built on the northwest corner. This court- 
house also proved inadequate, and June 11, 1858, a levy was or- 
dered of fifteen cents on the one hundred dollars for a fund to build 
a new court house, one, in the language of the newspapers of the 
day, which "should last for a century, at least." The following 
year this levy was increased to twenty cents, and plans were called 
for. June 21, 1859, the board examined those submitted, but ac- 
cepted none, and advertised for further plans. On the 12th of 
August, in special session, the plan of Edwin May, an Indianapolis 
architect, was approved, and January 12, i860, the contract was let 
to Samuel Edsall & Company, consisting of Edsall, Virgil M. Kim- 
ball, Ochmig Bird and Louis Wolke, for sixty-three thousand six 
hundred and thirteen dollars. For extras, additions were made 
till they received seventy-four thousand two hundred and seventy- 
one dollars, and the total cost was seventy-eight thousand dollars. 
It was accepted by the board of commissioners July 23, 1862. The 
corner-stone had been laid with Masonic ceremonies May I, 1861, 
Sol. D. Bayless, past grand master, officiating. 

The century intended for its duration was just one-third gone, 


when it was declared "insufficient," and the board of commission- 
ers advertised for plans for the present structure. This was in 
1895. But it was two years before satisfactory plans were pre- 
sented and adopted. The contract was let May 15, 1897, and the 
work of demolition of the old, and building* of the new, was at once 
begun. Meantime, the courts were held in the Sangerbund build- 
ing, corner of Main street and Maiden Lane, until September, 1900, 
when the circuit court was held in the unfinished structure. Its 
cost was eight hundred and seventeen thousand five hundred and 
fifty-three dollars and fifty-nine cents. For that sum we have per- 
haps the finest architectural, and certainly the most beautifully ar- 
tistic court house in all the land. It is worthy of note that this ma- 
jestic temple of justice is the product of the brain of an architect 
reared and educated among us; that every detail of use and orna- 
ment, every decoration inside and out, except the mural paintings, 
were conceived, modeled, cast or sculptured, and carried to a finish, 
within the limits of the court house square, and most of it within the 
court house walls, while building. 

Is there anywhere a doubt whether it pays for its cost ? Let the 
questioner stand in the beautiful rotunda, and watch the daily pro- 
cession of our people passing* through it — listen to their questioning, 
admiring and approving — to their praise and their criticism. It 
comes from rich and poor, old age and childhood, the educated and 
the ignorant. Their answer is composite and complete. It says 
that in the upbuilding of the masses, the uplifting of all of us to 
higher thoughts and ideals, it does pay. Already the education in 
better things is marvelous, and all caviling and criticism as to cost 
has vanished from all minds. We owe more than we can at present 
realize to the wisdom, sagacity and daring of the board of com- 
missioners which decided to erect it, and carried it to completion 
against a storm of suspicion and denunciation. We owe as much 
to the architect who planned it with such consummate skill, taste 
and judgment. The names of all are upon the commemorative 
tablet which passes them on to posterity, and it might seem invidi- 
ous to single out one name from the others, but the people will class 
Brentwood J. Tolan as a "master architect" and Matthew A. Fer- 
guson as a "master builder." 


It reads strangely today to see in the records of 1832 an order 
to have the brush and stumps cleared off the public square, and in 
1843 an order to have the buildings and stable used by the sheriff 
removed, but in that period there had been a comparatively rapid 
growth. By the census of 1800 the vast county of Knox had only 
2,517 inhabitants. In 1810 it had increased to 7,945. Randolph, 
our new county, in 1820, had a population of only 1,808. Allen, 
in 1830, had 996; in 1840, 5,942; in 1850, 16,919; in 1860, the 
era of our demolished court house, 29,328. The population in 
thirty years had increased thirty-fold. 

The state began early to encourage internal improvements, and 
the general government was not backward in promoting such en- 
terprises, and by act of March 2, 1827, granted to the state every 
alternative section for five miles on either side, to construct a canal 
from the head of navigation on the Maumee to the head of naviga- 
tion on the Wabash. The commissioners appointed for the purpose 
designated the route to be "from the foot of Maumee rapids to the 
mouth of Tippecanoe river," and a board of canal commissioners 
was created, which met at Indianapolis July 14, 1828, and in 1832 
the canal land office was opened at Port Wayne. Ground was 
broken with imposing ceremonies one and one-half miles west of 
the town, on the 22d of February, 1832. This was very appropri- 
ate, for Washington was one of the first, if not the first, to suggest 
a canal to connect these two water systems. The procession formed 
at John's hotel at 1 o'clock and marched to the point designated, 
where the gifted orator, Charles W. Ewing, "delivered an appro- 
priate address." 

The canal was opened to Huntington July 4, 1835, Logansport in 
1837, Lafayette in 1841, and Toledo in 1843. The event was cele- 
brated in Fort Wayne with a great procession, a barbecue, and an 
address by United States Senator Lewis Cass. Thus was this great 
water highway opened to the inflowing tide of immigration and in- 
ternal commerce, and it was a potent factor in the progress of Allen 
county and Fort Wayne, which became an incorporated town on 
the 22d of February, 1840. 

The fort reservation had only been abandoned ten years. It was 
in 1830 that an act of congress authorized our county judges to 
enter twenty acres off the west side of the reserve at one dollar and 


twenty-five cents per acre. They platted it as the "County Addi- 
tion," November 3, 1830. The remainder of the reserve was pur- 
chased by Cyrus Taber, and in 1835 was ^ a ^ °^ as "Taber s Ad- 

There was no newspaper here until 1833. The first issue of the 
Fort Wayne Sentinel appeared July 6th of that year. Noel and 
Tigar were the proprietors. It appeared irregularly until 1837, 
when George W. Wood purchased it and made it a Whig paper. 
He sold it in 1840 to Isaac DeGroff Nelson, who made it a Demo- 
cratic paper, and Wood started the Times. It was not till July 16, 
1854, that a daily appeared, Wood's Daily Times. 

That year was the beginning of the railroad era, as well as of 
plank roads. In 1854 the Ohio & Indiana Railroad was opened from 
Crestline to Fort Wayne, and soon after the Fort Wayne & Chi- 
cago Railroad gave us a market in Chicago. Soon after came the 
Toledo, Wabash & Western, and in 1869 the Fort Wayne, Muncie & 
Cincinnati and the Grand Rapids & Indiana. The Fort Wayne, Jack- 
son & Saginaw came in 1870, and was soon followed by the Cin- 
cinnati, Richmond & Fort Wayne. 

The pioneer period was past. The period of civilization in its 
brightest and best form — American civilization — was dawning. 
The writer came to the bar of this county when the old court house 
the present building replaces was new. Of the thirty and more 
names preceding his on the roll, but one is living now, if we except 
those admitted at the same term of court. That bar roll was a roll 
of honor. One could well feel proud in being enrolled among the 
men who at that time composed the Allen county bar, a bar which 
has been graced by such names as that of the Colericks, father and 
six sons, one of whom has been one of the supreme court commis- 
sioners ; Allen Hamilton, father of the bank which bears his name ; 
Hugh McCulloch, father of the banking interests of Fort Wayne; 
Robert Brackenridge, and Joseph Brackenridge, the latter judge 
of two of the courts; William H. Coombs, renowned as a special 
pleader under the old regime, and by appointment, for a short time, 
judge of the supreme court; Lindley M. Ninde, judge of the 
superior court, and three sons following in his footsteps; John 
Morris, judge of common pleas and commissioner of the 
supreme court, and two sons following in his footsteps; Robert 


S. Taylor, known nationally as an expert in electric legal affairs; 
William H. H. Miller, attorney-general of the United States under 
President Harrison; James L. Worden, judge of all our local courts, 
and for many years adorning the supreme court bench; Allen Zol- 
lars and Walter Olds, both of whom were elevated to the supreme 
court bench; Robert C. Bell, not a judge, but a brilliant, forceful 
lawyer, who died in early manhood, and many others, who, while 
not so widely known, or perhaps not so much favored by the fickle 
winds of fortune, but with ability and strength of character, could 
not help being a powerful force in the body politic, and its roll was 
surely one of honor. 

There were giants in those days, mentally, and by a course of 
legal training, under a system which compelled men to think for 
themselves, to think and act quickly upon their own ideas, based 
upon a knowledge of the basic principles of law and equity, without 
the aid of the multifarious "tools" of the profession of the present 
day. There were no large law libraries then, such as are found at 
every county seat today, where for almost every question we may 
now find, "Thus saith the law." At that day the bench and bar 
were strong in pleading, strong in argument, and among them there 
was a spirit of courtesy, and of all that goes to make what always 
should go together — the lawyer and the gentleman. This spirit 
built up a code of ethics for our bar which has rarely been violated, 
and then only by the pariahs of the profession. 

When that old court house was new, Allen county was just 
emerging from the log-cabin period — just seeing the light beyond 
the forests which covered it as with a mantle. The roads were so 
named by courtesy. Where they were, they were bad. Where 
they were not, one could travel with greater ease were it not for the 
fences. There were few bridges. An iron bridge was unknown. 
But it had a people, a composite population drawn from nearly 
every civilized portion of the earth, by whose welding together 
hearts of steel were formed — a people resolute, sturdy, honest, self- 
respecting and demanding respect from others — God-fearing, toil- 
ing and hopeful, the brave pioneer stock and descendants of pio- 
neers, who have made this wilderness of i860 "blossom as the rose." 





Even the Indian traditions tell of Kekionga as a social center. 
The wandering tribes would meet at this ancient village for the 
green corn dance and for the fish and hunting dances. Men and 
women still live who have watched these savage frolics. Some- 
times the Indian would be clad in his "naked nothingness," but 
often he wore "robes of fur and belts of wampum" and had white 
scalps to fringe his hunting shirt. 

Yet the Indian is not a more picturesque figure than the early 
fur trader. Under the name of wood ranger, coureur du bois, or 
voyageur, he has become a bit of stage property for the novelist 
and playwright. To give local color, and as a foil to the devoted 
early Jesuit, this conventional swash-buckler swaggers through 
many an Indian tale. Only traditional accounts remain of his mode 
of life around the old post, but very likely it was that of a wood 
ranger anywhere. As he was frequently an outlaw from the older 
settlements he realized more fully than his Indian companions all 
it meant to be free of law and taxes. Choosing a likely young 
squaw T , he would settle down to a life alternating between hardship 
and dissolute ease. Here was a natural vantage point for the 
hunter and trapper. Forest and stream furnished all the needs of 
Indian or wood ranger. A national road, pike or corduroy, would 


have meant less to him than his three rivers as a passage-way. And 
the portage, which might have seemed a hindrance to his prosperity, 
was made a toll road for his profit. 

Volney, during his travels in America in 1796, was very curi- 
ous as to Indian manners and customs. When he asked about those 
French Canadians who had settled by the waterways, he was told 
they were a kind, hospitable, sociable sort of fellows. "But in ig- 
norance and idleness they beat the Indians. They knew nothing of 
civil or domestic affairs; their women neither sew nor spin, or 
make butter, but pass their time in gossiping and tattle. The men 
hunt, fish, roam in the woods, bask in the sun. They do> not lay up 
as we do for winter or provide for a rainy day. They can't cure 
pork or venison, make sauer kraut or spruce beer." 

But this Arcadian existence was interrupted by the arrival of 
the new settlers, who as a matter of natural selection were ener- 
getic, restless, courageous men and women. There must have been 
great beauty of river and forest surrounding this wilder- 
ness fort. The letter written by Lieutenant Curtis to Mr. Cullen, 
October 4, 1812, says, "I was on my arrival, and still continue to be, 
highly delighted with the place and my situation." Other descrip- 
tions tell of the wonderful verdure, thick blue grass, the luxuriance 
of the wooded shores, and the magnificence of the forests. These 
abundant woods and full streams, with no exacting game laws, 
were a paradise for fisherman and hunter. Even at a much later 
date hunting was a royal sport in this vicinity. Men are living who 
have seen deer bounding where the Pennsylvania Company's shops 
now are. 


From written letters and from oral tradition we know of the 
famous hospitality of old Fort Wayne. The officers of the fort and 
their wives were the first entertainers. Coming from an older and 
more formal society, they carried into their rude barracks the man- 
ners and customs of cultivated folk. A certain punctilio was the 
natural consequence of their military life. Captain Hamtramck, 
the first commander of the new fort, had led the life of a soldier 
from his boyhood. As one line on his tombstone reads, 
He was a soldier even before he was a man. 


Some facts have to be seen in retrospect to realize their signifi- 
cance. In 1800, while Captain Whistler was one of the officers of 
the fort, his son, George Washington Whistler, was born here. 
And the son of this George Washington Whistler — the famous en- 
gineer — was James McNeil Whistler, an artistic genius of the 
nineteenth century. And so through one of his fifteen children the 
name of this brave old soldier, Capt. John Whistler, is kept in the 
memory of a forgetful generation. Whistler and Haden etchings 
are among the choicest possessions in houses standing on the site 
of the old block houses and palisades. We find more than one 
reference to the generous hospitality of the Whistler quarters. 
"Major Whistler entertained the guests," and again, "Major 
Whistler's house was the inn for all comers." In 1869 Mrs. Laura 
Suttenfield wrote a short sketch giving a glimpse of the lonely life 
of the little garrison in 18 14, when Major Whistler was in com- 
mand. She says : "The fort at that time contained sixty men of 
the regular army, all patriotic and anxious to' celebrate one day in 
the year. They made three green bowers, one hundred feet from 
the pickets of the fort, where Main street now is, one bower for the 
dinner table, one for the cooks and one for the music. Major 
Whistler had two German cooks and they prepared the dinner. 
There were but eleven persons at the table, but three are now living 
to tell of that day. Our dinner consisted of one fine turkey, a side 
of venison, roast beef, boiled ham, vegetables in abundance, cran- 
berries and green currants. As for dessert we had none. Eggs 
were not known here for three years from that time. There were 
three bottles of wine sent here from Cincinnati, but one was made 
use of. Then there were a few toasts and after three guns and 
music they went into the fort and the ladies changed their dresses. 
Then Major Whistler called for the music, which consisted of one 
bass drum, two small ones, one fife, violin and flute. There was a 
long gallery in the fort, the musicians took their seats there. But 
three of the gentlemen would dance. There were but three ladies 
present. A French four passed off very well for an hour. Then 
the gates of the fort were closed at sundown, which gave it a 
gloomy appearance. No children, no younger persons for amuse- 
ment, all retired to their rooms. All was still and quiet. The sen- 


tinel on his lonely round would give us the hour of the night. In 
the morning we were aroused by the beating of the reveille." 

These quiet days were disturbed in 181 5, when Major Whistler 
began to rebuild the fort. To aid the soldiers, twenty new work- 
men were sent for, and there was much bustle in and around the 
whole place. Pulling down the old fort, putting up the new one, 
burning bricks, and felling trees for the oxen to haul, gave everything 
a lively appearance. 

A letter from Serg. W. K. Jordan to his wife "Betsey" is an- 
other delightful scrap that has floated down to us from the old fort. 
The writer was one of the survivors of the Fort Dearborn massacre 
and the letter is dated October 12, 18 12. After relating the treach- 
ery of the Indians, Sergeant Jordan continues, "Every man, woman 
and child killed but fifteen, — and thanks be to God I was one of 
them ! The first shot took the feather out of my cap, the next shot 
the epaulettes off my shoulder and the third broke the handle of my 
sword. I had to surrender myself to four damned yellow Indians." 
His life was saved by White Raccoon, who held him by the hand 
as he stood with fourteen other survivors. He continues, "They 
stripped all of us to our shirts and trousers and every family took 
one as long as we lasted and then started for their towns. Every 
man to his tent, O Israel ! But I will just inform you when I got 
to my strange lodging I looked about like a cat in a strange garret." 
Jordan was warned against any attempt to escape. He was told if 
he would remain he should be a chief, but attempt to escape and he 
should be burned alive. We are sorry when he says he has no time 
to write the particulars of his daring escape. So we only know that 
he stole a horse from his captors and got to Fort Wayne after seven 
days in the wilderness. He adds, "After all my fun I weigh one 
hundred ninety." Then he tells her that as he writes he is wearing 
some of the soft hair of her head and he beseeches her to see that 
Mountford (his little son) is sent to school. 

It is easy to see from these old letters and recollections, that 
life in the old fort was of much the same stuff that life is today. 
Styles have changed and so there is a different pattern, but the ma- 
terial is the same. A letter written by Major Joseph Jenkinson, 
another commander, gives us one hasty look beyond those high and 
far-away palisades : 


Fort Wayne, March 14, 1814. 
Dear Sarah: 

I have nothing of importance to inform you of, but I shall suffer 
no opportunity to escape unembraced. I hope, my love, that you and my 
children are well. I do not know what to think of your coming here, but I 
wish you were here, and had come with me when I first came. I am bringing 
Ephraim completely under. I have had [him] once in the guard house hand- 
cuffed. I have given him two whippings, the last of which was a very hard 
one. I shall cool the fellow, he bounces at the word. I am, my love, your de- 
voted husband, Joseph Jenkinson. 
Sarah Jenkinson. 

Give my love to father, mother and family. 

The unruly "Ephraim" was the commander's negro servant and 
the punishment was not unusual for the time. Captain Hamtramck, 
most humane of officers, complained to General Wayne that the 
"economic allowance" of one hundred lashes as a punishment for 
theft seemed inadequate to make an honest man of a rascal. The 
soldiers would steal beef and other rations and he was "tired flog- 
ging them." But in 1819 the slender garrison was ordered farther 
west and military rule in the fort was a thing of the past. It 
seemed for a time a very sad and lonely little village without the 
pleasant company and protection of the soldiers. 

The military influence had dominated the society of the day. 
Admiration for the glory and the dignity of a life at arms was a 
natural feeling of the time and place. The discipline was a much- 
needed object lesson to the frontiersmen. The United States gov- 
ernment has always been a model housekeeper and we can imagine 
the plaza in the enclosure of the old fort, which "was well kept, 
smooth and gravelly." Then there, close at hand, was Fort 
Wayne's first fire apparatus, for "under the double gallery, or ver- 
anda, hung leather fire buckets, painted blue." 


For a time we have but slight account of the deserted barracks. 
The Rev. Isaac McCoy's "History of Baptist Missions," published 
in 1840, tells much of the Indians, but little of the French and 
English population. His minute account of a spiritual crusade has 
given us an accurate picture of certain phases of life in and around 
the old block houses. His experiences continually remind one of 


those early Jesuit Relations, which have been such a source of infor- 
mation to American historians. As he travels through the forest 
he is grateful for a handful of parched corn and a piece of dry 
bark to' sleep on. As Lejeune wrote, "Though my bed had not 
been made up since the creation of the world, it was not hard 
enough to prevent 'me sleeping." After many adventures by flood 
and field, on the 29th of May, 1820, Mr. McCoy opened his mission 
school in the fort buildings, "with ten English scholars, six French, 
eight Indians and one negro." These eight little Indian boys were 
to be clothed, fed and lodged by the mission. Mrs. McCoy had the 
care of them and of her own seven young children and all the house 
work for her portion. 

Then comes the "help" problem. "We hired an Indian woman 
to assist in domestic labors, but she afforded little help." The sad 
case of Mrs. McCoy is like the one James Russell Lowell writes 
of as he tries to strengthen the hearts of the discouraged mistress 
of the modern domestic. He asks her to imagine a household with 
one wild Indian woman for "help," communicated with by signs. 
"Those were serious times indeed, when your cook might give 
warning by taking your scalp or chignon, as the case might be, and 
make off with it into the woods." 

In less than a month after his arrival Mr. McCoy was com- 
pelled to make a journey to the state of Ohio to purchase needed 
supplies. Among other things, he brought back two luxuries, a 
spinning wheel and a two-horse wagon. And then Mrs. McCoy 
began her efforts to change the simple life of these primitive people 
to the strenuousness that belongs to a higher civilization. The 
"gossiping and tattle" were to be exchanged for spinning and spell- 
ing, and no doubt they even learned "to cure pork or venison, and 
to make sauer kraut and spruce beer." Flour and meal had to be 
hauled in wagons about one hundred miles and most of the way 
through a wilderness and over bad roads. "Corn, which in the 
white settlements seldom sold for more than twenty-five cents a 
bushel, here cost a dollar and a half or two dollars." Soon the In- 
dian youths numbered twenty-six, then thirty. But the Board of 
Missions seemed to forget the brave missionaries and they became 
so destitute as to be ashamed of their poverty even before the poor 
Indians. Mrs. McCoy taught the girls to sew and to use the spin- 



ning wheel and in 1821 the mission boasted forty-two Indian 
youths, "as Mr. McCoy always calls the pupils of this pioneer man- 
ual training school." Then it is decided to be best for Mrs. McCoy 
to go "back to the settlements" for a time. The cheapest, and so the 
most available method of travel for her seemed to be to descend the 
Wabash in an open canoe. "The distance by water was between 
three and four hundred miles and more than half of this, was 
through a wilderness inhabited only by uncivilized Indians. It was 
the 25th of June that, with our three younger children, she took her 
leave, not expecting to return in less time than three months." The 
weather was hot and the poor mother could scarcely sleep as she 
tried to keep the mosquitoes away from her little children. They 
camped on shore every night, were nine days on the river and it 
rained almost every day! Their provisions were damaged, their 
clothing mildewed, but the brave heroine lived to return overland 
with a young babe the following September. 

In February, 1822, when Mr. Coy was returning from a trip to 
Philadelphia and Washington, he found his sorest trial awaiting 
him. During his horseback journey of more than seventeen hun- 
dred miles, in cold weather, over wretched roads, he had became 
so ill as to be almost unable to travel. When within five miles of 
home he learned of the attempted murder, by a Pottowattamie In- 
dian, of his nine-year-old daughter. As Mr. McCoy writes of his 
mental and spiritual struggles in this bitter hour, he records his 
grateful obligations to Mr. B. B. Kercheval, United States Indian 
agent at that time. 

Mr. Kercheval and Mr. McCoy worked hand in hand endeav- 
oring to encourage the Indians to cultivate the soil. On March 8, 
1822, the loom began to make cloth from yarn spun by the Indian 
girls of the mission. Later in the same year three Catholic priests, 
who came to administer the sacrament and to say mass, visited the 
Baptist mission school and drank tea with the missionaries. But 
at last a farewell sermon is preached and the Indians, the oxen, 
horses, hogs, milch cows and family are on their way to a new sta- 
tion, farther from white settlements. December 9, 1822, again the 
little village felt deserted. The whole story of the hardihood and 
sacrifices of the Rev. Isaac McCoy and his wife, Christiana McCoy, 
is one of pathetic heroism. They seem to illustrate a quaint bit 


from an old New England sermon, "God sifted a whole nation 
that he might send choice grain over into this wilderness." 


The war department gives us one bit of a description of early 
life in the "village that had grown under the shelter of the fort." 
In 1823 Major S. H. Long, as a topographical engineer, was here 
three days and he says, "To a person visiting the Indian country 
for the first time this place offers many characteristic and singular 
features. The village is small; it has grown under the shelter of 
the fort and contains a mixed and apparently very worthless popu- 
lation. The inhabitants are chiefly of Canadian origin, all more or 
less imbued with Indian blood. The confusion of languages owing 
to the diversity of Indian tribes which generally collect near a fort 
makes the traveler imagine himself in a real Babel." He goes on 
to tell of his disgust at seeing the Frenchmen dressed like Indi- 
ans, in "breech cloth and blanket." The ways of living were 
chiefly matters of adjustment or adaptability. The New England 
colonist had used the smoky pine knot because it was cheap and 
near at hand. But the northern Indiana pioneer found no pine for- 
ests stretching from his doorway, no fat cod-fish to be had for the 
catching. His Betty lamp was filled with lard oil or bear's grease 
and the tallow dips were early replaced by mould candles. 

The prosperous fur traders easily exchanged their peltries for 
the spermaceti candles of the eastern whaler. The French families 
loved dinners and dances, gayety and song, and the visit of tourist 
or trader would be made the occasion for whatever festivities were 
possible. The log house of John P. Hedges (southwest corner of 
Calhoun and Berry streets) had the whole up-stairs in one room and 
there was many a dance given on that puncheon floor. Several 
other houses were able to give dances in up-stairs rooms built es- 
pecially with that intention. A dinner at the tavern was another 
way of entertaining an honored guest. On these occasions finery 
from Quebec, Cincinnati, New York, or even Paris, would deck 
the black-eyed beauties who sat around the table. After a time 
the ladies would be escorted home with lanterns, all the men re- 
turning to drink a few more rounds. Great was the hard-headed 


hero who could mix his drinks and stay sober as other unsteady 
guests slid to the floor or reeled home ! The old French lady who 
recounted these tales acknowledged that now and then there were 
a few chicken-livered youths who refused to get drunk. "But not 
a many !" 

The little village seemed to thrive by the first intention and fine 
hewn-log houses became common. Those first fur traders who 
had been bold enough or greedy enough to risk the uncertain tem- 
per of the Indians were accumulating gold. From 1820, when the 
American Fur Company established an agency here, the fur trader 
and dealer in Indian goods were the business men of the village. 
To be sure, any one who could get a keg of whiskey and a box of 
tobacco could set up a store. Customers, chiefly Indian, were plenty 
and gullible. The villages at the meeting of the rivers were pros- 
perous. Canoes lined the banks and after the hunting season the 
Indians would bring in great loads of peltries. Blankets, known 
commercially as "Mackinac blankets," were manufactured in Eu- 
rope especially for the Indian trader. These blankets were all wool, 
about one-half inch thick, with two black stripes at each end. The 
sizes were designated as "points" and were woven in the corner of 
each blanket. An ordinary overcoat could be made from a "3 1-2 
point" blanket. But if a hood was required, or the blanket was to 
be used for hunting or war expeditions, a "4 point" was needed. 
They cost from eight dollars to* fifteen dollars and could be dyed 
to suit the taste of the purchaser. All profitable trade was Indian 
trade. On Columbia street was a famous jewelry manufactory, 
supported almost wholly by Indian traders. This was in charge of 
Jean Batiste Becquette, known as "Father Becquette," or the "In- 
dian jeweler." He employed thirty or forty French workmen "to 
make earbobs for the Miami belles." He bought old silver and 
melted silver dollars to make beads, brooches, crosses, bracelets and 
other essentials of Indian toilet. The American Fur Company was 
his principal customer. 

When canoes and pirogues were plying our rivers, when wild, 
game was cheap and bear and wolf-skin rugs common, while pine 
and matches were scarce and expensive, both labor and land were 
commodities of greatly varying value. One man boasts that he 
bought the lot he is still living upon from an Indian for a keg of 


whisky. Later a house and lot was known to be given a lawyer 
' as a fee for getting a divorce. Agriculture was slow and tedious 
and naturally dragged in the face of such easy returns. 

The sale of lots in 1823, the organization of the county, and the 
"canal talk," all helped to move immigration to this point and to 
favor permanent homes. Descriptions of handsome double hewn- 
log houses have passed into local tradition as unusual even for the 
time. The house of Major Lewis (about the site of the Lewis 
homestead on Montgomery street) was one of the sights of the vil- 
lage. It was covered with roses, climbing over its doors and win- 
dows, and the yard had hedges and great clumps of wild roses. It 
was to this picturesque home Gen. Lew Wallace came when a mere 
lad to visit his aunt, Mrs. Lewis. No sight-seer was allowed in 
the village without being taken to see this beautiful rose-covered 
log house. 

Even in the old g'arrison days there was always a forge or 
blacksmith shop and the store-house. Then came a butcher shop 1 — 
but "a sharp knife and a drove and drover," would be a better descrip- 
tion of the first meat markets. At last Peter Kiser settled down as 
village butcher. He had individuality enough to make him a 
marked character, remembered today for brusque speech and a 
famous scrap book. Later his "general store" was kept in the most 
erratic manner, but he somehow managed to have a little more cash 
each year when he went to Cincinnati to buy goods, and that was 
his only invoice. 

We soon hear of Wilcox, Peltier, Tower, Miller, Fink and 
Griebel making beds, chairs, tables, desks and all furniture needed 
in the village households. Not that the first settlers had always 
waited for home manufactures. When Chief Richardville finished 
his house near Huntington he sent to Paris for the furniture. 
Though dressers were more common than sideboards, yet the beau- 
tiful sideboard of Mrs. Zenas Henderson is remarkable even to- 
day for beauty and elegance. When Judge Cooper finished his 
house on East Berry street in 1836 he sent to New York for the 
furnishings. The bills for the old pier glass and for carpets, cur- 
tains, paper, etc., show elegance was sought as well as comfort. In 
the Hanna homestead are exquisite mahogany pieces that once were 
in the log house built as the first home of Judge Hanna. Then 


these early craftsmen veneered long mahogany couches and covered 
them with horse hair. They copied the "pattern pieces" brought 
by far waterways and soon "Loo tables," candlestick stands, side- 
boards, console tables, began to take the place of the makeshift fur- 

Enterprising pioneers had brick yards, tanneries, breweries, two 
distilleries, a pottery and in 1840 a great project for the manufac- 
ture of silk. Copies of the American Silk Journal in old attics at- 
test the scientific interest taken in the silk-worm business. Mul- 
berry trees were planted and silk worms imported, but the trees did 
not thrive and worms and project died together. 

Side by side with a social life of marked cordiality and simplic- 
ity was a French society, alien in its tastes and ideas. When the 
Hon. Hugh McCulloch came here in 1833 he found the little village 
very fortunate in the character of its inhabitants. Settlers from 
over seas, colonists from; Maryland, Virginia or the eastern states 
gave character to the town. 

When home catering was a necessity and unexpected visitors a 
certainty something could always be managed. One famous house- 
keeper explained : "In the meat house hung plenty of hams ; in the 
cellar were tubs of eggs; potatoes and flour we always had, and 
so something could be done." Here, as everywhere, the quick wit 
and the willing hands made the most of opportunities. It takes 
more than "food and fire" to produce a meal, and SO' the clever 
cooks deserve the honors. At the time of the canal celebration cer- 
tain families entertained several hundred guests. In those early 
days there was always a profusion of eatables on the tables of 
well-bred people. A modern dinner table, with its peppers and 
salts, butter, nuts, flowers and bonbons, would have struck dismay 
to the hearty trenchermen of 1830 and 1840. A fine cake was sure 
to be a pyramid and after a grand affair the question would be, 
"How did the pyramid look?" 

The record is a scant one of balls and parties before 1840. But 
among the old treasures of one attic was found a printed invitation 
to a ball on Christmas eve, 1833. All that the local printing office 
could produce of a screaming American eagle, stereotype tavern 
cuts, rosettes, scrolls and borders is used to add to the dignity of the 
occasion. And the text reads : 


Christmas Temperance Ball for 1833. Tuesday, December 24. The Managers 
of the Christian Temperance Ball tender their respects to and solicit the com- 
pany of [script] Mr. Henry Cooper & Lady at a Ball to be given at the house of 
Z. Henderson, in the town of Fort Wayne, on the evening of the 24th instant. 


Isaac Spencer, 
Joseph Swinney, 
W. Rankin, 
Thomas Johnson, 

R. J. Dawson. 
December 29, 1833. 

And here is another invitation, just two years later : 


The company of [script] Mr. Samuel Sowers and Lady is solicited at the 
Washington Hall on Thursday evening, the 31st instant, at 5 o'clock. 

W. G. Ewing, 
Hugh McCulloch, 
O. W. Jefferds, 
Francis Av aline, 
John Spencer, 
Joseph Sinclear, 
R. J. Dawson. 
R. Brackenridge, Jr 

December 25, 1835. 

If we could look into these frontier ball-rooms we would see 
fashions and styles of this year of grace, for this was the picturesque 
era when they were "crystalizing the fashions of 1830." It was also 
the time that they were using much formal and conventional con- 
versation. The delightful letters of Judge Cooper are so serious 
as to seem almost stilted to light-minded folk. When this clever 
lawyer, "famous for his wit and repartee," writes tender, loving 
letters to his young wife there is no touch of flippancy, none of the 
modern familiarity that seems the pleasant privilege of man and 
wife. Whether he bemoans his absence from her, begs her to get 
plenty of household help, advises her to "buy mould and not dipped 
candles," reminds her to keep Edward off the street so he won't 
play so much with the Indians, or begs her to go to comfort a be- 
reaved neighbor — it is all in stately, old-fashioned phrases. 

Nothing was ever quite so wonderful as the great canal cele- 
bration, July 4, 1843. Invitations were sent to General Cass, John 


Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Col. R. M. Johnson, 
President VanBuren, General Scott and many others. There were 
boats of every description, horseback riders, wagon loads of people, 
half the population of northern Indiana jostling each other in Fort 
Wayne, the great canal town. The canal boats extended in double 
tier from the upper to the lower basin. These boats, decorated 
with flags and every variety of bunting, gave to the wharf a very 
gay appearance. Then came the grand procession in the following 
order: Martial music; Revolutionary soldiers and soldiers of the 
late war; orator, Gen. Lewis Cass; reader, Hugh McCulloch; chap- 
lain, Rev. Boyd; president, Ethan A. Brown; then the twenty-nine 
vice-presidents, followed by ladies, the Defiance Band, invited 
guests, committees, Marion band, engineering corps, German band, 
citizens of Ohio and other states, Miami warriors, Kekionga Band 
and citizens of Indiana. The local newspaper tells us that the ora- 
tion of General Cass "was a masterly production, somewhat 
lengthy." He traced the growth and development of this new 
country and described an imaginary voyage in an aboriginal skiff 
up the Maumee, over the tableland and down Little river on the 
opposite side to the great water beyond. All the houses in 
the town were given over to the entertainment of guests. Judge 
Hanna's house had a candle in every window and the illumination 
could be seen for miles. 

At the opening of the Hedekin House, in 1846, there was a 
grand military ball. The Silver Grays, of Detroit, came to give 
foreign tone to the affair. Their martial manners and military 
trappings must have made sad havoc among the belles of the day. 
For there is yet an echo of the glory of their uniforms, trimmed with 
black velvet. Later the hops at the Rockhill House were famous 
for the display of wealth and beautiful gowns. 

In the Charcoal Sketches of John W. Dawson he says that the 
first marriage in Fort Wayne was that of Dr. Edwards to* Miss 
Hunt. The bride, who was related to General Lewis Cass, was a 
daughter of Colonel Thomas Hunt, who served under General 
Wayne at the storming of Stony Point. This Colonel Hunt 
brought his family to Fort Wayne from Boston in 1797. Later he 
was stationed at Detroit and in 1803 Colonel Hunt was ordered 
west with his regiment. Captain Whipple, the commanding officer, 


and Dr. Edwards, the surgeon's mate, stood at the landing at Fort 
Wayne watching the regiment coming up the Maumee. There 
were fifty Montreal bateaux, and it must have been an imposing 
sight. But the surgeon's mate overlooked the parade and remarked 
to his companion on the beauty of Miss Hunt. And Miss Hunt had 
observed and noted the fine-looking young officer. The result was 
a fort wedding in two weeks and a bridal trip to Bellefontaine, Mis- 
souri. Marriages were often difficult to arrange for. The 
county seat was distant and sometimes uncertain. But romance 
and affection laughed at difficulties and far-distant marriage li- 
censes. There were fierce rivalries, not a little artificial gallantry, 
and more than one duel. This "seeking satisfaction" was one of 
the legacies from fort days. For such "affairs of honor" Colonel 
William Suttenfield was usually the master of ceremonies. His 
daring ride during garrison days, his continual interest in military 
affairs, made him a sort of hero to all the small boys of the place. 
They would hang around his tavern listening to his never-failing 
fund of adventures. Even when the stories stopped the boys would 
sit still or lean over the bannisters as though fascinated. Finally 
Colonel Suttenfield would go to the fireplace, where his sword al- 
ways hung, buckle it on and, with martial stride, begin moving 
around and growling : "I just feel like eating a boy for dinner," 
or, perhaps, "I want a boy boiled today; I'm pretty hungry." No 
further hint was necessary and every boy went, and stopped not on 
the order of his going. His wife, Mrs. Laura Suttenfield, was one 
day delighted to welcome her sister, Miss Taylor, of Dayton, Ohio. 
She came for this visit in a sleigh and, the snow disappearing unex- 
pectedly, was compelled to make a long stay awaiting a convenient 
opportunity to return. But propinquity or fate interfered and in 
1820 Miss Taylor was married to young Samuel Hanna by Rev. 
Isaac McCoy. In spite of the "magnificent distances," wedding 
finery was gotten together. Besides the white silk wedding gown, 
usage prescribed a "second day gown." Mrs. Hanna's was a blue 
Canton crepe, trimmed in blue ribbons. Her white satin wedding 
slippers were afterwards lent for more than one village wedding. 
For this was the reign of the Neighbor. All the characteristic gath- 
erings of the early settlers favored that "neighborliness" which is 


surely the most conspicuous feature of pioneer days; hospitality 
and neighborliness were warp and woof of the daily life. 

It would be a curious sight if we could see such a wedding as 
Miss Tilley had. She was a sister of Mrs. Marshall Wines and 
was married in the old First Presbyterian church (near Lafayette 
street). In front of the church and away around the corner the 
saddled horses of the wedding party and of the wedding guests 
were hitched. One horse had two small trunks adjusted to his 
back, and that was the "pack horse" that carried the baggage. 
Then the bridal couple came out, saddles were adjusted, girths 
tightened and, with pack horse and luggage, they started on a wed- 
ding trip to Logansport. Such a wedding journey was not unusual. 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Fleming were married at Buffalo, and after 
following by boat the devious waterways of lake and canal to Defi- 
ance, they rode on horseback to Fort Wayne. Mrs. Fleming's rid- 
ing skirt was mud to her waist when she dismounted. Once a gay 
party went to Vermilyea's with Mr. and Mrs. Royal Taylor, and 
after being served with a banquet, returned, leaving the bride and 
groom there. William B. Walter has left an account of a wedding 
he attended in 1845 at tne house of Francis Compare! Father 
Benoit united in marriage Mr. Reno (probably Renaud), a young 
fur trader, and Miss Lacroix. For the wedding feast there was wild 
turkey and venison and a large stone jug of wine. It would have 
been considered almost sacreligious, and certainly niggardly, to have 
a wedding without wine. Among the guests were Miss Cynthia 
Bearss, Miss Edsall, Miss Forsythe, Miss Rockhill, all friends of 
the pretty French bride, Angeline Lacroix. 

The friendly teas of a group of neighbors or friends come close 
to us as we read the old, time-stained invitations. "Mr. and Mrs. 
McCulloch present their compliments to Mr. and Mrs. Cooper and 
request the pleasure of their company at their house on Tuesday 
evening at 6 1-2 o'clock." Or again, "Mr. and Mrs. Rockhill re- 
quest the honor of your company this evening to tea at half-past 
five o'clock." The same names recur again and again. Mr. and 
Mrs. Jesse L. Williams, Mr. and Mrs. Allen Hamilton, Mr. and 
Mrs. D. H. Colerick, Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Wines, Mr. and Mrs. 
William Ewing, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Hanna, Mr. and Mrs. Hugh 
McCulloch, were all names found on old invitations. Some of 


these read, "Come to tea at half-past five," or it may be "half-past 
six," or now and then there is a little party to meet "by early candle- 

When Mr. Henry Rudisill imported a Leipsic piano it was des- 
tined to 1 give pleasure to many outside his own household. Farmers 
for miles looked forward to the stop at Rudisill's to hear the two 
older daughters play the piano, while Mr. Rudisill and his son 
Henry played the flute. It is amusing to know that Mr. Rudisill 
sent a rocking chair to Leipsic which created fully as much of a 
sensation there as the new piano did in the little frontier village. 
The chair was looked at and tried and known far and near as a New 
World curiosity, an "American rocking chair." 

At the two great crises of life — birth and death — the neighbors 
in this frontier locality were very largely dependent upon each 
other. As trained nurses were unknown, the kindly heart and 
skilled hand brought grateful relief to tired watchers where there 
was long protracted illness. Some people seemed to have the touch 
and the knowledge and to be always in demand. Such service was, 
of course, gratuitous and many years have not served to blot out 
the memory of old kindnesses done. Again and again was the 
story told of the goodness and the unselfishness of Mrs. Lewis G. 
Thompson (Dr. Thompson's wife), of Mrs. Marshall Wines, Miss 
Eliza Hamilton and of many other old friends and neighbors. 

The boon most appreciated was the grist mill that would turn 
out good flour. A saw mill, with a corn cracker attachment, was 
a wonderful improvement over the hand-mill grinding of corn. 
Wooden mortars — sometimes indoors, or made by hewing out a 
stump in the dooryard — were a necessity of every family. As all 
cooking was done at open fires, the Dutch oven and large kettle or 
pot were in constant use. The Dutch oven was not unlike a gas, 
or gasoline, oven with short legs. It had one side open next the 
fire and could stand among the coals. Many pioneer men and wom- 
en bear grateful testimony to the delicious flavor of corn pone baked 
in a kettle among the coals. It stood all one night and the next day, 
often turned and slowly baking. A johnny-cake paddle hung in 
view in every tavern — and it was in constant use. Among the in- 
conveniences of early days was the short-lived splint broom. There 
was never a corn broom in the old fort. There were expensive 


brushes and then for every-day use the "Indian broom," made from 
a hickory sapling. The wire screening, now so commonly used as 
to seem a necessity, was unknown in early days. As the family 
ate, some younger member or a servant would stand patiently wav- 
ing a "fly brush" over the heads of the eaters. This "fly brush" 
might be a stick, with a common newspaper slit and tacked on one 
end, or it might be a peacock's tail made into a round brush. The 
handle, interwoven with narrow ribbons, would be hard as ivory. 
The steady swishing back and forth could not stop for a moment 
or a horde of persistent flies would descend on dinner and diners. 

All we read or hear of the absence of stoves does not bring the 
facts so sharply to our attention as the editorial notice of a stove 
advertisement in a local newspaper of 1845. "If," the editor says 
to the subscriber, "you have never tried one, you have no* idea of 
its convenience and utility." A fireplace was the necessity of the 
poorest, a stove the luxury of the well-to-do householder. So it is 
with candles and sealing wax, hand-sewing, small panes of glass, 
horseback riding and bare rafters. Our grandparents would have 
been grateful for a dinner table lighted with electric lights, for 
gummed envelopes, for the time-saving sewing machine, the con- 
venience of the large plate glass and for the wonderful motor car. 
Now we think these old-time necessities a sort of index of refined 
tastes. The warming pans and nightcaps of our great grandpar- 
ents were not for fashion, but for comfort. The valance or curtain 
of the high four-posted bed was to keep out the stiff breeze that 
some stray chink might let blow in too freshly. The beds were 
ample, high, wide and corded. And if they were comfortable they 
were sure to have that fairly oriental luxury — a feather bed ! 

With new immigration the agricultural population came and 
plowing with oxen and planting of orchards began. The old orchards 
of Johnny Appleseed were greatly appreciated by the early settlers. 
Both from gratitude and pity he was allowed to lie on the kitchen 
floor by the fireplace. Even in this fertile soil the necessary labor 
was pitiless in its exactions. Agricultural implements were so im- 
perfect that planting and harvesting meant patient and severe toil. 
When their textiles were ready for wear, if the first settlers had 
sheared, carded and spun, or hackled, fulled and dyed and woven, 
they realized the value of their material. It was a lesson in prac- 


tical economics and it made each one ready and anxious to cut his 
garment according to his cloth. 

Among the dissipations of the women were such co-operative 
industries as quilting bees, apple butter parings and candle dipping. 
Add to this the busy spring days of soap making and the fall car- 
nage of hog killing, and there must have been many strenuous sea- 
sons and tired muscles. Through it all, for the pioneer mother was 
the regular business of cradle rocking, one task that with its work 
and worry carried its own balm and blessing. 

Young ladies were sent east to finishing schools and had such 
studies as were thought suited to the "female mind," and such mild 
athletics as battledoor and shuttlecock afforded. They studied 
music and learned to play on a piano resembling tihe "spinet with 
its thin metallic trills." Of this same "tinkling trill" Mrs. Earle 
writes : "There is no sound born in the nineteenth century that at 
all resembles it. Like 'loggerheads' in the coals and 'lugpoles' in the 
chimney, like church lotteries and tithing men, the spinet- -even its 
very voice — is extinct." 

New elegancies began to invade the social life of the place. Not 
long after Mrs. P. P. Bailey left the first calling cards for the ladies 
on her visiting list, another delightful shock came; a party was 
to be given and "P. P. C." was in one corner of the invitations. 


"Up in the attic I found them, locked in the cedar chest, 
Where the flowered gowns lie folded, which once were brave as the best ; 
And, like the qneer old jackets and the waistcoats gay with stripes, 
They tell of a worn-out fashion — these old daguerreotypes. 

'Quaint little folding cases fastened with tiny hook, 
Seemingly made to tempt one to lift up the latch and look, 
Linings of purple velvet, odd little frames of gold, 
Circling the faded faces brought from the days of old." 

Queer oil paintings, miniatures,water colors and other examples 
of the art of the day hang on the walls of old homesteads. Some- 
times, alas! these searched-for pictures lie in dusty attics, some- 
times they have gone through a "rummage sale" to a more appre- 
ciative owner, and not infrequently they are ashes — by accident or 


design. Sometimes an eastern or southern "limner" left a canvas 
of real beauty, with more of art than sentiment to secure its place 
among the family treasures. But, whether it is a crudely done 
"family group" or a silhouette, or a Rembrandt Peale, nothing can 
give so much at a glance of old customs and fashions as an old pic- 
ture. Sometimes the name of the artist is forgotten by a careless 
generation, but of a certainty there painted here before 1850 Mr. 
Rockwell, Mr. Freeman, B. G. Cosgrove, J. Hegler and R. B. 
Crafft. February 3, 1844, we find the following advertisement: 

The subscriber informs the public that he is now ready to take in a superio 
style the likeness of all who will favor him with their custom. All likenesses 
are warranted correct and satisfactory or no charge made. Ladies and gentle- 
men are respectfully asked to call and examine specimens. R. B. Crafft. 

Then, in 1845, J. Hegler announces himself as a "portrait 
painter," but he will also paint "landscape window shades, fire 
screens, etc." Daguerre's process of using the sun for an artist was 
beginning to make its way even to this growing and thriving town. 
In 1840 Dr. Draper had succeeded in making daguerreotype por- 
traits in New York. At first the "sun process" was supposed to be 
only suitable for still life. But very lovely and flattering were the 
portraits made by these "Daguerrean artists,"as the advertisements 
call them. Early in the '50s exquisite pictures and fine cases came 
from the gallery of Mr. McDonald. Ten years later we find Mr. 
Benham at his Premium Gallery, corner Calhoun and Columbia 
streets, ready to make photographs or ambrotypes "in the highest 
degree of perfection known to the art." And then came the charm- 
ing ambrotypes, with both detail and softness to recommend them. 
The very cases have an old-time charm. Some were inlaid with 
gold or silver lines or mother-of-pearl. Sometimes whole cases 
were of mother-of-pearl or of the precious metals. The larger ones 
were made in imitation of books, and with their gilt titles "Token" 
or "Souvenir," could have stood among a row of prayer or gift 
books. One exquisite case is covered with green velvet outside and 
inside, with gold corners. Another has a beautiful ivory cameo set 
in the mother-of-pearl. But all these were soon superseded by the 
commercially profitable ferrotype, tintype and photograph. 



xAithougti the editorial and the news columns of the early pa- 
pers are reticent as to the daily life of their subscribers, the adver- 
tisements are frankly confidential. There almost every line marks 
the difference between yesterday and today. For example, in 1845, 
A. B. Miller makes special note of the fact that he has for sale pot* 
ash kettles and grindstones and that he will pay the highest price 
for one hundred tons of black salts and ten thousand bushels of 
ashes. Today potash kettles have fallen into "inocuous desuetude" 
and black salts is given in neither dictionary nor chemistry. About 
the same time Dr. Beecher, who, like most early physicians, had 
a "doctor shop," desired to exchange drugs, medicines, paints or 
dye stuffs for bees-wax, ginseng and Seneca snake root. Then Rob- 
inson & Paige advertise "Men's heavy wax boots, heavy fisher- 
man's or hunter's long boots, also woman's and girl's brogans, fine 
for the country." We can not but wonder if those "brogans" did 
service in picking cranberries in the great cranberry marsh west of 
town. When an advertisement lays special stress on "city-made 
slippers and gaiters" we know the day has gone by when young 
Francis Aveline can make moccasins or shoe packs for the whole 
village. Again the meaning of the advertisement is absolutely un- 
intelligible without local and intimate knowledge of the affairs of 
the day. For example, Hamilton & Williams offer for sale a mys- 
terious commodity, "White Dog and scrip." This is merely a line 
from the sad financial tale of the Wabash and Erie Canal. Blue 
Dog and its fractional currency, Blue Pup, belonged to the same lit- 
ter as the Wildcat money of Michigan. In an early paper Peter P. 
Bailey, at the Sign of the Padlock, calls attention to his large and 
well-selected stock of hardware and miscellaneous goods. Very 
attractive it is to read of his "spectacles and snuff-box gay," of his 
tobacco boxes, cigar cases, hearth brushes, lard and oil lamps, Brit- 
tania candlesticks, brass and iron fire dogs, powder horns and 
Juniata nails. A little later at the Sign of the Padlock there are a 
hundred stoves for sale! Besides the Areola Company's new and 
splendid hot-air parlor stoves, there are Premium cooking stoves, 
and then a jewel of a stove called "Atwood's Hot Air Empire 
Cooking Stove." The alluring advertisement says: "For this stove 


two sticks of wood will last all day." With a fine vagueness as to 
quantities, Sinclair & Chittenden announce, "We want a right smart 
chance of butter and a pretty considerable lot of eggs, for which 
we will pay either cash or goods." The names of the materials 
kept at the Mammoth Cave (S. Hanna & Sons) have an old-time 
sound. There are Carolina plaids, organdies, delaines, lustres, 
flush-spot gingham, alpacas, brocaded silks and satinets. 

Mrs. Paul, milliner, on Berry street, opposite the Presbyterian 
church, with pardonable pride boasts of her "Patent Bonnet Press, 
the only one west of the mountains." She can at any time turn, 
clean and alter straw and Leghorn hats. She also has "bonnet 
sprigs and slave girdles." Mrs. Paul's competitors were the Misses 
Wells, whose fine needlework is yet well remembered. Bits of 
their handiwork may still be seen in delicate old lace caps and 
Quaker bonnets. They did much sewing for the gentry of the day. 
One famous order was for a long broadcloth coat for "Queen God- 
frey." As wealth increased the dandies had an opportunity to try 
to outshine each other. At the "Fashionable Emporium" of James 
M. Blossom could be found "figured satin, silk and merino stocks, 
cravats and scarfs," silk and linen purses, half hose, silk and com- 
mon suspenders, super-ivory dressing combs and combs of buffalo 
horn. At the old rifle shop on Main street (owned by Moses Yer- 
ing) there was a fine supply of guns, rifles and pistols. His earliest 
advertisements do not mention revolvers, so probably at that time 
Colonel Colt's invention was not commonly used here. 

Soon a taste for imported goods crept in. Royal W. Taylor ad- 
vertises children's "French coats and Egyptian dresses," also Honey- 
comb shawls. Anyone who had furs, coon skins, deer or bear 
skins, beeswax, flaxseed, or, better than all else, "black salts," could 
buy many wonderful things. The cabinetmakers were busy, for a 
new and rapidly growing population needed new furniture. Joseph 
Johnson announces that he has "on Barr street, north of the market 
house, an assortment of those new and fashionable articles, Venetian 
window blinds." Special advertisements are made of buffalo 
robes, sperm and mould candles, candle wicking, fine riding whips, 
bed cords, sugar kettles and one curious offer of "a smut mill 
cheap." All this is before 1850 and the advertisements shift with 



customs and fashions, for later the purchaser is begged to call and 
see ''Balmoral skirts, hair nets, nubias and new styles in hoop skirts." 


She was " Auntie Vance" to the whole village, but she is written 
among the charter members of the First Presbyterian church Sal lie 
C. Vance. Her age was a mystery, about which she allowed no 
levity and no discussion, for she was a maiden lady of the old 
school. She was also the self-appointed censor of the Presbyterian 
Sewing Society. This society met every other week at the homes 
of members to sew for home missionaries. Before the sewing day 
a large clothes basket holding the work would be taken to the house 
of the entertaining member. The cutting, basting and sewing would 
continue all afternoon. Just before "time for refreshments" all 
completed articles had to pass muster beneath Auntie Vance's sharp 
black eyes. And woe betide the hapless needlewoman who did 
careless work or put long stitches in the pantalettes or pea jacket for 
the missionary child. She would take a garment, look it over, 
searching "each minute and unseen part," and if satisfactory it had 
passed muster. But if unaccustomed or indifferent hands had held 
the needle she would cry out scornfully, "Look at that!" and the 
culprit so held up for all the (sewing society) world to see had no 
appeal from the decision, "Rip it out and do it over." She used the 
Christian name of every friend and acquaintance. When a gracious 
and lovely hostess said to her, "Auntie Vance, isn't your tea right? 
I remembered you liked it strong, and I put in an extra quantity," 
she looked severely down the table and said, "Susan, when one 
puts extra tea in the pot, one is bound to taste it in the cup." Her 
minister asked how she liked his last Sunday's discourse. She an- 
swered, "Jonathan, I like that sermon every time you preach it." 
She was a church regulator of undoubted influence. When some 
one suggested an increase in the number of church elders, Auntie 
Vance asked, with cutting sarcasm, "Yes, the church needs elders ! 
But where do we see proper timber for elders?" The timberless 
congregation had no reply ready. 






Bethuel F. Morris, 1824-1825; Miles C. Eggleston, 1826-1829; 
Charles H. Test, 1830-1832; Gustavus H. Evarts, 1833-1835 ; Sam- 
uel C. Sample, 1836; Charles W. Ewing, 1837-1838; Henry 
Chase, 1839; John W. Wright, 1 840-1 841; James W. Borden, 
1 842- 1 850; Elza A. McMahon, 185 1- 1854; James L. Worden, 
1855-1857; Reuben J. Dawson and Edward R. Wilson, 1858-1863; 
Robert Lowry, 1864- 1874; W. W. Carson, 1875; Edward 
O'Rourke, 1876 to the present time. 


Samuel Hanna, 1824-1827; Benjamin Cushman, 1824-1826; 
William N. Hood, 1827; Benjamin Cushman, 1828-1833; L. G. 
Thompson, 1831-1834; William G. Ewing, 1834-1835; David Ran- 
kin, 1835-1836; Peter Huling, 1836-1837; Michael Shiras, 1837; 
N. Coleman, 1838-1844; M. S. Wines, 1838-18-40; J. H. McMahon, 
1841-1846; R. Starkweather, 1845-1850; Andrew Metzger, 1847- 
185 1 ; N. Coleman, 185 1, in which year the office was discontinued. 



W. G. Ewing, 1830-1832; Hugh McCulloch, 1833-1835; Thom- 
as Johnson, 1836; Lucian P. Ferry, 1837-1839; Reuben J. Dawson, 
1840; Samuel Stophlet, 1841-1844; George Johnson, 1845-1846; 
Nelson McLain, 1 847-1852; James W. Borden, 1853-1857; Joseph 
Brackenridge, 1 858-1863; James W. Borden, 1864-1867; Robert 
S. Taylor, 1867-1868; David Studebaker, 1868-1870; William W. 
Carson, 1871-1872; Samuel E. Sinclair, 1872. 


Office created 1867, abolished 1884; James A. Fay, James W. 
Borden, Joseph Brackenridge, James W. Borden, Warren Withers, 
Samuel M. Hench. 


Office created 1872; Allen Zollars, Robert Lowry, James L. 
Worden, Lindley M. Ninde, Samuel M. Hench, Augustus A. Chapin, 
C. M. Dawson, William J. Vesey, John Aiken and O. N. Heaton, 
the present incumbent. 


Calvin Fletcher, Amos Lane, Oliver H. Smith, David Wallace, 
Martin M. Ray, James Perry, William J. Brown, John B. Chap- 
man, Samuel C. Sample, Joseph L. Jernegan, Thomas Johnson, J. 
W. Wright, W. Wright, Lucian P. Ferry, William H. Coombs, L. 
C. Jacoby, R. L. Douglass, Elza A. McMahon, Joseph Brackenridge, 
James L. Worden, Edward R. Wilson, S. J. Stoughton, James L. 
Defreese, John Colerick, Aug. A. Chapin, James H. Schell, Thomas 
M. Wilson, Joseph S. Dailey, J. R. Bittinger, James F. Morrison, 
Charles M. Dawson, James M. Robinson, Philemon B. Colerick, 
Newton B. Doughman, E. V. Emrick, Ronald Dawson. 


This office was created in the year 1856, the first one elected 
being David Studebaker, after whom it was filled by the following 


gentlemen, in the order indicated, namely: Joseph Brackenridge, 
William R. Smith, John Colerick, Joseph A. France, D. T. Smith, 
David Colerick, Joseph S. Dailey, Benjamin F. Ibach, J. R. Bittin- 
ger, the court being abolished in 1873. 


This office was created in 1867, during a part of which year 
Robert S. Taylor discharged the duties of the office, his successor 
being Edward O'Rourke, following whom, in the order named, were 
Joseph S. France, Samuel M. Hench, William S. O'Rourke. 


Anthony L. Davis, 1824-1829; Robert N. Hood, 1830; Allen 
Hamilton, 1831-1838; Philip G. Jones, 1839-1843; Robert E. 
Fleming, 1844-1852; Joseph Sinclair, 1853 and a part of 1854, I. 
D. G. Nelson succeeding to the office in the latter year, and serving 
until 1862, inclusive; William Fleming, 1863-1870; William S. 
Edsall, 1871-1874; Frank H. Wolke, 1875-1878; M. V. B. Spencer, 
1879-1881; Willis D. Maier, 1882-1885; George W. Loag, 1886, 
died in office, and was succeeded by J. J. Kern, who rilled out the 
unexpired term; D. W. Souder served from 1890 until 1894, inclu- 
sive, being succeeded by H. M. Metzgar, whose term expired in 
1898; Frank J. Belot held the office from the latter year until 1902, 
when he was succeeded by W. A. Johnson, the present incumbent. 


Anthony L. Davis, 1824-1829; Robert N. Hood, 1830; Allen 
Hamilton, 1831-1838; Philip G. Jones, 1839-1840; Samuel S. 
Morss, 1841-1844; Henry W. Jones, 1845-1849; R. Starkweather, 
1850-1856; John B. Blue, elected in 1857, served only a part of the 
year, being succeeded by Francis L. Furste, who held the office from 
1857 to i860, inclusive; G. F. Stinchcomb, 1861-1864; Henry J. 
Rudisill, 1865-1872; William T. Abbott, 1873-1876; Martin E. 
Argo, 1877-1881; A. L. Griebel, 1882-1885; John B. Niezer, 1886, 



since the expiration of whose term the position has been held suc- 
cessively by the following individuals : A. F. Glutting, Clarence 
Edsall, who died in office, L. J. Bobilya being appointed to fill the 
vacancy; William Meyers, resigned before expiration of his term; 
G. C. A. Ortlieb, appointed his successor, serving until 1904, when 
Dr. J. L. Smith, the present incumbent, was elected. 


1824, Joseph Holman; 1825, William G. Ewing; 1826, Thomas 
Forsythe; 1827, Thomas Thorpe; 1829, L. G. Thompson; 1832, 
Benjamin Cushman ; 1833, Joseph Holman; 1834, Thomas W. 
Swinney; 1839, Samuel Hanna; 1840, George F. Wright; 1841, 
Theodore K. Brackenridge ; 1847, S. M. Black; 1850, Thomas D. 
Dekay; 1852, Ochmig Bird; 1856, Alexander Wiley; i860, Oliver 
R. Jefferds; 1862, Alexander Wiley; 1866, Henry Monning; 1870, 
John Ring; 1874, Michael Schmetzer; 1879, John M. Taylor; 
1883, John Dalman; 1887, Isaac Mowrer; 1890, Edward Beckman; 
1894, L. C. Hunter; 1898, John H. Rohan; 1902, Jacob Funk. 


1824, Allen Hamilton; 1826, Cyrus Taber; 1827, Abner Ger- 
rard; 183 1, David Pickering; 1834, Joseph L. Swinney; 1837, John 
P. Hedges; 1838, Joseph Berkley; 1842, Brad B. Stevens; 1846. 
Samuel S. Morss; 1850, William H. McDonald; 1854, William Mc- 
Mullin; 1855, William Fleming; i860, Joseph A. Strout; 1862, 
William T. Pratt; 1866, John McCartney; 1870, Charles A. Zol- 
linger; 1873, Joseph D. Hance; 1876, Piatt J. Wise; 1878, Charles 
A. Munson; 1880, Franklin D. Cosgrove; 1882, William D. Schie- 
fer; 1884, DeGroff Nelson, died May 27, 1887, succeeded by George 
H. Viberg; 1891, Edward Cfausmeier; 1895, Albert Melching; 
1899, George W. Stout; 1900, Jesse Grice, elected 1904. 


Anthony L. Davis, Robert N. Hood, Allen Hamilton, Robert 
Fleming, Edward Colerick, Piatt J. Wise, Clement A. Rekers, John 


M. Koch, Joseph Mommer, Jr., Thomas S. Heller, Milton V. 
Thompson, William Reichelderfer, Charles M. Gillett. 


The first surveyor of Allen county was Reuben J. Dawson, who 
took the office in 1835, and served two years. His successors in the 
order indicated have been as follows : S. M. Black, Henry J. Rudi- 
sill, J. M. Wilt, William A. Jackson, William McLaughlin, J. W. 
Mc Arthur, Nathan Butler, J. S. Goshorn, William H. Goshorn, 
D. M. Allen, C. B. Wiley, Henry E. Fisher, O. B. Wiley, C. W. 
Branstrator, John A. Bushman and David Spindler. 


The first man elected to this office in Allen county was C. E. 
Goodrich, who entered upon his duties in 1852, since which time 
the position has been filled by the following gentlemen : John John- 
son, W. H. McDonald, John P. Waters, Augustus M. Webb, Wil- 
liam Gaffney, K. K. Wheelock, H. F. C. Stellhorn, A. K. Kessler, 
Morse Harrod, J. H. Cappel, W. W. Barnett and J. E. Stults. 


This office was created in 1861, and the first superintend- 
ent was. R. D. Robinson, who held the position from that year 
until 1867, when he was succeeded by Professor James H. Smart, 
afterward superintendent of the schools of Fort Wayne, and still 
later state superintendent of public instruction and president of Pur- 
due University at Lafayette. He filled the office till 1873, and 
was followed by J. Hillegass, who held the position by successive re- 
elections from the latter year to 1885, when he, was succeeded by 
Flavius J. Young, who served until the election of Professor Henry 
G. Felger, the present incumbent, in 1904. 


F. C. W. Klaehn, Charles Moehler, G. W. Tonkel, D. W. Baird, 
R. J. Mourey, D. B. Nail, J. A. Aiken, H. A. Rockhill, H. F. W. 


Berning, Ernest Witte, Charles Kees, J. M. Nuttle, H. S. Jones, E. 

E. Dunten, William W. Wilkie, C. G. Vanderau, A. E. Allen, J. H. 
Zimmerman, J. C. Pfeiffer, Cornelius Garvin. 


First district — William Rockhill, Nathan Coleman, Francis 
Alexander, David Archer, Christian Parker, David McQuiston, 
Robert Briggs, Nelson McLain, Rufus McDonald, William M. Par- 
ker, Noah Clem, Simeon Biggs, Henry Dickerson, John Shaffer, 
William Long, John Begue, Frank Gladio, Henry Hartman, Jasper 
W. Jones, S. F. Baker, A. R. Schnitker. 

Second district — James Wyman, William Caswell, Abner Ger- 
ard, Joseph Burkey, L. S. Bayless, R. Starkweather, F. D. 
Lasselle, James S. Hamilton, William Robinson, F. D. Lasselle 
(a second time), Michael Crow, Byron D. Miner, John A. Robinson, 
Jacob Hillegass, Jacob Goeglein, Jerome D. Gloyd, H. F. Buller- 
man, M. A. Ferguson, M. Mondy. 

Third district — Francis Comparet, James Holman, Nathan 
Coleman, John Rogers, Joseph Townsend, Horace B. Taylor, Joseph 
Hall, Zerue Pattee, Henry Rudisill, Peter Parker, William T. Daly, 
T. M. Andrews, Isaac Hall, David H. Lipes, John C. Davis, Henry 
K. Turner, Timothy Hogan, William Briant, John H. Brannan, H. 

F. Stellhorn, C. E. Off. 

The board of commissioners for the year 1905 consists of 
Charles Grebel, Joseph Tonkel and William Hockemeyer. 


The senatorial district of which Allen county first formed a part 
was composed of the counties of Allen, Wayne and Randolph, and 
was represented in 1824-5 by James Raridan, a resident of Wayne 
county. Amaziah Morgan, also of Wayne county, represented, 
from 1825 to 1829, the district composed of the counties of Allen, 
Rush, Henry and Randolph, Delaware being added in the latter 
part of his term. In 1829 Daniel Worth, of Randolph, was elected 
for the counties of Allen, Randolph, Delaware and Cass, and served 


until 1832, during which time the district was changed, first, by the 
addition of St. Joseph and Elkhart in 183 1, and then by the, sub- 
stitution of these two counties for the county of Cass. 

For the last described district Samuel Hanna was elected in 
1832, serving until 1834, and also represented for one term the 
counties of Allen, Wabash, Huntington, Elkhart, Lagrange, St. 
Joseph and Laporte, the same district being represented in 1835-6 
by David H. Colerick, of Fort Wayne, during whose second term, 
from 1836 to 1838, the district was reduced to Allen, Wayne and 

William G. Ewing, of Allen, succeeded Mr. Colerick in 1838, 
and served until 1841, from which time until 1844 the district, which 
had been increased by the addition of Huntington county, was rep- 
resented by Joseph Sinclair, who was also a resident of Allen. Wil- 
liam Rockhill, of Fort Wayne, represented the last described dis- 
trict from 1844 to 1847, an d the district of Allen, Adams and 
Wayne being renewed, Franklin P. Randall was elected in 1847. 
and continued to represent it until the year 1850, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Samuel S. Mickle, who served till 1853. ' From 1853 to 
1855 the same district was represented by Samuel Edsall, of Allen, 
and from the latter year until 1857 by Samuel L. Rugg, of Adams 

At the next election Allen was created a senatorial district by 
itself, and Allen Hamilton, of Fort Wayne, elected in 1858 its 
representative, serving until 1863, when he was succeeded by Pliny 
Hoagland, who served from the latter year until 1865. W. W. 
Carson, the next representative, was elected in 1864, entered upon 
his duties the year following, and served until 187 1, his associate 
the latter year being Ochmig Bird, whose district consisted of the 
counties of Allen and Adams. Subsequent representatives were 
James R. Bobo, joint, Allen and Adams; 1872, Ochmig Bird, John 
D. Sarnighausen, joint, Allen and Adams; 1874, Robert C. Bell, 
John D. Sarnighausen, joint, Allen, Adams and Wells, the same 
parties being re-elected in 1876; in 1878 Thomas J. Foster was 
elected from Allen, and Sarnighausen re-elected from the district 
above described ; 1880, Thomas J. Foster, Robert C. Bell, joint, Al- 
len and Whitley; 1882, Lycurgus S. Null, Foster being re-elected 


for the joint district of Allen and Whitley counties; 1884, Null 
re-elected, Eli W. Brown, joint, Allen and Whitley; 1886, James 
M. Barrett, joint, Isaiah B. McDonald; 1888, Barrett re-elected, 
joint, Fred J. Hayden; 1890, Joseph D. Morgan, Hayden re-elected 
from joint district; 1892, Joseph D. Morgan, joint, Ochmig Bird; 
1894, Thomas Emmet Ellison, Bird re-elected; 1896, Emmet re- 
elected, joint, Louis J. Bobilya; 1898, George V. Kell, joint, Wil- 
liam Ryan for the district composed of Allen and Adams; 1900, 
Kell re-elected, joint, Stephen J. Fleming; 1902, Lew V. Ulery, 
Fleming re-elected for joint district; 1902, Ulery re-elected, joint, 
John W. Tyndall. 


From 1824 to 1828 the counties of Randolph and Allen, which 
at that time embraced a large part of Indiana, were united in a 
representative district and were first represented in the legislature 
by Hon. Daniel Worth, a resident of the last named county, who 
served during the session of 1824, being succeeded the following 
year by Samuel Hanna, of Fort Wayne. Mr. Hanna, who proved 
an able and judicious lawmaker and one of the leaders of his party 
in the house, represented the district during the year 1826, and 
was then followed by Mr. Worth, whose second term began in the 
latter year and continued until 1828. Anthony L. Davis was elect- 
ed in 1827, to represent the district composed of the counties of 
Allen and Cass, and after serving one year was succeeded by Joseph 
Holman, who held the office from 1829 to 1830. In 1830 Allen 
was joined to the counties of Elkhart and St. Joseph and Samuel 
Hanna chosen representative, and in 1831 the district was further 
enlarged by the addition of Laporte and Lagrange counties, George 
Crawford, of Allen, being elected the latter year, his term expiring 
in 1832. David H. Colerick represented the same district from 
1832 to 1838, at which time the district comprising Allen and Hunt- 
ington counties was created, William Rockhill being elected to rep- 
resent them and serving until 1834, when he was succeeded by 
Lewis G. Thompson, since the expiration of whose term in 1835 
the county has had one or more representatives independ- 
ently, as follows: 1835, William Rockhill; 1836-1839, Lewis 


G. Thompson; 1839- 1840, Samuel Hanna; 1 840-1 841, Mar- 
shall S. Wines; 1841-1842, Lewis G. Thompson; 1842- 
1843, Lucian P. Ferry; 1843-1844, Samuel Stophlet; 1844- 
1846, Christian Parker; 1846- 1848, Peter Kiser; 1848- 1850, Och- 
mig Bird; 1850-1853, I. D. G. Nelson; 1853-1855, Francis D. Las- 
selle; 1855-1857, Charles E. Sturgis; 1857-1858, Pliny Hoagland; 
1858-1861, Nelson McLain and Schuyler Wheeler; 1861-1863, 
Moses Jenkinson and Conrad Trier; 1863-1867, Ochmig Bird and 
John P. ShoafT; 1 867-1868, John P. ShoafT and Peter Kiser; 1868- 
187 1, Allen Zollars and B. B. Miner; 187 1- 1872, Robert Taylor and 
Jacob S. Shutt; 1872- 1875, Jefferson Bowser and Mahlon Heller; 
1875-1877, Mahlon Heller and Patrick Horn; 1877-1879, Thomas 
J. Foster and Charles B. Austin; 1879-188 1, Elihu Reichelderfer 
and Oliver E. Fleming; 1881, Lycurgus S. Null, Hiram C. Mc- 
Donald, Samuel E. Sinclair; 1883, Albert W. Brooks, Joseph D. 
McHenry, Erastus L. Chittenden; 1885, Albert W. Brooks, Joseph 
D. McHenry, Fred J. Hayden; 1887, William H. Shambaugh, 
Austin M. Darrach, joint, Benjamin F. Ibach; 1889. William H. 
Shambaugh, Francis Gladio, joint, William A. Oppenheim; 1890, 
Samuel M. Hench, William S. Oppenheim, joint, Allen and Hunt- 
ington; 1892, Charles Dalman, Samuel M. Hench, J. F. Roda- 
baugh; 1894, Louis J. Bobilya, Charles Dalman, George V. Kell; 
1896, George V. Kell, H. I. Smith, William C. Ryan, joint, Allen and 
Huntington; 1898, George B. Lawrence, Robert B. Shirley; 1900, 
Charles L. Drummond, George B. Lawrence, George W. Louttit; 
1902, Michael Sheridan, Herbert L. Somers, William S. Wells; 1904, 
Thomas Martin Geake, Joseph P. Pichon, Walter Hood. 


General John Tipton, an early resident and distinguished citizen 
of Fort Wayne, was appointed in 1824 one of the commissioners to 
locate the site of the state capital, Indianapolis being selected. Prior 
to that year he was a member of the commission appointed by the 
state of Indiana to act in concert with a like commission on the 
part of Illinois in the surveying and locating of the boundary line 
between the two states. 


Receivers of the Land Office — Joseph Holman, 1823-1829; John 
Spencer, date not recorded; Daniel Reed, 1838-1841 ; Major Sam- 
uel Lewis, 1841; I. D. G. Nelson, 1841. 

Registers of Land Office — Mr. Vance, 1823-1829; Robert 
Brackenridge, Sr., 1829; James W. Borden, 1838-1841 ; William 
Polke, 1 84 1 ; W. S. Edsall, some time in the '40s. 

Hon. James W. Borden, of Fort Wayne, served as senatorial 
delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1851, and from 
1857 to 1861 represented the United States as minister resident to 
Honolulu, Sandwich islands, 

Hon. Allen Hamilton was representative delegate to the consti- 
tutional convention in 185 1, from Allen county. 

Hon. Hugh McCulloch, one of the leading citizens of Fort 
Wayne and for many years one of the nation's distinguished finan- 
ciers, served as secretary of the United States treasury from 1865 
to 1869. 

Isaac Jenkinson served as presidential elector in i860, and was 
United States consul at Glasgow, Scotland, from 1869 to 1874. 

Neil McLachlan served in a similar capacity at Leith, Scotland, 
from 186 1 to 1866. 

Hon. James L. Worden was appointed judge of the supreme 
court of Indiana, in January, 1858, elected in October of the same 
year, and served until 1865; again elected in 1870, and a third time 
in 1876, each term for seven years. 

Solomon D. Bayless served as pension agent from 1862 to 1868. 

Warren H. Withers was collector of internal revenue from 1862 
to 1868, being succeeded in the latter year by George Moore, also 
a resident of Fort Wayne. 

William T. Pratt, from 1875 to 1877, was director of the north- 
ern penitentiary at Michigan City. 

Isaac D. G. Nelson was a member of the board of state house 
commissioners from 1877 to 1880, and served as president of the 
State Horticultural Society and vice-president of the United States 
Pomological Society. 

F. P. Randall served as presidential elector in 1856, and from 
1856 to 1859 was director of the southern prison at Jeffersonville, 
besides holding other high official positions. 


Hon. Jesse L. Williams, one of the most distinguished civil en- 
gineers in the United States, was chief engineer of the Wabash and 
Erie canal, and for a number of years government director of the 
Union Pacific Railroad. 

In addition to the foregoing, Allen county has furnished other 
men of distinguished ability for positions of honor and trust, not- 
able among whom were the following : Hon. A. P. Edgerton, mem- 
ber of the civil service commission during the first term of President 
Cleveland ; Hon. R. S. Taylor was for a number of years a member 
of the Mississippi river commission; Colonel Robert S. Robertson 
served on the national Utah commission, and was also lieutenant- 
governor of Indiana; Samuel E. Morss was United States consul 
to Paris; Hon. John Morris served on the supreme bench of Indi- 
ana; Professor W. H. Diederich was United States consul to Leip- 
sic, Germany, and is now serving in a similar capacity in another 
city of that country; Hon. S. M. Hench, of Fort Wayne, served as 
auditor of the war department during the first administration of 
President Cleveland, and Benjamin F. Harper, also an honored resi- 
dent of the city, has but recently been appointed an auditor in the 
same branch of the government. 

The following residents of Allen county have at different times 
represented this district in the congress of the United States : Hons. 
Walpole G. Colerick, Robert Lowry, James B. White, A. H. Hamil- 
ton, Charles Chase, Joseph K. Edgerton, Charles Brenton, James 
M. Robinson and Newton Gilbert; the last named was also lieuten- 
ant-governor of Indiana prior to his election to the national house 
of representatives. 






The prominence of Fort Wayne as a military post early at- 
tracted attention to northeastern Indiana, and a number of years 
before the land was opened for settlement pioneers began to arrive 
singly and in families, and it was not long until the place became 
the nucleus of a thriving village, around which improvements were 
also made by those who looked forward to becoming possessors of 
the soil. 

In the summer of 1822 a land office was located at the fort, and 
the first business transacted by the agent was the selling of the land 
immediately surrounding the enclosure to John T. Barr and John 
McCorkle, who, in August of the same year, laid out the original 
plat of Fort Wayne, the lines being run by Robert Young, of Piqua, 
Ohio, of which place Mr. McCorkle was also a resident. 

This plat, which was first recorded in the office of the recorder 
of Randolph county, at Winchester, on August 16, 1833, and sub- 
sequently at Fort Wayne in recorder's book "A" of the records of 
Allen county, shows one hundred and eighteen lots, with three 
streets running north and south on a variation of thirty degrees 


thirty minutes west of magnetic north, namely: Calhoun, Clinton 
and Barr, and five at right angles to the same variation, designated 
as Wayne, Berry, Main, Columbia and Water streets, a public square 
being also laid off in the plat, with Court street as its eastern boun- 
dary. With the exception of Water street, which has since been 
changed to Superior, the above streets retain the names given them 
in the original plat. 

The first addition to the town was the county addition, con- 
sisting of seventy lots, which was laid out by the commissioners and 
recorded on August 16, 1833, in Record "A;" its position is imme- 
diately east of and adjoining the original plat, the lots lying on either 
side of Lafayette street, between Berry street and the St. Mary's 
river, and continuing Water, Columbia, Main and Berry streets 
from the original site. A third addition of forty lots was made a 
little later by Cyrus Taber, which included all of the military tract 
lying between the south boundary of said tract and the canal, Main 
and Berry streets being continued through from the county addition. 
The remainder of the fort reservation, which with other lands 
had been set apart by an act of congress for the benefit of the Wa- 
bash and Erie canal, was subsequently sold at public auction in the 
town of Logansport. 

Ewing's addition, laid off by G. W. and W. G. Ewing, contains 
thirty-four blocks or fractional blocks of two hundred and seventy- 
eight lots, with Cass, Ewing and Fulton streets running north on a 
magnetic bearing of fifteen degrees thirty minutes west, Jefferson, 
Washington, Wayne, Berry, Main and Pearl streets being continued 
west from the original survey. Lewis street, which is shown in this 
addition, lies south of Jefferson, and was the first street to be estab- 
lished running due east and west. 

Hanna's first addition, made by Judge Samuel Hanna, contains 
two hundred and twenty-nine lots, and streets as follows : Clinton, 
Barr, Clay, Monroe and Hanna, which were laid out on a magnetic 
bearing of north fifteen degrees thirty minutes west ; Wayne, Wash- 
ington and Jefferson were continued west, while Madison street 
was laid out north of and parallel with Jefferson, and running east 
from Barr. Rockhill's addition, which includes a large section of 
the city west of Broadway, was the next addition of importance, 


containing one hundred and eighty-two lots and fractional lots and 
extending north to the canal on both sides of Market street (now 
Broadway), between Main and Berry streets, a space being left for 
a public market. 


In 1829, when Fort Wayne had made considerable progress in 
improvements and the accumulation incident to a new place so 
eligibly situated gave it many of the elements of prosperous growth, 
the citizens began to agitate the matter of incorporating the town 
and establishing a municipal government that should afford them 
the privileges and protection which they demanded. To obtain an 
expression of the public relative to the matter, a meeting of the 
citizens was held on September 7th of the above year, in which the 
proposition was thoroughly considered and discussed, with the re- 
sult that the majority present were decidedly in favor of incorporat- 
ing, as the following certificate attests : 

I do hereby certify that at a meeting of the citizens of the town of Fort 
Wayne, on Monday, September 7th, Anno Domino one thousand eight hun- 
dred and twenty-nine, there was a majority of two-thirds of the persons 
present in favor of incorporating the town of Port Wayne in the county of 
Allen, and state of Indiana 
Attest: William N. Hood, [Seal] 

John P. Hedges, President of said meeting. 

Clerk of said meeting. > 

In furtherance of the object contemplated, an election for town 
officers was held on the 14th day of the same month, which resulted 
in the choice of the following, as set forth in the accompanying cer- 
tificate : 

At an election held in the town of Fort Wayne, Allen county, Indiana, 
at the house of Abner Gerard, Esq., in said town, on Monday, the 14th day 
of September, Anno Domino eighteen hundred and twenty-nine, we, the 
president and clerk of said election, do hereby certify that Hugh Hanna, 
John S. Archer, William G. Ewing, Lewis G. Thompson and John P. Hedges 
were duly elected trustees for one year ensuing, and until their successors 
shall be elected and qualified. 

Given under our hands this 26th day of November, 1829. 
Attest: Benjamin Archer, 

John P. Hedges, President of said election. 

Clerk of P. election. 


These officials at once qualified and set the municipal machinery 
in motion, pursuant to the law governing such incorporation, and in 
due time the wisdom of the action of the people was justified in a 
much better and more satisfactory condition of affairs in the town 
than had before obtained. Of the early town government, however, 
little need be said, as it was similar in most respects to nearly all 
new municipalities, and required too great effort on the part of the 
board of trustees to manage and satisfactorily adjust such matters 
as came before them. For some years the town funds were scarce, 
and as a consequence public improvements of all kinds received but 
scant encouragement. Population continued to increase, however, 
and with the rapid growth of the town and the publicity of its ad- 
vantages as a business center for a large area of country, new condi- 
tions were created which the municipal government was not able to 
meet; accordingly, the subject of a city charter with appropriate 
corporate powers began to be matters of frequent and earnest dis- 
cussion. As a legitimate result of this agitation, it was finally de- 
cided to adopt a more stable and satisfactory form of government, 
the charter for which was written by Hon. Franklin P. Randall, and 
submitted to the general assembly of the state at its session of 
1839-40, being passed on February 22d of the latter year. It provided 
for the incorporation of the city of Fort Wayne and for the election 
by the people of a president, or mayor, six members to constitute a 
board of trustees, or common council, and for the election of general 
officers by the board, or council. 


The first election under the new government, held in the year 
1840, resulted in the choice of the following gentlemen to fill the 
various offices : Mayor, George W. Wood ; recorder, F. P. Ran- 
dall, who also discharged the duties of city attorney; treasurer. 
George F. Wright; high constable, Samuel S. Morss, who was also 
appointed collector for the municipality (resigned January 15, 1840. 
and was succeeded the same day by Joseph Berkley, who filled the 
unexpired term) ; assessor, Robert E. Fleming; marketmaster, 
James Post; street commissioner, Joseph H. McCracken; chief en- 


gineer, Samuel Edsall ; lumber measurer, John B. Cocanour. The 
first common council consisted of William Rockhill, Thomas Ham- 
ilton (resigned May 6, 1840, succeeded by Joseph Hill), Madison 
Sweetser (resigned May 6, 1840, Joseph Morgan being appointed 
to the vacancy), Samuel Edsall, William S. Edsall and William D. 

During the year 1841 George W. Wood was continued as may- 
or and F. P. Randall as recorder, the council being composed of the 
following gentlemen : H. T. Dewey, Henry Sharp, Charles G. 
French, Philo Rumsey, A. S. Johns and William M. Moon. The 
office of flour inspector was created by the council in the latter year, 
and Daniel McGinnis chosen to discharge the duties of the same. 

In 1842 Joseph Morgan was elected mayor, and served as such 
one term; William Lytle was elected recorder, and the council for 
that year consisted of H. T. Dewey, Henry Cooper, Joseph Scott, 
Philo Rumsey, Henry Sharp and William L. Moon. The records 
of 1842 show that a board of health was appointed, the following 
physicians composing its personnel, namely: H. P. Ayers, Charles 
Schmitz and Lewis Beecher. 

During the year 1843 Henry Lotz served as the city's chief 
executive, Mr. Lytle succeeded himself as recorder and the offices of 
flour inspector, lumber measurer and marketmaster were vacated. 
The following year Mr. Lotz became his own successor, but for 
some reason, which the record does not state, failed to give satis- 
faction, as he was discharged from the office of mayor on July 1, 
1844, tne vacancy being filled by John M. Wallace. William Lytle, 
who was re-elected recorder, resigned the position on the 5th of 
May, at which time Robert Lowry was appointed to fill out the un- 
expired term. 

The council of 1844 consisted of Morgan Lewis, Samuel H. 
Shoaff, Henry Williams, Cleves D. Silver, John Cochrane, John 
B. Dubois and S. M. Black, the last named filling the vacancy caused 
by the resignation of Morgan Lewis, who retired from the body on 
August 26th. 

John M. Wallace was duly elected mayor in the spring of 1845, 
but resigned on May 8th of the year following, being succeeded 
by M. W. Huxford, who discharged the duties of the office until 



the next regular election. S. M. Black, Philo Rumsey, H. W. Jones, 
James Humphrey, Charles Paige and John Dubois were councilmen 
for the year 1845, the other offices being filled as follows: Treas- 
urer, O. W. Jefferds; high constable, W. B. Wilkinson; attorney, 
John W. Dawson; collector, W. B. Wilkinson; assessor, William 
H. Prince. 

In the year 1850, which marks the first decade of Fort Wayne 
under a city government, William Stewart was elected mayor; O. 
P. Morgan, recorder; William W. Carson, attorney; Henry R. 
Colerick, assessor, and the following gentlemen as councilmen : A. 
M. Mcjunkin, C. Anderson, Henry Sharp, James Humphrey, W. 
H. Briant and B. W. Oakley. 

By an act of the general assembly, approved February 8, 185 1, 
the city charter was amended so as to abolish the offices of treas- 
urer, assessor, collector and recorder, making it the duty of the 
mayor to perform the functions of recorder, and transferring the 
duties of treasurer, assessor and collector to the proper officials of the 
county. Section 7 of said amendment also provided for the 
annual election of mayor and high constable, which positions that 
year were held by William Stewart and Morris Cody, the other offi- 
cials being T. D. DeKay, treasurer ; W. W. Carson, attorney ; Mor- 
ris Cody and Benjamin Tower, street commissioners. 

The office of wood measurer was created in 1843, an d the first 
to fill the same was Washington DeKay. In that year also appears 
the names of the first board of school trustees, as follows : Hugh 
McCulloch, Charles Case and William Stewart. The year following 
the office of city treasurer was resumed and the office of sealer of 
weights and measures created, the first to fill the latter being D. W. 
Burroughs, who is said to have proven a most faithful and capable 
public servant. 

An act of the general assembly of 1854, amending the charter 
of the city, provided for the election, on the second Tuesday of 
March of each year, of a mayor, who should be presiding officer of 
the council, a clerk, treasurer, assessor, street commissioner, marshal 
and two councilmen from each ward, who shall severally hold their 
offices for a period of one year. Among the first officers elected un- 
der the charter as amended were Charles Whitmore, mayor ; W. E. 


Ellis, clerk, and Charles Muhler, treasurer, the second named gen- 
tleman appearing to have been unfaithful to his trust, as he misap- 
propriated the funds in his possession to a considerable amount, and, 
to escape arrest and prosecution, absconded, leaving his bondsmen to 
make good the deficit. By reason of his sudden and unceremonious 
departure, the council, on July 29, 1844, declared his office vacant, 
but on the 23d of the following month A. J. Emerick was elected 
to fill out the unexpired term, which he did with credit to himself 
and the satisfaction of the public. 

By a subsequent act, which went into effect in 1861, it was pro- 
vided that all the city officers should thereafter be elected for two 
years instead of one, and that the two councilmen from each ward 
should determine by lot as to which should hold the long and short 
terms. Under the act there was elected for the years 1861 and 1862 
the following list of officers : F. P. Randall, mayor ; L. T. Bourie, 
clerk; Patrick McGee, marshal; H. N. Putnam, treasurer; William 
S. Smith, attorney; Henry Tons, street commissioner; O. D. Hurd, 
chief engineer; O. Bird, civil engineer; J. S. Leach, marketmaster ; 
Joseph Price, sealer of weights and measures. The council, which 
is said to have been an exceptionally able body, was composed of 
the following members : John Burt, Daniel Nestle, Benjamin 
Tower, B. H. Kimball, James Humphrey, Morris Cody, Edward 
Slocum, C. D. Piepenbrink, B. D. Miner and John Harrington. 


The seal of Fort Wayne was designed about the year 1858 by 
Hon. Franklin P. Randall. It bears upon its face a pair of scales, 
beneath which are a sword and Mercury's wand inverted, crossing 
at their points. Above the scales, in a semi-circle, is the word 
Kekionga, the Indian name of Fort Wayne, and around the outside 
edge are the words "City of Fort Wayne." The design is beautiful 
and in good taste, and its appropriateness as a seal has seldom, if 
ever, been the subject of criticism, 

It is not the purpose of this review to present in detail the prog- 
ress of Fort Wayne's municipal affairs, nor to attempt any but a 
very brief outline of the leading facts under this head during the 


early history of the city, as anything further would not only be un- 
interesting to the reader, but would far transcend the limits of space 
usually accorded subjects of this character. Suffice it to state, how- 
ever, that with very few exceptions the management of the city from 
the beginning has been intrusted to broad-minded, practical and 
eminently capable men — men selected for their public spirit and 
efficiency, and who, appreciating their obligations to the people, have 
endeavored by every means at their command to discharge their 
duty, losing sight of self and self-interests in the desire to prove 
worthy of the honors conferred upon them and the important trusts 
reposed in them by their fellow-citizens. 


Hon. George W. Wood was twice elected mayor, but resigned 
the office July 5, 1841, with a record above the shadow of suspicion. 
Joseph Morgan served from 1842 to 1843, an ^ was succeeded by 
Henry Lotz, who held the office two terms. John M. Wallace served 
one term, M. W. Huxford, three terms, after whom came William 
Stewart, who filled the position, to the satisfaction of all concerned, 
for a period of five terms. Subsequently the following well-known 
gentlemen were selected to the office from time to time, namely: 
P. G. Jones, Charles Whitmore (two terms), Samuel S. Morss (two 
terms), Franklin P. Randall, one of the ablest and most public- 
spirited of the city's executives (five terms), James L. Worden, 
Henry Sharp, C. A. Zollinger, than whom a more popular and effi- 
cient public servant never held the office (five consecutive terms), 
Charles F. Muhler (two terms), Daniel Harding, the last named 
being succeeded by C. A. Zollinger, whom the people continued in 
the office from 189 1 to 1894. Chauncey B. Oakley served from 
1894 to 1896, when he was succeeded by Henry P. Scherer, whose 
period of service was from the year last named until May, 1901, 
when Henry Berghoff, the present incumbent, was elected. 


The following is a complete list of the gentlemen to whom have 
been entrusted the management of the city's finances since the year 


1840: George F. Wright, Oliver W. Jefferds, Oliver P. Morgan, 
N. P. Stockbridge, T. DeKay, who was elected county treasurer in 
185 1, and, in addition to his duties as such, had charge of the city's 
monetary affairs from that time until 1854, when Charles Muhler 
was elected city treasurer. Following the last named were C. A. 
Rekers, Conrad Nill, W. H. Link, William Stewart, H. N. Putnam, 
John Conger, C. Piepenbrink, John A. Droegemeyer, Charles M. 
Barton, Henry C. Berghoff, Charles J. Sosenheimer, James H. 
Simonson, during whose administration the name of the office was 
changed from treasurer to that of comptroller, by which it has since 
been designated. Henry C. Berghoff was elected to succeed the 
last named gentleman, and served until the present incumbent, James 
V. Fox, took the office. 


The first lawyer elected to look after Fort Wayne's interests was 
Hon. Franklin P. Randall, for many years a leading member of the 
local bar and one of the city's most energetic and public-spirited 
men of affairs. He discharged the duties of the position with the 
object of benefiting the city, and not for his own financial or pro- 
fessional advancement, and left the impress of his strong person- 
ality upon the community by the effective manner in which he dis- 
posed of all matters submitted to him for consideration. Untiring 
in his efforts to promote the welfare of the municipality, he left 
nothing undone in the way of directing it along proper legal lines, 
and in this respect his labors were taken up and ably carried on by 
his several successors, among whom were a number of men who 
gained reputations far beyond the limits of the field to which the 
greater part of their practice was confined. The immediate suc- 
cessor of Mr. Randall was Henry Cooper, who, like the former, 
achieved an honorable record, not only as city attorney, but in the 
wider sphere of practice to which his subsequent life was devoted. 

The next in order was Lucian P. Ferry, after whom came Sam- 
uel Bigger, a gentleman of much more than local reputation in legal 
and political circles, as is attested by his prominence in public af- 
fairs in later years, especially as governor of Indiana. 


John W. Dawson, whose name is second to that of few of Allen 
county's attorneys, was the next to fill the office, his successor being 
William W. Carson, who took an active and influential part in 
starting Fort Wayne upon the upward course which characterized 
its subsequent growth and progress. 

The confidence reposed in F. P. Randall induced the people of 
the city again to elect him attorney, and as such he served with his 
characteristic ability and success until succeeded by Charles Case, in 
whose hands the interests of the public were faithfully and capably 
managed. His term expiring, William W. Carson was induced to 
accept the position a second time, but longer than this he did not see 
his way clear to serve; accordingly, at the expiration of the term 
for which elected he was succeeded by John J. Glenn, after whom, 
in the order designated, the office was held by William S. Smith, 
Joseph S. France, F. P. Randall and Robert S. Robertson, all dis- 
tinguished members of the Fort Wayne bar and whose records are 
very closely interwoven with the rise and progress of the city. The 
above brings the list of city attorneys down to the year 1870, since 
which date the office has been filled by the following lawyers : Al- 
len Zollars, Henry Colerick, W. H. Shambaugh, B. F. Ninde, all 
of whom stand high among the leading representatives of the bar 
where they have long practiced. The present incumbent, W. H. 
Shambaugh, has held the office for a number of years, and is re- 
garded as an able and conscientious attorney, in whose hands the 
interests of the municipality have been ably and wisely subserved. 


As stated in a preceding paragraph, this office was created in 
1854, W. E. Ellis, the first man elected thereto, proving an unfaith- 
ful servant. A. J. Emerick succeeded Mr. Ellis by appointment, 
the next regularly elected clerk being R. N. Godfrey, who took the 
office in the spring of 1855, and served one term. A. C. Probasco 
was elected in 1856; Christian Tresselt, in 1857; J- C. Davis, in 
1858; and Moses Drake, for the years 1859-60, since which time 
the following gentlemen have held the position : L. T. Bourie, E. 
L. Chittenden, Samuel P. Freeman, John M. Godown, John H. 


Trentman, W. W. Rockhill, Rudy C. Reinwald, William T. Jef- 
fries, Henry B. Monning and August M. Schmidt, the last named, 
who is the present incumbent, being elected in May, 1901. 


The following are the names of the men who have had super- 
vision of the streets of Fort Wayne since the incorporation of the 
city in 1840: Joseph H. McMaken, Henry Lotz, William Stewart, 
S. M. Black, S. C. Freeman, Morris Cody, Edward Smith, William 
Lannin, Bernard Hutker, John Greer, John Hardendorf, Christian 
Cook, Charles Baker, Henry Tons, C. W. Lindlay, P. Falahee, W. 
H. Briant, B. L. P. Willard, H. Trier, Conrad Baker, Dennis 
O'Brien, John J. Mungen, Henry Francke and Nelson Thompson. 
In 1894 the office was changed to that of street superintendent, 
since which year it has been held by Frank Weber and Henry C. 
Francke, the latter being in office at the present time. 


This office was created in 1894, the first person appointed thereto 
being James Price, since the expiration of whose term, in 1896, 
Peter Hohnhaus has discharged the duties of the position. 


This office was created in 1842, and the first one appointed to 
fill it was Ochmig Bird, who served from that time until 1846, 
being succeeded in the latter year by S. M. Black, whose period of 
service continued until 1855. Since then the position has been held 
by E.. McElfatrick, Charles Forbes, Samuel McElfatrick, Ochmig 
Bird (a second time), John S. Mower, W. S. Gilkinson, C. S. 
Brackenridge, John W. Ryall, C. S. Brackenridge (a second time), 
Henry Hilbrecht, W. S. Goshorn, Jesse R. Straughn, J. S. Goshorn, 
C. S. Brackenridge (third term), and Frank M. Randall, the pres- 
ent incumbent. 



From the year 1840 the following gentlemen served as assessor: 
Robert B. Fleming, S. M. Black, William Rockhill, William H. 
Price, Joseph Morgan, Samuel Stophlet, Charles G. French, Henry 
R. Colerick, S. S. Morss, Henry Christ, James Howe, James Price, 
H. H. Bossier, S. C. Freeman, John B. Rekers, A. C. Probasco, 
George Fisher, E. C. Pens, John G. Maier, Louis Jocquel and 
Charles Reese. 


Samuel S. Morss, Richard McMullen, B. D. Stevens, James 
Crumsley, William Stewart, W. B. Wilkinson, C. S. Silver, T. J. 
Price, Samuel C. Freeman, Morris Cody, Samuel C. Freeman, F. 
J. Frank, P. McGee, Joseph Price, P. McGee, William Lindeman, 
P. McGee, Charles Uplegger, Christopher Kelley, H. M. Diehl, 
Frank Falker, Diedrich Meyer and Henry C. Francke, the office be- 
ing discontinued in 1895. 


1840, William Rockhill, Thomas Hamilton, Madison Sweetser, 
Samuel Edsall, W. S. Edsall, William M. Moon. 

1 84 1, H. T. Dewey, Henry Sharp, C. G. French, Philo Rumsey, 
A. S. Jones, William M. Moon. 

1842, H. T. Dewey, Henry Sharp, Henry Cooper, Joseph Scott, 
Philo Rumsey, William M. Moon. 

1843, F - p - Randall, Hugh McCulloch, J. L. Williams, J. B. 
Cocanour, P. H. Taylor, M. W. Hubbell. 

1844, Morgan Lewis, Samuel H. Shoaff, H. Williams, C. S. 
Silver, John Cochrane, J. B. Dubois. 

1845, S. M. Black, P. Rumsey, H. W. Jones, James Humphrey, 
Charles Page, J. B. Dubois. 

1846, J. B. Hanna, Henry Sharp, Richard McMullen, James 
Humphrey, Samuel S. Morss, Charles Fink. 

1847, Jacob Lewis, Henry Sharp, John Cochrane, James P. 
Munson, John Cocanour, Charles Fink. 

1848, Charles Muhler, John Conger, John Cocanour, Henry 
Sharp, John Cocanour, A. Mcjunkin. 


1849, Charles Muhler, P. P. Bailey, James Humphrey, M. Hede- 
kin, B. W. Oakley, A. Mcjunkin. 

1850, Henry Sharp, W. H. Bryant, James Humphrey, C. Ander- 
son, B. W. Oakley, A. Mcjunkin. 

185 1, O. W. Jefferds, James Howe, D. P. Hartman, Ochmig 
Bird, Peter Kiser, Robert Armstrong. 

1852, Robert McMullen, H. R. Colerick, James Humphrey, 
Ochmig Bird, Jonas W. Townley, Robert Anderson. 

1853, John J. Trentman, Milton Henry, John Drake, James 
Vandegriff, F. Nirdlinger, Henry Drover. 

In 1854 the city was divided into five wards, from which time 
until the year 1867 they were represented in the council by the 
following aldermen, two from each ward : 

First Ward — John J. Trentman, W. Borger, E. Boslie, F. P. 
Randall, J. Ormiston, H. N. Putnam, W. Borger (elected a second 
time), J. Burt, J. Trentman, E. Slocum, H. Monning, W. Wad- 

Second Ward— F. Aveline, J. M. Miller, H. Baker, M. Hedekin, 

C. D. Bond, J. Orff, J. M. Miller (elected a second time), M. Cody 
and B. H. Tower, the last two serving continuously from 1859 to 
1866, inclusive. 

Third Ward — M. Drake, I. Lauferty, P. Hoagland, C. Fink, 
H. Nierman, J. M. Worden, C. Orff, E. Vordermark, J. Foellinger, 
H. Nierman (second time), B. D. Miller, C. D. Piepenbrink, H. 
Nierman (third time), P. Hoagland (second time), and F. Nird- 

Fourth Ward— John Arnold, W. H. Link, C. W. Allen, W. T. 
Pratt, W. McKinley, O. D. Hurd, J. Humphrey, J. S. Harrington, 

D. Downey, A. P. Edgerton. 

Fifth Ward— A. M. Webb, J. P. Wise, A. Gamble, C. Becker, 
J. S. Irwin, D. Nestle, A. C. Beaver, B. H. Kimball, A. E. Scheie, 
P. S. Underhill. 

In 1867 the city was redistricted into eight wards, the repre- 
sentatives from that year until 1880 being as follows : 

First Ward— W. T. McKean, W. Waddington, A. H. Carter, 
W. T. McKean (second time), H. N. Putnam, C. Reese. 

Second Ward— M. Cody, J. C. Bowser, M. Hedekin, B. H. 


Tower, J. Bull, M. Hamilton, O. P. Morgan, C. Hettler, J. B. 
White, M. Cody, M. Hamilton (second time). 

Third Ward— B. W. Oakley, J. R. Prentiss, G. W. Bracken- 
ridge, L. Dessaur, W. Tagtmeyer, W. Meyer, E. L. Chittenden, M. 
Baltes, J. Breen, J. Ryan. 

Fourth Ward — John Arnold, A. P. Edgerton, H. Trier, W. Mc- 
Phail, J. Morgan, Samuel Hanna, Charles McCulloch, W. McPhail 
(second time), H. Graffe, Charles Munson, E. Zarbaugh, C. Muhler. 

Fifth Ward— J. Cochrane, B. H. Kimball, P. S. Underbill, G. 
H. Wilson, C. Becker, P. Hohnhaus, G. H. Wilson (second time), 
D. Harding, W. EL Withers, S. Bash, J. M. Reedmiller. 

Sixth Ward — J. Merz, M. Hogan, T. Hogan, N. C. Miller, J. 
Schepf, N. DeWald, D. B. Strope, L. Fox, J. Welch. 

Seventh Ward — G. Jacoby, G. DeWald, C. Tremmel, J. S. 
Goshorn, G. Jacoby (second time), J. I ten, C. Tremmel (second 
term), C. Tarn, J. Holmes, J. E. Graham, J. Mohr. 

Eighth Ward — George Link, J. Taylor, O. E. Bradway, W. B. 
Fisher, H. Schone, H. Schnelker, W. Wittenberg, A. T. Dryer, J. 
W. Vordermark. 

Ninth Ward — This ward was created in 1870, the following 
being the names of the councilmen from that time to the year 1880 : 
Henry Stoll, S. Shryock, James Lillie, C. Schaefer, J. Wilkinson, 
Christian Pfeiffer, C. H. Linker, J. Wilkinson, J. Lillie, Jr. 

Since the year 1880 the several wards have been represented at 
different times by the following aldermen : S. D. Bash, L. Braems, 
Louis Fox, M. Hamilton, C. Hettler, John Lillie, Jr., F. H. McCul- 
loch, John Mohr, Jr., C. F. Muhler, John Noll, Charles Reese, J. 
M. Reidemiller, James Ryan, J. W. Vordermark, John Welch, John 
Wessel, Sr., A. Wolf, John Wilkinson, Charles Pape, Fred C. 
Boltz, William Doehrman, P. J. Wise, Herman Michael, J. Sion 
Smith, William Yergens, Christian Kramer, S. C. Lumbard, Ter- 
rence Martin, James Woulfe, George Ely, Anthony Kelker, John C. 
Kensill, Edmund Lincoln, J. R. Prentiss, Peter Scheid, Amie 
Racine, J. A. M. Storms, F. D. Swartz, Christian Tresselt, C. H. 
Buttenbender, Levi Griffith, C. F. Haiber, Dennis Monahan, H. A. 
Read, Louis Hazzard, Daniel Lahmeyer, William D. Meyer, J. J. 
Williams, W. N. Weber, F. W. Bandt, L. P. Huser, Henry Hil- 


brecht, Fred Schmuckle, D. Sordon, John Smith, H. F. Hilge- 
man, V. Ofenloch, William Brims, M. Cody, Robert Crane, J. L. 
Gruber, George P. Gordon, Fred Dalman, Frank Delagrange, 
Charles H. Buck, Peter Eggeman, Philip Keintz, F. C. Meyer, Wil- 
liam Meyer, Jr., John Schaffer, H. P. Scherer, Thomas Devilbiss, 
R. B. Hanna, William McClelland, C. B. Oakley, William Pettit, 
B. W. Skelton, Paul E. Wolf, James Conroy, W. H. Tigar, H. G. 
Sommers, G. H. Loesch, H. Hild, William Glenn, John T. Young, 
B. Barkenstein, R. J. Fisher, Charles Griebel, C. H. Waltemath, E. 
H. McDonald, W. E. Purcell, G. H. Loesch, H. G. Nierman, C. W. 
Weller, C. Haag, C. H. Buhr, F. X. Schuhler, George R. Hench, 
Edward J. Ehrman, William J. Hosey, Peter F. Poirson, David E. 
Eckert, John J. Bauer, James J. Hayes, Joseph F. Zurbuch, Sylvester 
McMahon, Henry Schwartz, William J. Lennart, K. K. Wheelock, 
Alanson W. Clark, William E. Gerding, Alexander B. White, John 
J. O'Ryan, E. C. Miller, Frank J. Baker, Edward J. Lennon, John 
J. Bauer, Henry C. Baade, Adolph Foellinger, William Griebel, 
Peter J. Schied, F. Meier, Henry W. Kohrman, Charles P. Sordelet, 
John C. Figel, Fred Gombert, Charles D. Crouse, J. N. Pfeiffer, C. 
K. Rieman, Henry Wiebke, J. Willis Pearse, Daniel F. Hauss, 
Thomas N. Hall, George B. Stemen, Charles B. Woodworm, P. E. 
Bursley, Byron A. Strawn, Michael Kinder, Fred W. Schieman, 
John J. Grund, Henry W. Meyer, Jesse Brosius, Arwid Polster, 
George A. Sthair and Philip H. Wyss. 

Since 1898 the city has been divided into ten wards, the follow- 
ing being the representatives from each in the council for the year 
1905 : 

First Ward — John N. Pfeiffer, Calvin K. Riemen, 

Second Ward — Frank J. Baker, Henry A. Wiebke. 

Third Ward — Frank E. Purcell, J. Willis Pearse. 

Fourth Ward — Daniel F. Hauss, Henry Hill. 

Fifth Ward — George B. Stemen, Charles B. Woodworth. 

Sixth Ward — Philip E. Bursley, Gustav A. Selle. 

Seventh Ward — Michael Kinder, Frederick W. Schiemen. 

Eighth Ward — John H. Grund, Henry Hilgemann. 

Ninth Ward — Jesse Brosius, Arwid Polster. 

Tenth Ward — George A. Sthair, Philip H. Wyss. 



The first city board of health was appointed in 1842, and con- 
sisted of three well-known physicians, namely : Drs, J. Evans, W. 
H. Brooks and B. Seveneck. From that time on the public health 
of the city has been looked after by the following gentlemen : J. 
Evans, Lewis Beecher, H. P. Ayers, Lewis Thompson, Henry 
Wehmer, C. E. Sturgis, I. D. G. Nelson, John Cochrane, D. W. 
Burroughs, P. M. Leonard, James Ormiston, Dr. Bricker, J. D. 
Worden, F. D. Frank, Thomas H. Tigar, O. W. Jefferds, S. B. 
Woodworth, L. Meinderman, J. H. Robinson, E. Sturgis, M. 
Hedekin, W. H. Bryant, Charles Schmitz, W. H. Myers, I. N. 
Rosenthal, T. McCullough, A. J. Erwin, J. M. Josse, T. J. Dills, 
Th. Heuchling, W. A. Brooks. 

In 1882 the office of health officer was created, the position being 
held at different times by Drs. W. H. Myers, Theodore Heuchling 
and S. C. Metcalf, in the order indicated. 

In 1894 the council established a board of health and charities, 
and appointed as members of the same Drs. G. B. Stemen, Jacob 
Hetrick and Aaron Van Buskirk, who served as a body until 1896, 
when the physician last named was succeeded by Dr. A. J. Kessler, 
Dr. L. P. Drayer being appointed official bacteriologist the same 
year. From 1899 to 1901 the board was composed of Drs. James 
Miller, A. J. Kessler and Henry Ranke, with Dr. Drayer as bacteriol- 
ogist, but in the latter year the department was placed in charge of 
a commissioner of health, assisted by a sanitary inspector, a special 
sanitary inspector and two sanitary policemen, under which man- 
agement it has since continued. Dr. Albert H. McBeth was ap- 
pointed health commissioner under the new order of service and 
still holds the position, Dr. J. C. Wallace being sanitary inspector, 
Dr. M. F. Schick, special sanitary inspector, and A. J. Aubrey and 
Charles Broeking, sanitary policemen, all of whom received their 
appointments in the year 1901. 


This branch of the municipal service, which was established in 
the year 1894, consists of a board of three members and has juris- 


diction over buildings, streets, all public improvements, parks and 
garbage, the chairman of the board presiding at the regular bi- 
weekly meetings at three P. M. every Monday, and every Thursday 
at seven-thirty o'clock. 

The first board consisted of Thomas D. Devilbiss, Levi Griffith 
and Willis Hattersley, since the expiration of whose terms the 
following men have served on the board, namely: Peter Eggeman, 
P. H. Kane, William McClelland, Henry A. Read and J. K. Mc- 

The following is the personnel of the department for the year 
1905 : Peter Eggeman, chairman, with William Doehrman and 
Henry C. Zollinger, constitute the board; Henry W. Beck, treas- 
urer; Bessie Mannix, stenographer; Frank M. Randall, civil 
engineer; Henry C. Franke, superintendent of streets; Peter G. 
Hohnhaus, foreman of street repairs ; August Goers, superintendent 
of parks ; August A. Gocke, superintendent of garbage crematory. 


This department was established in 1894, under the direction 
of a board consisting of the following members, Charles S. Bash, 

D. N. Foster, R. B. Rossington, whose unexpired term was completed 
by Frank Steger. Since its organization, Charles McCulloch, A. 
I. Friend, Charles H. Buck, Lewis C. Kasten and George H. Wilson 
have served on the board, the last three constituting the department 
for the year 1905. 


Since the organization of a board of trustees to look after the 
interests of the water works, the following citizens have served as 
members of the same: Christian Boseker, Charles McCulloch, 
Henry Monning, James Breen, John F. W. Meyer, T. B. Hedekin, 

E. B. Kunkle, Christian Boseker (a second time), William Bittler, 
H. C. Graff e, T. H. Haberkorn, Emmet H. McDonald, Murray 
Hartnett, Philip J. Singleton, William Taghtmeyer, William 
Kaough, F. T. McDonald, M. J. Zollars, Joseph A. Biermer, War- 
ren Carpenter, Thomas Baxter, J. H. Turner and P. J. McDonald. 


The board for the year 1905 consists of Edward White, Hugh 
T. Hogan and Julius Tonne. F. William Urbahns is clerk of the 
board, Josepha Biemer, assistant clerk, and F. S. Datonville, 
engineer of the department. 


The first board of school trustees, appointed in the year 1853, 
consisted of Hugh McCulloch, Charles Case and William Stewart. 
The members of the board from time to time since that date have 
been as follows : James Humphrey, Henry Sharp, Charles G. French, 
William Smith, F. P. Randall, John M. Miller, Charles E. Sturgis, 
Pliny Hoagland, William Rockhill, William H. Link, Thomas 
Tigar, William Edsall, Samuel Edsall, O. P. Morgan, Robert E. 
Fleming, James H. Robinson, John C. Davis, Orin D. Hurd, A. 
Martin, Emanuel Bostick, Virgil M. Kimball, Ochmig Bird, 
Christian Orff, John S. Irwin, Edward Slocum, A. P. Edgerton, 
Max Nirdlinger, John Moritz, A. E. Huffman, S. M. Foster, 
William P. Cooper, A. J. Boswell, George H. Felts, Allen Hamilton, 
W. W. Rockhill and Eugene B. Smith. 

The board for the year 1905, Dr. O. W. Gross, Charles S. Bash 
and E. W. Cook. Superintendent of schools, Prof. J. N. Study. 


The public school system of Fort Wayne was inaugurated in 
1852, and four years later the office of superintendent was created, 
the first person chosen for the position being Rev. George A. Irwin, 
who served from 1856 until 1863, when he resigned to become a 
chaplain in the army. The successor of Mr. Irwin was S. S. Green, 
who held the office two years, being followed by Prof. James H. 
Smart, since the expiration of whose term of service the position 
has been filled successively by J. S. Irwin, and J. N. Study, the 
present incumbent. 


Until a comparatively recent date the common council of Fort 
Wayne held its sessions in rented rooms in different parts of the 


city, the various offices and the municipal body being seldom housed 
under the same roof. The rapid growth of the city, with the con- 
sequent increase in its complex machinery, made apparent a number 
of years ago the necessity of a building for the more convenient 
transaction of municipal business, but it was not until considerably 
later that definite action to this end was taken by the council and 
the requisite means provided for the erection of a structure in keep- 
ing with the requirements of the city and in harmony with its char- 
acter and reputation as a metropolitan center. 

A number of years ago the late Samuel Hanna donated to the 
city, for public purposes, a lot on the southeast corner of Barr and 
Berry streets, but this being deemed hardly sufficient, the council 
in 1893, after the contract for the building had been let, purchased 
for twenty-two hundred and fifty dollars, an additional eighteen 
feet adjoining on the east, making the lot in its entirety one of the 
most suitable for the purpose within the bounds of the municipality. 

Without entering into the details of the provisions for creating 
a building fund, suffice it to state that in 1892 municipal bonds for 
that purpose were sold, and the same year C. A. Zollinger, Herman 
Michael, George Ely, Fred Boltz and Peter Eggemann were ap- 
pointed a building committee to look after the construction of the 
proposed edifice. In due time plans prepared by Messrs. Wing and 
Mahurin, well known architects of Fort Wayne, were adopted, and 
after considering the several bids for the work, the contract was 
finally awarded Christian Boseker, of this city, following which, 
ground was broken and the enterprise prosecuted as rapidly as ex- 
isting conditions would admit. To the credit of the committee and 
all in any way concerned with the building, it may be added that the 
labor proceeded without serious let or hindrance until the year 1893, 
when the structure was completed as per contract and formally 
handed over to the city whose interests it was designed to subserve, 
the cost being $59,835.58, which, with $10,420.88 expended on the 
furnishing, makes a total of $69,256.46, a very reasonable sum for 
such a handsome and convenient edifice. 

The building has a frontage of one hundred and fifty feet and 
a depth of sixty feet on Barr and Berry streets respectively; is three 
stories high, constructed of beautiful yellow-tinted stone, and was 


designed after the Romanesque style of architecture, being a model 
of artistic taste and beauty. The basement is occupied by the police 
department, with accommodations consisting of the general police 
quarters, private offices, store rooms, cell room, tramp room, together 
with ample space for horses and wagons of the patrol. In addition 
there is also a boiler room for the heating apparatus, two large vaults 
for the preservation of public records, also the work shop and storage 
room of the city water works. The first floor contains offices for 
various city officials, namely: Comptroller, department of public 
works and superintendent of police, besides a commodious room in 
which the police court holds its sessions, the second story being oc- 
cupied by a spacious council chamber and offices for the mayor, city 
attorney, city clerk, civil engineer, board of health, board of public 
safety, and board of associated charities, while the entire third floor 
is devoted to a public hall in which assemblages of various kinds are 
held, there being sufficient space to accommodate without discomfort 
an audience of several hundred people. The interior throughout is 
handsomely finished and furnished, no pains having been spared to 
enhance its beauty and attractiveness, while in its thorough adap- 
tion to the uses for which designed, there is little, if anything, to be 






In the early history of Allen county there is no record of organ- 
ized banks until about 1835. Prior to that, mercantile business 
was conducted on a small scale, and largely on a trading basis. The 
trader or the merchant was probably a lender of his surplus funds, 
and the necessities of the early settler were so few that the absence 
of banking facilities caused little inconvenience, and the banks came 
only when needed and would be profitable. 

The first bank in Fort Wayne was the branch of the State Bank 
of Indiana, for Fort Wayne, established in 1835. On the 28th day 
of January, 1834, the act was approved which established the State 
Bank. It enacted "That there shall be, and is hereby created and 
established, a State Bank, with ten branches, which, or so many as 
shall be organized under this charter, to be known and styled the 
'State Bank of Indiana,' and shall continue as such until the 1st 
day of January, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine." It is noticeable 
that this section is seriously defective in grammatical and legal con- 
struction, but it is not known that any question was ever raised in 
regard to it in the legal controversies which arose during the life 
of its charter. The act provided for the establishment, by the di- 
rectors first appointed, of one branch of said bank at such place 


within each of ten districts enumerated, as they might deem ex- 
pedient. Allen county was not in either of the ten districts, but 
the third section read : "It shall be the duty of the directors of 
the State Bank, after the expiration of one year, to locate an addi- 
tional branch in the district to be numbered eleven, composed of 
the counties of Adams, Grant, Huntington, Wabash, Miami, Allen, 
Lagrange, Elkhart and the unorganized territory attached to said 
several counties for judicial purposes." A twelfth district was to 
be organized after three years from three or more counties north 
of the Wabash. 

The State Bank was to keep an office at Indianapolis, and the 
directors were to meet once in three months. The powers of the 
bank were defined as follows : "It shall be a body corporate and 
politic, with power to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded in 
any court of law or equity having jurisdiction, and to transact all 
other lawful business herein permitted them to do; and shall have 
power by and through her branches, and not otherwise, to loan 
money, buy, sell, and negotiate bills of exchange, checks, promis- 
sory notes, and other negotiable paper or obligations for the pay- 
ment of money; to receive deposits, to buy and sell gold, silver, 
bullion and foreign coins; to draw, issue and put in circulation bills, 
notes, postnotes, bills of exchange, and other evidences of debt, pay- 
able to order or bearer, and not otherwise; and all such notes and 
bills put in circulation as money, except postnotes and bills of ex- 
change, shall be made payable on demand; and to exercise such 
other incidental powers as may be necessary to carry out such 

It might purchase, hold and sell such real estate as required for 
its accommodation in the transaction of its business, or mortgaged 
to it in good faith for the security of loans previously made; or 
purchased at judgment sales, but what was not needed in its busi- 
ness was to be "set up" at public sale at least once in each year until 

It might not suspend payment in gold or silver at any time on 
demand. If it did, the party refused could collect twelve per cent, 
interest after demand, and the branch failing to pay was to be 
closed as insolvent. 


The State Bank and its branches were made mutually responsible 
for all the liabilities of each other. All suits were to be brought in 
Marion county, and against the "State Bank," and not against the 
branch complained of, and when judgment was obtained there was 
no stay of execution. 

Six per cent, and not more, was the loaning rate, but might be 
taken in advance. Profits, after paying expenses, and reserving a 
contingent fund, were divided among the stockholders of the 
branch making the profit, in proportion to the stock they held. 
There was to be deducted from the dividends twelve and one-half 
cents per year on each share of stock for the school fund. 

The state officers, judges of the courts and officers of the general 
government were ineligible to any office in the bank or any branch, 
and no officer of the branches could be an officer in the State Bank 
nor a member of the legislature. No note of less denomination 
than five dollars could be issued, and after ten years the legisla- 
ture might prohibit the issuing of notes for less than ten. No other 
branch than those designated could be established. 

The president of the State Bank was to be elected by the general 
assembly, by ballot of each house separately, and he must receive 
a majority of each house, and was to hold the office for five years, 
"unless sooner removed by joint resolution, and another appointed 
in his place." His salary was to be not less than one thousand dol- 
lars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars. In the same manner 
the general assembly was to elect four directors to serve one, two, 
three and four years, one going out at the end of each year, the 
terms to be decided by lot. Each branch was to elect annually a 
member of the board of directors of the State Bank, and the di- 
rectors of each branch were elected by the stockholders of the 

The State Bank had control and supervision of the branches, but 
it will be seen it could not do a banking business except through 
its branches, and thus seems to have been more of the character of 
a clearing house than a bank. 

Its capital stock was fixed at one million six hundred thousand 
dollars, which was to be equally divided among the branches au- 
thorized, "making the sum of one hundred and sixty thousand dol- 


lars to each branch." If, after due notice, eighty thousand dollars 
bona fide subscriptions were made by any branch, the directors of 
the State Bank were to fix and give notice for the time of payment, 
and for electing directors of the branch. The subscribers for the 
eighty thousand dollars of stock were to pay thirty thousand dollars 
in specie to the commissioners in charge, and the residue in two 
equal annual installments, but the stockholder had the right to 
have the annual installments paid by the state, upon his securing 
the amount by mortgage on unincumbered real estate worth double 
the amount, exclusive of improvements, to be repaid on or before 
nineteen years from 1834, with interest at 6 per cent When eighty 
thousand dollars was thus subscribed, and paid for, it was the duty 
of the directors of the State Bank to subscribe on behalf of the state 
eighty thousand dollars to the stock of the branch, and give an order 
on the commissioners to the branch for the thirty thousand dollars 
paid on the stock of the branch. The residue of the state stock 
was to be paid in two annual installments. Penalties were pro- 
vided for defaults in payment of the installments, first a fine and 
then a forfeiture, and when dividends were declared, the dividends 
of those whose stock was secured to the state were to be paid to 
the commissioners of the sinking fund. To make good the under- 
taking on the part of the state, a loan of one million three hundred 
thousand dollars was authorized to be negotiated. No other banks 
were to be chartered by the state during the term of its charter, 
which was fixed to expire January 1, 1857, when all banking powers 
were to cease, and only two years were granted to close up the 
business of the bank and its branches. The general assembly ex- 
pressly retained the right to establish a new bank and branches at 
any time after January 1, 1857. 

So much of the provisions of the law have been given because 
it was an experiment which many condemned, and many doubted 
the propriety of undertaking, on the part of the state, and because 
it was not only the beginning of the banking system for Indiana, 
but was the law upon whose provisions was based the first banking 
facilities of Fort Wayne. There seems no reason to doubt that 
Hon. Samuel Hanna, then representative for Fort Wayne and a 
large district surrounding it, as chairman of the committee on 


banking, had much to do in securing- a favorable consideration for 
and the passage of the law. 


As heretofore noted, the branch at Fort Wayne was not to be 
established until 1835. Plans for its organization were undertaken 
and the necessary amount of stock subscribed by midsummer of 
that year, and on the 25th of August, 1835, the directors of the 
State Bank notified the subscribers to the stock of the Fort Wayne 
branch to pay in specie the first installment, it being three-eighths 
of the subscription, to Samuel Lewis, William Rockhill and Hugh 
McCulloch, by Saturday, the 31st day of October, next, and to 
meet for the election of officers the Monday following, being the 
2d day of November. The commissioners named were to be the 
judges of the election. At the same time the State Bank notified 
Allen Hamilton, Hugh Hanna and William Rockhill of their 
appointment as directors on the part of the state. At the meeting 
of November 2d ten directors were elected by the stockholders, to- 
wit, Samuel Lewis, William G. Ewing, Francis Comparet, Joseph 
Morgan, Joseph Sinclair, Isaac Spencer, Asa Fairfield, Jesse Ver- 
milyea, David Burr and Samuel Edsall. The number thirteen 
seemed to have no terrors for these old-time financiers. 

The directors ordered a meeting to be held at the house of Fran- 
cis Comparet at 6 P. M. the next day to elect officers. This was a 
small brick building on the south side of Columbia street, west of 
Clinton. At that meeting, November 3, 1835, Allen Hamilton was 
elected president of the Fort Wayne branch of the State Bank, and 
made director of the State Bank to represent the branch. Hugh 
McCulloch, who was appointed comptroller of the currency by 
President Lincoln, and later served as secretary of the United 
States treasury under three administrations, was made its cashier 
and manager, and gave bond for fifty thousand dollars, while re- 
ceiving the munificent salary of eight hundred dollars per annum. 
The cashier was instructed to receipt to Stephen B. Hunt "for four 
kegs of specie, supposed to contain twenty thousand dollars," re- 
ceived from the branch at Richmond as part of the first installment 
of the state's subscription to the stock. 


The expense committee was authorized to contract with Francis 
Comparet for the use of his house for banking purposes, at the 
rent of two hundred dollars per annum, and Smallwood Noel, a 
justice of the peace, was to have the use of the back rooms and 
garden for five dollars per month. The cashier was ordered to de- 
mand and receive from the State Bank "the paper for this branch 
to the amount of eighty thousand dollars." This was probably 
meant to be the notes it was entitled to issue as currency. 

The board, on the 24th of November, 1835, ordered that the 
opening day for discounts should be "Wednesday of this week," 
and December 2d it passed on twenty-five applications, rejecting 

March 16, 1836, M. W. Hubbell was elected clerk of the branch, 
and gave bond for twenty thousand dollars. His salary was four 
hundred dollars per annum, and the rents received from Noel's 
rooms and garden. 

The branch soon cast about for a home more suitable for its 
growing business, for its records show a good beginning and a con- 
stant increase in the volume of business, and September 27, 
1836, a deed from Samuel Hanna for lot 83 in the town plat was 
approved at the price of fifteen hundred dollars. In 1839 it pur- 
chased the adjoining lot, No. 84, for six hundred dollars. In the 
spring of 1837 a contract was let to L. G. Tower for a banking 
house and dwelling house attached upon this property at the south- 
west corner of Main and Clinton streets, to be erected by him for 
four thousand dollars, the bank to furnish the materials. It was 
not completed and occupied until some time in 1838. The cashier 
had the use of the "dwelling house attached." On the 21st of 
August the standing expense committee reported the total cost of 
the banking house to be twelve thousand four hundred and fifty 
dollars and sixty-five cents, and that delays and extra work had 
compelled them to pay to laborers on behalf of Tower some twelve 
hundred dollars over his agreed price, and recommended its allow- 
ance to him, as he had lost on the work. It was finally agreed to 
allow him one thousand dollars in full for the extras. This reads 
very much like the story of similar contracts in this age of the 
world, and to an unprejudiced observer it would seem that the bank 


paid a good round price for its new home, which we remember as 
the old building torn down a few years since to build the home for 
the Home Telephone Exchange. 

In the meantime the great financial crash of 1837 had come. 
Banks all over the country were failing, or suspending specie pay- 
ments. The State Bank sent letters of advice to all the branches, 
including that at Fort Wayne, advising them to suspend specie pay- 
ments, "in order to keep in the state the large amount of specie 
now on hand," and at the meeting of the directors held May 23, 
1837, special payments were ordered suspended. The business of the 
branch went on, and the suspension produced no disaster, nor did the 
branch waver or show signs of weakness. Hugh McCulloch, in 
"Men and Measures of Half a Century," says: "None of the di- 
rectors or officers of the bank or of its branches had made banking 
a study, or had any practical knowledge of the business, and yet no 
serious mistakes were made by them. Cautious, prudent, upright, 
they obtained, step by step, the practical knowledge which enabled 
them to bring the transactions of the branches into' close accord 
with the public interests, and to secure for the bank a credit coex- 
tensive with the country west of the Alleghanies, and which was 
never shaken. Its notes were current, and of the best repute 
throughout the Mississippi valley, from the lakes to the Gulf." 

In those days money — specie largely — was carried a three days' 
journey from Fort Wayne to Indianapolis, or the reverse, in saddle- 
bags, without the loss of a dollar by robbery, or an attempt at vio- 
lence toward the persons carrying the treasure. 

Of this branch Mr. McCulloch has said : "It was not the best, 
but one of the best managed branches. The profits of this branch 
so much exceeded six per cent, that the loan was paid seven years 
before the expiration of the charter. * * * At the winding 
up of the business of the branch he received not only the par value 
of his stock, but an equal amount from the accumulated surplus." 
Again he says, "In this bank there was no betrayal of trust, and 
only one single instance of official dishonesty." 

July 2j, 1 84 1, Allen Hamilton resigned as president, and Samuel 
Hanna was elected to the place, serving until November 2, 1847, 
when Mr. Hamilton was again elected, and served until its affairs 


were closed on the expiration of its charter in 1857. On the 14th 
of December, 1858, the assets of the branch were assigned to Ste- 
phen B. Bond as trustee, and on the 23d of December they were 
assigned to the banking firm of Allen Hamilton & Company in 
consideration of sixteen thousand four hundred and thirty-five 

Practically the same stockholders had been for nearly three years 
engaged in the organization of the Fort Wayne branch of the bank 
of the state, and were their own successors. The State Bank was 
a monopoly, and had bitter opponents. The constitutional con- 
vention of 185 1 had refused to provide for an extension of the 
charter, and opened the way for free banking. The branches of 
the State Bank then began to prepare for dissolution in advance of 
the time set for expiration of the charter, and various plans were 
discussed during this transition period. The free banks which 
sprang up did not prove entirely satisfactory, and failed to inspire 
confidence. The friends of the State Bank and its officers and the 
officers of the various branches set themselves to work in earnest, 
and soon a combination, or syndicate, was formed, which secured 
from the legislature of 1854-5 the passing of an act to establish 
"The Bank of the State of Indiana." It was vetoed by the Gov- 
ernor, but passed both houses March 3, 1855, over the veto. 
It was mainly on the lines of the act of 1833-4, but the 
state was not to be a stockholder, the branches were to number 
twenty, instead of thirteen, and its capital was to be six million 
dollars. No branch was to be organized until one hundred thou- 
sand dollars had been subscribed, to be paid in installments. 

The promoters of the scheme never intended to use the franchise, 
but to sell it, and at once opened negotiations with the officers of 
the State Bank, which resulted in the control passing principally 
to the same men who had controlled the State Bank and its branches. 
One of the conditions of the bargain was that the directors should 
elect Mr. McCulloch president of the Bank of the State, which was 
done in May, 1857. 

It was under this law and this arrangement that the stockholders 
of the "Fort Wayne Branch of the State Bank" became the stock- 
holders of the "Fort Wayne Branch of the Bank of the State," 


and organized October 25, 1855, with Hugh McCulloch president, 
and Charles D. Bond cashier. The directors were Hugh McCul- 
loch, Ochmig Bird, William Mitchell, Pliny Hoagland, Melancthon 
W. Hubbell, Hugh B. Reed and Benjamin W. Oakley. 

It continued the business at the same place its predecessor occu- 
pied, and took over the business of the old bank, and was one of 
the best known banking institutions in this section, always occupy- 
ing a high position in the confidence of all. It had a fixed rule 
never to permit its coin reserve to fall below thirty per cent, of its 
outstanding notes, and on the suspension of specie payments in 
1 86 1 made a large profit by the sale of its surplus coin at a pre- 

Pliny Hoagland became its president December 9, 1863, an d 
served until its business was merged in the Fort Wayne National 
Bank and the branch of the Bank of the State passed into history. 
The tax upon circulating notes imposed by congress on the estab- 
lishment of national banks caused this determination to close out, 
and in September, 1865, the board began to take action. On the 
6th of December the sale of its assets to the new national bank 
was ordered, and in March, 1866, the officers reported that Pliny 
Hoagland and Charles D. Bond had contracted to redeem all its 
outstanding notes. One-half of the stock had already been re- 
deemed, and now the other half was, and the surplus funds di- 
vided. The bank had returned to its stockholders $100,000 capital 
stock and $150,250 surplus. For $125,000 paid in, $290,747.52 
had been returned, after paying all the regular dividends. And 
thus the Branch Bank passed out of existence, like its predecessor, 
full of honor, and full in pocket. 


This bank was organized under the banking laws of the United 
States January 25, 1865. It could claim the right of seniority by 
succession over any bank in Fort Wayne, but the First National 
had been organized before its application for a charter, and it was 
compelled to choose a name other than "First," and as it was the 
"Fort Wayne" branch of the Bank of the State, it chose the name 


of "Fort Wayne National." It retained the bank building of its 
predecessors on the corner of Main and Clinton. Jesse L. Williams 
was elected president, Pliny Hoagland vice-president and Jared D. 
Bond cashier. The directors were Jesse L. Williams, Pliny Hoag- 
land, Oliver P. Morgan, Montgomery Hamilton and Stephen B. 
Bond. The capital stock was fixed at three hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars. 

In August, 1865, Mr. Williams resigned, and Charles D. Bond, 
who had been cashier of the Branch Bank, was elected to the presi- 
dency of the bank, and continued in the office until his death, in 
December, 1873, and in January, 1874, his brother, Stephen B. 
Bond, was elected to fill the vacancy, and remained its president 
through its existence, and after its reorganization as the Old Na- 
tional, until December, 1904, when he resigned. 

The history of this bank would not be complete without some 
notice of the Bond brothers and their connection with the bank. As 
has been stated, Charles D. Bond had been cashier of the second 
branch of the state institution. He was a man of the strictest prob- 
ity, and his name is among those without stain in the community 
in which he lived a useful life and to which he was an ornament. 
His brother, Stephen B. Bond, was connected with the first branch 
bank of the state as early as 1848. He commenced at the bottom 
of the ladder, as "porter and assistant clerk," and climbed to the top 
round as president, retiring with honor and the rewards of duty 
well performed. During his banking experience he was for a time 
cashier of the banking house of Allen Hamilton & Company, and 
later a partner in it. His future business is as president of the 
Packard Organ Company. Jared D. Bond, the third brother, served 
thirty-nine years as cashier, but was at first a clerk in the Branch 
Bank in 1857, later becoming its teller, becoming cashier of the 
Fort Wayne National in January, 1865. The family came here 
from Lockport, New York, at an early period, and has been not 
only first among banking families, but also among the first in social 
and business circles. 

The charter expired by limitation in 1885, and when it was to 
be renewed, the managers concluded to drop the name of "Fort 
Wayne," and reorganize under one which would more explicitly 


define its position among the banking institutions of Fort Wayne. 
Its lineage was the oldest. It could not use the word "First," but 
it could declare itself "old," and did so. 


This bank commenced business under the new charter January 
26, 1885, at the old banking house, corner of Main and Clinton, 
with a capital of three hundred and fifty thousand dollars. It re- 
mained there until it erected its present handsome banking house 
on the southwest corner of Calhoun and Berry streets, in 1891. 

Its first officers were: Stephen B. Bond, president; Oliver P. 
Morgan, vice-president; Jared D. Bond, cashier, and James C. 
Woodworth, assistant cashier. During the twenty years of its 
charter life there were few changes in its directory, and most of 
them were caused by death. Mr. Morgan died in October, 1900, 
and Henry C. Paul became vice-president in his place. Early in 
that year Mr. Woodworth died, and Charles E. Bond, son of its 
former president, C. D. Bond, became assistant cashier in his place. 
The management remained the same, and the bank was conducted 
on the same prudent, safe and conservative basis as that which gave 
stability to the institution through all its mutations of three score 
and ten years, the biblical period of the lifetime of man. 

On the 20th of December, 1904, the bank, having renewed its 
charter, commenced anew, with important changes in its corps of 
managers. Those veterans, Stephen B. Bond and Jared D. Bond, 
voluntarily retired from long service and faithful work, and were 
succeeded by new officials. Henry C. Paul, long identified with 
most of the financial institutions, and many of the business interests, 
such as manager of the gas company, the traction company and 
president of the Fort Wayne Trust Company and of the electric 
works, was elected president. Charles E. Bond, son of Charles D. 
Bond, and nephew of Stephen B. and Jared Bond, who had all of 
his mature life been connected with the bank, became cashier, and 
Gustav A.. Schwegman assistant cashier. Its last financial report 
is as follows: 



Loans and discounts $1,151,861.01 

Overdrafts, secured and unsecured 5,032.68 

U. S. bonds to secure circulation 350,000.00 

U. S. bonds on hand :, 550.00 

Premiums on U. S. bonds 13,500.00 

Bond, securities, etc 261,064.72 

Banking house, furniture and fixtures 65,884.83 

Other real estate owned 9,000.00 

Due from National Banks (not reserve agents) 1,017.49 

Due from approved reserve agents 568,739.10 

Checks and other cash items 2,562.91 

Exchanges for clearing house 22,271.63 

Notes of other National Banks 28,760.00 

Fractional paper, currency, nickels and cents. 493.23 
Lawful money reserve in bank, viz: 

Specie $147,003.03 

Legal tender notes 35,000.00 182,003.30 

Redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 

per cent, of circulation) 17,500.00 

Due from U. S. Treasurer other than 5 per 

cent, redemption fund 4,155.00 

Total $2,684,395.90 


Capital stock paid in $ 350,000.00 

Surplus fund 140,000.00 

Undivided profits, less expenses and taxes 

paid 15,283.21 

Due to other National Banks 21,499.25 

Due to State Banks and bankers 70,268.06 

Due to Trust Companies and Savings banks.. 80,198.84 

Dividends unpaid 280.00 

Individual deposits subject to check 646,557,73 

Demand certificates of deposit 1,008,042.74 

Certified checks , 1,658.50 

Cashier's checks outstanding 589.57 

Total $2,684,395.90 

Under such management, the bank gives promise of the same 
success, the same keeping pace with the growth of the business of 
Fort Wayne, as marked the history of its predecessors. It is a 
landmark in the history of the city, and an institution that merits 
the respect and pride of its citizens. 



In 1853 Allen Hamilton, the president of the Branch Bank of 
the State, Hugh McCulloch, its cashier, who has also been men- 
tioned fully, and Jesse L. Williams, one of its directors, later a gov- 
ernment director of the Union Pacific Railroad, formed a partner- 
ship and organized a company to conduct a bank of discount and 
deposit. It was a private bank, a partnership merely, and was not 
organized under any banking law. Its business was carried on in 
a building on the west side of Clinton street, south of Columbia, on 
lot 57, original plat, until 1862. Stephen B. Bond, mentioned in 
connection with the Branch Bank of the State as clerk, and who 
ended his active banking career as president of the "Old National," 
was its manager, and in 1855 was admitted as a partner. In i860 
Charles McCulloch, son of Hugh McCulloch, was also admitted as 
a partner. 

In 1862 the bank removed to a building on Calhoun street, oppo- 
site the court house, just north of where the Rurode dry goods 
store is now located, and increased its banking facilities, retaining 
the same name. 

On the 1st of June, 1874, the firm was dissolved for the purpose 
of organizing a bank under the laws of Indiana, which was imme- 
diately done, under the name of 


This bank, the immediate successor of the banking house of Allen 
Hamilton & Company, was incorporated in June, 1874, under the 
banking laws of the state, with a capital of two hundred thousand 
dollars. Charles McCulloch was elected first president, John Mohr, 
Jr., cashier, and Joseph D. Mohr, assistant cashier. Its directors 
were Charles McCulloch, Jesse L. Williams, Montgomery Hamil- 
ton, William Fleming, Frederick Eckart, August Trentman and 
Edward P. Williams. 

This bank continued business without changes of great impor- 
tance, transacting a large and conservative business. With a capi- 
tal of two hundred thousand dollars, it had a daily average deposit 


account of three hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and carried a 
surplus of thirty-six thousand dollars. In November, 1879, it 
merged into 


It was organized with a capital of two hundred thousand dollars 
and had a surplus of thirty thousand dollars. The same 
officers who had successfully conducted the affairs of the Hamilton 
Bank were elected to the same positions in the Hamilton National 
Bank. The directory was also the same, except that E. L. Chitten- 
den took the place of William Fleming. 

The charter expired in November, 1899, but the bank was re- 
chartered, and with its new organization has continued its business. 
On the reorganization being perfected, the following officers and 
directors were elected : Charles McCulloch, president ; John Mohr, 
Jr., cashier; John Ross McCulloch and Frank H. Poole, assistant 
cashiers; directors, Charles S. Bash, Benjamin Rothschild, John 
Mohr, Jr., Charles McCulloch, Louis Fox, John B. Reuss and John 
Ross McCulloch. Its last financial statement is as follows: 


Loans and discounts ■ $1,436,635.23 

Overdrafts, secured and unsecured 16,474.16 

U. S. bonds to secure circulation 200,000.00 

U. S. bonds to secure U. S. deposits 67,000.00 

U. S. bonds on hand 218,340.00 

Premiums on U. S. bonds 11,387.34 

Bonds, securities, etc 300,057.13 

Banking house, furniture and fixtures 68,653.08 

Other real estate owned 2,168.61 

Due from National Banks (not reserve agents) 47,500.10 

Due to State Banks and bankers 1,476.13 

Due from approved reserve agents 354,429.23 

Checks and other cash items 17,098.32 

Exchanges for clearing house. .> 7,445.86 

Notes of other National Banks 125,876.00 

Fractional paper currency, nickels and cents. 891.26 
Lawful money reserve in bank, viz: 

Specie $111,475.10 

Legal tender notes 48,785.00 160,260.10 

Redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per 

cent, of circulation) 10,000.00 

Total $3,045,692.55 



Capital stock paid in ? 200,000.00 

Surplus fund 275,000.00 

Undivided profits, less expenses and taxes 

paid 43,095.76 

National Bank notes outstanding 200,000.00 

Due to other National Banks 20,934.08 

Due to State Banks and bankers 38,407.29 

Dividends unpaid 364.00 

Individual deposits subject to check 629,408.52 

Demand certificates of deposit 1,543,758.01 

Certified checks 27,724.89 

United States deposits 67,000.00 

Total $3,045,692.55 

In 1898 the bank moved into its present home on the northwest 
corner of Main and Calhoun streets, which has been its home ever 
since. The bank has been conducted on such safe and conservative 
banking principles that it has a surplus of three hundred thousand 
dollars over and above its capital stock, and it ranks today among 
the soundest and best of the moneyed institutions of the state. 


The beginnings of this important banking house were early in 
1 86 1, when Joseph D. Nuttman, who had for some years con- 
ducted an extensive mercantile business in Decatur, the county seat 
of Adams county, came to Fort Wayne, where, as a young man, 
he had been in the employ of Townley DeWald & Company, and 
engaged in the banking business as a private banker, with William 
B. Fisher, a nephew of Mrs. Nuttman, as his assistant. The name 
was the Citizens' Bank. 

Immediately after the passage of the national banking act in 
1863 he became associated with Hon. Samuel Hanna, who sug- 
gested to him not only the propriety, but the necessity, of organ- 
izing as a national bank, if he desired to continue in business. To- 
gether they set about the organization of the bank, and so speedily 
that the application for a charter was the first from the state of 
Indiana, and the sixth in the nation to be filed with the comptroller 
of the currency. Owing to some informality, a delay occurred in 


the department at Washington, and when the charter was issued 
it was the eleventh, instead of the sixth, but was the first national 
bank to be chartered and organized in Indiana. This was in May, 
1863, that the bank opened with an authorized capital of five hun- 
dred thousand dollars. 

Joseph D. Nuttman was the first president elected, Samuel Han- 
na, vice-president, and William B. Fisher, cashier. The directors 
were Joseph D. Nuttman, Joseph Brackenridge, John Brown, John 
Orff, John M. Miller, Amos S. Evans, Warren H. Withers, Fred- 
erick Nirdlinger and Alfred D. Brandriff. The bank started on a 
paid-up capital of one hundred thousand dollars, which was in- 
creased in the following June by fifty thousand dollars; in July, 
1865, fifty thousand dollars; in December, 1871, one hundred thou- 
sand dollars; April, 1874, fifty thousand dollars, and November 10, 
1875, another fifty thousand dollars, making a total paid-up capital 
of four hundred thousand dollars. This was afterward reduced in 
December, 1878, to three hundred thousand dollars, upon which 
the bank continued to do business for many years. In July, 1866, 
Judge Hanna died, and John Orff succeeded him as vice-president. 
The bank went into liquidation May 22, 1882, the number of years 
of its charter having expired, and the bank was reorganized. Dur- 
ing his presidency of this bank Mr. Nuttman, together with Jesse 
Niblick and David Studebaker, organized the County Bank of 
Decatur, and in 1883, after the bank reorganized on the expiration 
of its charter, he retired from the presidency of the First National, 
and sold out his stock, in order to give his attention to a private 
bank which he had established as Nuttman & Company, under the 
management of Oliver S. Hanna, his son-in-law. On Mr. Nutt- 
man's retirement Oscar A. Simons was elected president of the 
First National, and upon his death, in 1887, John H. Bass was 
elected president, with Lem R. Hartman as cashier and William 
L. Pettit assistant cashier. Mr. Bass has been president ever since. 

At the expiration of its second chartered term the bank reorgan- 
ized, late in 1891, with John H. Bass as president, Charles H. Wor- 
den, vice-president; Henry R. Freeman, cashier, and J. H. Orr, as- 
sistant cashier. From the organization of the bank its place of busi- 
ness was the southeast corner of Main and Court streets, but it 


moved from there, in October, 1894, to its present commodious 
home on Calhoun street, just south of the Aveline House. 

In the summer of 1905 negotiations were quietly carried on with 
the White National Bank for a merger of the two, which was ac- 
complished so that the announcement was made to the public on 
the 7th of August, when the agreements had been signed, and all 
completed that could be done without the approval of the treasury 
department of the United States government and the formal rati- 
fication of the stockholders. The reasons given for the merger of 
the White into the First National were that Fort Wayne needed 
an institution of large resources in order to finance legitimate en- 
terprises of large caliber; that the combination of the two, with a 
capital and surplus of $750,000, with discount line of $2,619,030, 
and total resources of $4,364,364, would enable the bank to do that 
work; that the combination would afford economy in management 
and conduct of the business; and that in every way the new bank 
would be better equipped for the necessities of a growing city. On 
the 1 8th of August the stockholders of the First National Bank 
held a meeting and added John W. White, Edward White, Max 
B. Fisher, S. S. Fisher, Robert L. Romy and Henry J. Miller to 
the directorate. This increased the number of directors of the First 
National Bank to twenty-one, leaving four vacancies, under the reso- 
lution passed by the directors at their previous meeting. The resolu- 
tion left it optional with the stockholders to elect from fifteen to 
twenty-five directors. There were formerly fifteen members of the 
board, and this election increased the number to twenty-one. 

The articles of association were changed to provide for a sliding 
scale of from fifteen to twenty-five directors, and it is expected the 
directorate will be completed in January next, when the full amount 
of stock will have been subscribed, either by the White Bank stock- 
holders or new subscribers. 

Under the original terms of consolidation the White Bank people 
agreed to take up fifty thousand dollars of the additional one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand stock, with an option on the entire issue. 

On Saturday, the 25th day of August, 1905, the formal consoli- 
dation of the White and First National banks was effected, when 
the effects, cash and accounts of the White Bank were transferred 


to the First National Bank. The formal action of the directors and 
stockholders of the White Bank was taken at a meeting the day 
before, when the assignment of the bonds to the First National was 
authorized. John W. White, president of the White Bank, was 
named as liquidating agent. Immediately at the close of business 
at noon the transferring of the effects to the First Bank was com- 
menced. The entire clerical force of the White Bank, with the ex- 
ception of Assistant Cashier W. H. Rohan, who goes to the Old 
National, was retained by the First National, and the new institu- 
tion, if such it might be called, now has a force of twenty-one em- 
ployes. The official roster of the First National Bank is as follows : 
President, John H. Bass; first vice-president and chief executive 
officer, Charles H. Worden; second vice-president and assistant ex- 
ecutive officer, Harry A. Keplinger; cashier, Henry R. Freeman; 
assistant cashier, J. H. Orr; receiving teller, A-K, Ed N. Detzer; 
receiving teller, L-Z, Charles Auman; discount teller, Edward F. 
Sheumann; collection teller, Ralph Willson; assistant tellers, Frank 
Rouzer, Otto Heiny; general bookkeeper, E. L. Hobrock; assistant 
general bookkeeper, Carl Sihler; individual bookkeepers, Edwin H. 
Orr, George N. Gilliom, J. L. Tucker; cash item clerk, Urban 
Eckles ; collection clerks, Henry W. Meyer and Fred Potthoff ; ste- 
nographer, Mrs. Ada H. Bulger. The board of directors of the 
First Bank is composed of Messrs. John H. Bass, F. J. Hayden, E. 
F. Yarnelle, C. A. Wilding, Fred S. Hunting, Herman Frei burger, 
Will A. Fleming, William Geake, F. E. Hoffman, J. H. Jacobs, J. 
B. McKim, B. Paul Mossman, A. B. Trentman, Judge W. J. Vesey 
and C. H. Worden, elected at the last annual meeting of the First 
Bank, and Messrs. John W. White, Edward White, Max B. Fisher, 
Samuel S. Fisher, R. L. Romy and H. J. Miller, of the White Bank, 
who have recently been elected. Its official financial statement is 
as follows : 


Loans and discounts $2,437,851.77 

Overdrafts 11,486.77 

United States bonds for circulation 527,676.87 

Banking house furniture and fixtures 64,470.00 

Other real estate 23,001.28 



Due from Banks $585,479.88 

Due from United States Treasurer. . 33,000.00 

United States bonds 7,440.00 

Other stocks and bonds 168,305.27 

Cash on hand 338,717.31 1,132,942.46 

Total $4,197,429.15 


Capital stock $ 500,000.00 

Surplus and undivided profits 260,217.45 

Circulation 500,000.00 

Deposits 2,937,211.70 

Total $4,197,429.15 

Of the thirty-six original stockholders of the bank when organ- 
ized in 1863, only three are living in 1905 — Solomon Bash, Abra- 
ham Oppenheimer and J. F. W. Meyer. The record of the bank 
has been an excellent one, and it will doubtless have yet a long life 
of continued honor and usefulness. 


This bank was organized March 15, 1865. That is, its stock was 
fully subscribed, officers and directors chosen, and charter applied 
for at that time, but its charter was dated May 1, 1865. It com- 
menced business at the northwest corner of Berry and Calhoun 
streets, on part of lot No. 106, original plat, but later removed to 
the northwest corner of Main and Calhoun, on part of lot No. yy, 
original plat, the present site of the Hamilton National Bank, where 
it remained until its liquidation in 1874-5. Its first officers were: 
Peter P. Bailey, president ; Dwight Klinck, cashier ; directors, Peter 
P. Bailey, Sol D. Bayless, David F. Comparet, George L. Little 
and John Studebaker. 

The president had been a captain and connected with the quarter- 
master's department during the Civil war, resigned, and became 
interested in the purchase of contraband and confiscated cotton, 
amassing a considerable fortune. Dwight Klinck was from Bluff- 
ton, where, as a grain speculator, he had acquired wealth. He 
started on a trip to Europe, after severing his connection with the 


bank, intending to interest English and continental capitalists in a 
scheme he was promoting, but the steamer on which he sailed went 
to the bottom off the southern coast of England, with all on board. 
In July, 1866, Samuel Cary Evans was elected president, and Dr. 
John S. Irwin cashier. This was to fill a vacancy caused by the 
resignation of D wight Klinck on the 13th of December, 1865, and 
which had been temporarily filled until the election in July follow- 
. ing. Dr. Irwin resigned as cashier in February, 1873, and Charles 
M. Dawson, who had been for some time assistant cashier, was 
appointed ad interim, and in January, 1874, was regularly elected 
to fill the vacancy. After the dissolution of the bank, he entered 
the profession of the law, became prosecuting attorney, and later 
judge of the superior court of Allen county, and died while the 
incumbent of that office. Mr. Evans had become the holder of a 
majority of the stock, and was the mainstay and manager of the 
bank, which became one of the safe and profitable banking insti- 
tutions of the city, but his health became precarious, he had pur- 
chased a half interest in the lands of San Bernardino county, Cali- 
fornia, which were subject to irrigation, and its financial affairs 
demanded his personal attention. Convinced in his own mind that 
both reasons of finance and health demanded that he go to Califor- 
nia, he cast about for means to sell out his stock holdings, or to 
reorganize the bank in such manner as to free his capital, for use 
in his Riverside property, but finally concluded to place the bank 
in liquidation by surrender of the charter, which was done in 


At the time the bank closed for business its officers were : Sam- 
uel Cary Evans, president; Robert S. Robertson, vice-president; 
Charles M. Dawson, cashier; directors, Samuel C. Evans, Robert 
S. Robertson, Henry C. Hanna, Nathaniel P. Stockbridge and 
Charles M. Dawson. Its authorized capital was three hundred 
thousand dollars, but it was doing business on one hundred thou- 
sand dollars paid-up capital, with a surplus capital of eleven thou- 
sand dollars in 1874. It was considered a safe, conservative and 
well managed bank, and had a fair share of the deposits of the busi- 
ness enterprises in Fort Wayne. 


Mr. Evans succeeded in his California venture, and died there, 
a few years since, with high rank and standing in the financial 


This bank was organized principally through the efforts of James 
B. White and his son, John W. White, who became its president. 
Hon. James B. White had long been one of the most active and pro- 
gressive merchants of Fort Wayne, a man who anticipated and used 
the plan of the modern "department" store long before it was in 
use here or elsewhere. He had served in congress from the twelfth 
district of Indiana, and was a "man of affairs" generally. 

The stock was subscribed, charter applied for and was issued 
April 15, 1892, and on the 25th of that month opened for business 
in a fine building erected for its use by Mr. White on the northwest 
corner of Wayne and Clinton streets. 

John W. White, oldest son of the founder, was elected its first 
president; Thomas B. Hedekin, vice-president; Harry A. Kep- 
linger, cashier, and Gustav G. Detzer, assistant cashier. The direc- 
tors were James B. White, Ronald T. McDonald, Solomon Roths- 
child, Robert L. Romy, David C. Fisher, John W. White and 
Thomas B. Hedekin. Its capital was two hundred thousand dol- 
lars. None of the officers, except Cashier Keplinger, who came 
to the bank after long service as clerk and teller of the Hamilton 
National, had had any experience in banking, but the president, 
John W. White, with a business training from boyhood, and active 
participation in several manufacturing works, soon became known 
in banking circles as a banker of ability, and established a bank 
whose stock was quoted far above its face value. 

During the summer of 1905 negotiations were quietly carried 
on, looking toward its consolidation with the First National. This 
proposition was considered by the White National solely for the 
reasons, first, that Mr. White, the president, had other large inter- 
ests to which he desired to give personal attention, and which re- 
quired more attention than he could give them while so closely en- 
gaged in the requirements of the business of the bank, and, second, 
that the union of two such banks as the First and the White would 


make a bank so strong that it could successfully cope with the grow- 
ing demands of a city such as Fort Wayne has grown to be. On the 
1 8th of August, 1905, the articles of consolidation were perfected 
and forwarded to Washington for approval, and the union was 
practically completed. When the final contracts were made, John 
W. White was president, Samuel S. Fisher, vice-president, Harry 
A. Keplinger, cashier, and W. H. Rohan, assistant cashier. The 
directors were Sol Rothschild, Jacob Colter, Edward White, David 
C. Fisher, Samuel S. Fisher, Robert L. Romy and John W. White. 
Its capital was $200,000, surplus and profits, $129,508.83. Its last 
report makes this showing: 


Loans and discounts $1,275,979.64 

Overdrafts 3,597.01 

United States bonds, to secure circulation. . . . 200,000.00 
Banking house, furniture and fixtures 56,970.00 


U. S. bonds and premiums $ 19,789.37 

Stocks, securities, etc 8,202.26 

Due from Banks 316,815.35 

Due from United States Treasurer. . 10,000.00 

Cash on hand 302,626.24 657,433.22 

Total $2,193,979.87 


Capital stock paid in $ 200,000.00 

Surplus and profits 129,508.83 

Circulation 200,000.00 

Deposits u 1,664,471.04 

Total $2,193,979.87 

There are many in Fort Wayne who will regret the closing of 
the White National Bank, but there are none to question its finan- 
cial and banking record. Fuller statement as to the consolidation 
will be found in the preceding reference to the First National Bank. 
The White National finally closed its affairs and the doors of its 
bank at the close of banking hours, Saturday, August 26, 1905, 
when its books and assets were transferred to the First National. 


This bank opened for business May 20, 1905, in its handsome 
and convenient banking house on Court street, opposite the court 


house, with the following officers: Samuel. M. Foster, president; 
Theo. Wentz, first vice-president; Charles F. Pfeiffer, second vice- 
president; Henry C. Berghoff, cashier. The directors were Henry 
Beadell, Gustave A. Berghoff, Christopher R. Colmey, Robert W. 
T. DeWald, David N. Foster, Charles Kramer, J. B. Niezer, Charles 
F. Pfeiffer, A. H. Perfect, Jesse F. Patterson, James M. Robinson, 
Maurice I. Rosenthal, Ernst C. Rurode, W. H. Shambaugh, Theo- 
dore F. Thieme, Samuel M. Foster, Theo. Wentz. 

Steps toward the organization of the new bank began in 1904, 
though the belief that there was ample field for a new financial in- 
stitution of this character in Fort Wayne had been held for some 
time prior to that date by many of the men who are now active 
spirits in the new organization. Active work began when Theo- 
dore Wentz, who had been for several years prominently connected 
with banking institutions at Fostoria and other Ohio points, came 
to Fort Wayne seeking a field for a new national bank. He quickly 
enlisted the interest of Samuel M. Foster and others and a little in- 
quiry demonstrated that stock in the institution would be eagerly 
purchased. The stock was quickly subscribed, the capital 
stock of two hundred thousand dollars being divided among almost 
two hundred stockholders, no one person owning a larger block of 
stock than eight thousand dollars, and but very few so large a sum 
as this. It is said that the stock is so widely distributed that no 
forty stockholders can constitute a majority of the shares and thus 
control the policy of the institution. The bank's official number is 


Of the officers, Samuel M. Foster is well known as a manufac- 
turer and a foremost citizen of Fort Wayne, with large property 
interests. He is president of the Fort Wayne Knitting Mills and 
vice-president of the Fort Wayne Trust Company. Mr. Pfeiffer is 
vice-president of the Citizens' Trust Company, and Mr. Berghoff is 
now completing a term of four years as mayor of Fort Wayne. 
During his early manhood Mr. Berghoff was connected with a 
banking house in Germany. The official family of the German- 
American is made up of substantial, clear-headed business men of 
extensive means, whose connection with any enterprise is a guaran- 
tee of its high standing. Mr. Wentz is not so well known as the 


others, being a newcomer in Fort Wayne. He is a native of Ohio 
and was born at Canal Dover. Practically his entire business ca- 
reer has been as a banker, though he was also a successful manager 
of extensive traction interests, which he sold shortly before remov- 
ing to Fort Wayne. In 1891 Mr. Wentz entered the Exchange Na- 
tional Bank at Canal Dover, Ohio, as assistant cashier, and two 
years later resigned to become cashier of the First National Bank of 
Canal Dover, a position which he retained until last January, con- 
tinuing in the position even after having removed from Canal Do- 
ver. When electric lines began spreading their network over Ohio 
Mr. Wentz took a part in their development and was secretary, 
treasurer and general manager of the Toledo, Fostoria and Findlay 
Railway Company. To better look after his duties in this position 
Mr. Wentz removed to Fostoria, where he became a charter mem- 
ber and one of the directors of the Commercial Bank and Savings 
Company. He was also president of the Adams Car Company and 
of the Tuscarawas Electric Company at Canal Dover, disposing of 
his interests here when he determined to remove to Fort Wayne. 

The German- American is a member of the Fort Wayne Clear- 
ing House Association, transacts all branches of banking and has 
inaugurated a savings department, which is a new feature with the 
national banks of this city. It is recognized as a most notable addi- 
tion to the splendid organizations which make up Fort Wayne's 
great financial fabric. 

The capital of the bank is $200,000, and in little more than a 
week after opening its deposit account was $149,230.53. Its latest 
financial report was as follows : 


Loans and discounts $323,978.98 

U. S. bonds to secure circulation 50,000.00 

Premiums on U. S. bonds 2,339.38 

Bonds, securities, etc 9,925.00 

Banking house, furniture and fixtures 28,555.29 

Due from State Banks and bankers 1,043.45 

Due from approved reserve agents 69,663.06 

Checks and other cash items 77.81 

Exchanges for clearing house 20,927.93 

Notes of other National Banks.. 10,890.00 


Fractional paper, currency, nickels and cents.. $ 446.33 
Lawful money reserve in bank, viz: 

Specie $40,000 

Legal tender notes 8,000 48,000.00 

Redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per 

cent, of circulation) , 2,500.00 

Total , $568,347.23 


Capital stock paid in $200,000.00 

Undivided profits, less expenses and taxes paid 4,259.03 

National Bank notes outstanding 50,000.00 

Due to other National Banks 12,468.04 

Due to State Banks and hankers 14,452.27 

Individual deposits subject to check 137,877.91 

Demand certificates of deposit 144,809.98 

Cashier's checks outstanding 4,480.00 

Total $568,347.23 


Joseph Dayton Nuttman, the founder of this bank, a private in- 
stitution, was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 18 16 and came to 
Fort Wayne in 1830, becoming a clerk in the Townley store, north- 
west corner of Calhoun and Columbia streets. In 1841 he went to 
Decatur, Adams county, and entered into a mercantile business on 
his own account, but kept up an intimate connection with Fort 
Wayne, to which place he returned in 1861, after closing out a suc- 
cessful business at Decatur. 

In that year he established a private bank on the corner of Berry 
and Calhoun streets, where the Old National Bank is now located, 
under the name of the Citizens' Bank. The exact date is not 
known, but draft No. 589 was dated March 3, 1861. William B. 
Fisher was his assistant. Fisher afterwards became cashier of the 
First National and on the reorganization of that bank went to New 
York and was there identified with several strong financial institu- 

On the passage by congress of the national banking law in 1863 
Mr. Nuttman, uniting with Hon. Samuel Hanna and several prom- 
inent business men of the city, organized the First National Bank 
and became its president. In 1881 Mr. Nuttman decided practically 


to retire from participation in active financial affairs, to sell out his 
large holdings in the First National and resign from its presidency, 
which he did in 1882, and immediately, in accordance with a plan 
long before made, established, in October, 1882, the banking house 
of Nuttman & Company. Its place of business was then, and is 
yet, on Main street, just west of the old banking site of 
the Branch Bank of the State. 

Associated with him were his son, Joseph D. Nuttman, Jr., and 
son-in-law, Oliver S. Hanna. On Mr. Hanna devolved the active 
management of the business by reason of the determination of Mr. 
Nuttman, Sr., to retire, and the fact that Mr. Nuttman, Jr., was in 
feeble health. Mr. Hanna had entered the First National Bank 
when about twenty-one, remaining with it for some years, acquiring 
an education in the affairs and business of a bank, but left it to en- 
gage for himself in a wholesale mercantile business, becoming a di- 
rector of the First National and remaining in that position until the 
reorganization of that bank and the formation of the Nuttman & 
Co. Bank. 

J. D. Nuttman, Sr., died March 18, 1884, and J. D. Nuttman, Jr., 
September 6, 1890, leaving the sole management in the hands of 
Oliver S. Hanna, who, with his wife, Mrs. M. E. Hanna, are the 
sole owners of the bank. It has always been a profitable, safe and 
conservative unit in the banking houses of the city. 


This bank was organized by John Hough in 1869, and opened 
for business just north of the alley between Berry and Main, on 
Calhoun street. The first deposit noted in book No. 45 was dated 
July 1 2th of that year. It was managed by John Hough, who< was 
largely engaged in real estate and insurance business, and his as- 
sistant, David C. Fisher. The officers were : Alexander C. Hues- 
tis, president; Warren H. Withers, vice-president; George Dewald, 
second vice-president; John Hough, treasurer; E. L. Sturgis, secre- 
tary. John H. Bass, William T. Pratt, Henry Baker, John Morris, 
George Dewald and Warren H. Withers composed the board of 
investment. It had quite a volume of business, but the laws of the 


state so restricted the investments of savings banks that it did not 
long remain in existence, and upon Mr. Hough's death, January 30, 
1875, its affairs were fully wound up. 

Prior to its organization Mr. Hough had operated on a small 
scale a bank of deposit and discount, but little is known of it now. 
The savings bank was moved to the new building on East Berry 
street in 1872. 


This private bank was established early in the '70s in a room on 
Calhoun street opposite the court house, and later removed to the 
room of the Aveline House block, now occupied by the Commercial 
Bank of Straus Brothers & Company. 

Mr. Lauferty had been a successful clothing merchant and closed 
out that business to become a private banker, continuing in that 
line with his son, Alexander Lauferty, as his assistant, until his 
death about 1891. It was simply a bank of loans and discounts. 


About the same time James Cheney, late deceased, opened a pri- 
vate bank of loans and discounts only. It did not have a long ca- 
reer, and was closed by the proprietor voluntarily. 


This bank was established as a private bank in 1902 and is lo- 
cated in the Aveline House block on Calhoun street. It is managed 
in connection with a large real estate business, conducted by the firm 
of Straus Brothers & Company in several sections of the coun- 
try, with their principal office in Ligonier. The original firm: con- 
sisted of three brothers, who came in the '50s from the Rheinpfalz, 
in Germany. In 1870 they established the Citizens' Bank in Ligo- 
nier, which still exists. On the demise of the elders the business 
was assumed by Simon J. Straus, Isaac D. Straus and Abe Gold- 
smith, sons and son-in-law of Jacob Straus. In 1898 they organ- 


ized, at Albion, the Farmers' Bank, with Abe Ackerman as man- 
ager, and in 1902 he came to Fort Wayne as manager of the Com- 
mercial Bank. In 1904 they established the Auburn State Bank 
under the management of Jacob Schloss, and the State Bank of To- 
peka, Indiana, managed by J. N. Babcock. Each of these banks has 
a real estate department, and all are managed from the principal of- 
fice, or headquarters, at Ligonier. 

Max C. Meyer is cashier of the Commercial Bank at Fort 
Wayne. In 1904 Straus Brothers & Company claim to have done 
a real estate business of thirty thousand acres, amounting to 


This bank, situated at 127 East Berry street, was established in 
1903 by the Sol Mier Company, bankers and extensive dealers in 
farm lands in the Central states. Although the latter is the chief 
feature of their business, they conduct a general banking business, 
and have every facility for modern banking, and are provided with 
burglar-proof safes, safety deposit vaults and all that banking busi- 
ness requires. 

The Sol Mier Company, composed of Sol Mier, Abe Mier, Sam- 
uel Mier and Isaac Rose, is also proprietor of the Mier State Bank 
at Ligonier, Indiana, formerly the banking house of Sol Mier, es- 
tablished in 1855, and the Cromwell State Bank at Cromwell, In- 
diana, and has real estate offices at each of these places, and at La- 
grange, Indiana, and Constantine, Michigan. Sol Mier, the organ- 
izer and head, is a man of enterprise, of advanced ideas and of care- 
ful consideration. He has qualities which have made him one of 
the most successful business men in the Central West. 

Isaac Rose is the manager of the bank and real estate business at 
Fort Wayne, with Harry Soloman as cashier. 


This bank was organized as a private bank July 22, 1891, under 
the name of the Citizens' Bank. J. B. Niezer and C. P. Mitchell 
were proprietors, and Mitchell was cashier. It incorporated under 


the laws of the state October 24, 1892, with a paid-up capital of 
thirty thousand dollars, under the name of Citizens' State Bank of 
Monroeville. Its first officers were : J. B. Niezer, president ; Chris- 
tian Youse, vice-president, and C. P. Mitchell, cashier. In 1902 
Mr. Youse died and Henry Krick became vice-president. It owns 
its own banking house and reports a surplus of $4,299; deposits, 
$130,147; loans and discounts, $103,638; bonds and real estate, 
$9,740; cash and exchange, $43,016. Certainly it has a flourishing 
business for a country village, and is a proof of the substantial pros- 
perity of the county. 


This banking house was organized at Woodburn, an active sta- 
tion on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, in 1902, 
under the banking laws of the state, with a capital of twenty-five 
thousand dollars. It reports as follows : 


Loans and discounts $51,321.88 

Overdrafts 29.86 

Due from Banks and bankers 6,332.46 

Banking house 1,386.43 

Furniture and fixtures 1,292.17 

Current expenses 223.43 

Interest paid 31.99 

Cash on hand — 

Currency $2,351.00 

Specie 1,896.73 4,247.73 

Cash items 36.88 

Total $64,902.83 


Capital stock paid in $25,000.00 

Surplus fund 1 750.00 

Undivided profits 116.37 

Discount, exchange and interest 246.19 

Deposits subject to check 14,819.35 

Certificates on deposit 23,970.92 

Total $64,902.83 



This bank was first organized in 1902 at Zanesville, Allen county, 
under the name of Knight Brothers, as a private bank. The Knight 
brothers were merchants and took up banking as a side line, and 
when the state banking law of 1905 was enacted they determined to 
incorporate under the law, and did so, with a capital of ten thou- 
sand dollars, and with O. A. Knight as president and A. L. Knight, 
cashier. It exchanges through the Old National Bank of Fort 
Wayne, and is doing a nourishing business. 


The trust companies formed here are perhaps not strictly banks, 
although they transact nearly every branch of banking business ex- 
cept that of issuing notes as a circulating medium, and loaning on 
personal property. They issue certificates of deposit, pay interest on 
deposits, pay interest on savings accounts and loan money on real es- 
tate security, and form a large part of the financial machinery of 
Fort Wayne. 

The Fort Wayne Trust Company was formed by filing its articles 
of incorporation April 6, 1898, with a capital stock of two hundred 
thousand dollars, half of which was paid in. Its officers were: 
Henry C. Paul, president; Samuel M. Foster, vice-president; A. Ely 
Hoffman, second vice-president; William Paul, secretary, and Wil- 
liam J. Probasco, assistant secretary. Its directors were: 
Henry C. Paul, George W. Pixley, Samuel M. Foster, Charles S. 
Bash, William E. Mossman, Charles A. Wilding, William J. Vesey, 
Andrew E. Hoffman, John C. Peters, Louis Fox, Gottlieb Haller 
and Ernest W. Cook. Upon the death of William Paul, Emmett 
H. McDonald became secretary. Its place of business is on the cor- 
ner of Main and Court streets, where the First National Bank com- 
menced and for many years carried on its business. 


This was organized as a corporation by the officers and stock- 
holders of the Allen County Loan and Savings Association, Decern- 


ber 14, 1899, with a capital of two hundred thousand dollars. Its 
officers were : John Ferguson, president ; F. L. Jones, first vice- 
president; Herman Michael, second vice-president; C. H. Newton, 
third vice-president, and Ernest W. Cook, secretary. The directors 
were : Ernest W. Cook, Owen N. Heaton, Charles W. Orr, Gott- 
lieb Haller, F. L. Jones, H. A. Keplinger, Isador Lehman, Herman 
Michael, George W. Beers, John P. Evans, John Ferguson, 
Charles H. Newton. The officers remain the same, only that Vice- 
President Newton resigned the office because of removing his resi- 
dence to Toledo, and Charles F. Pfeiffer was elected to fill the va- 
cancy. The directory has also undergone but little change, Owen 
N. Heaton being elected to the position of judge of the superior 
court and resigning as a director. W. D. Henderson was elected 
and later W. E. Doud and Carl Yaple were elected in place of C. W. 
Orr and George W. Beers, resigned. Clinton R. Wilson has been 
added to the official staff as assistant secretary. 

Its business is carried on in its own building at the southwest 
corner of Berry and Clinton streets, and consists of loans on mort- 
gage security and deposits and loans. Its annual volume of busi- 
ness is about one million two hundred thousand dollars and its as- 
sets are seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Its commodious 
and modern safety vaults for the accommodation of its patrons are 
among the best in the city, and its patronage is a large one. 


This company was organized June 26, 1903, with a capital stock 
of three hundred thousand dollars and the following officers: 
Charles A. Wilding, president; William E. Mossman, vice-presi- 
dent; Louis Fox, second vice-president; George W. Pixley, secre- 
tary; Frederick C. Heine, assistant secretary. The directors were: 
W. E. Mossman, Louis Fox, G. W. Pixley, C. A. Wilding, August 
Becker, D. N. Foster, F. L. Hunting, W. J. Vesey, Leo Freiburger, 
J. B. McKim, John Dreibelbiss and R. L. Romy. It was an out- 
growth of the Tri-State Building, Loan and Savings Association, 
which was established in 1889. The changes in business methods 
during the time had made the building and loan system a secondary 


instead of a leading part of the business, and the stockholders and 
officers of one became the stockholders and officers of the other 
without material change, and the business of both is conducted in 
the Tri-State building on the corner of Berry and Court streets. Its 
last financial statement is as follows : 


Loans secured by mortgage $564,397.23 

Collateral loans 54,703.12 

Miscellaneous bonds 43,186.61 

Current expenses 1,537.37 

Unpaid capital 150,000.00 

Advanced for tax 152.01 

Auxiliary saving banks 85.00 

Cash on hand and in banks 114,702.00 

Total $928,763.34 


Capital stock $300,000.00 

Surplus and undivided profits 2,679.41 

Interest and fees ,. . 10,446.61 

Unpaid dividends 157.50 

Due on mortgage loan made 16,888.54 

Deposits 598,591.28 

Total $928,763.34 


This institution opened for business April 6, 1903, on Calhoun 
street, between Berry and Wayne, with a capital of two hundred 
thousand dollars, half of which was paid in, and the following offi- 
cers : William L. Moellering, president ; Robert W. T. DeWald, 
vice-president; James M. McKay, second vice-president, and Pat- 
rick J. McDonald, secretary and treasurer. The directors were: 
James M. McKay, William M. Moellering, M. A. McDougal, Pat 
J. McDonald, Henry Beadell, August E. C. Becker, William P. 
Breen, William L. Moellering, B. Fitzpatrick, Robert W. T. De- 
Wald, John Morris, Jr., and William Stephan. Its last financial 
report is as follows: 


Mortgage and collateral loans $603,482.14 1 

Fort Wayne City Bonds 10,935.45 



Unpaid capital stock $100,000.00 

Furniture and fixtures 3,002.26 

Accrued interest 5,114.19 

Insurance department 106.75 

Expenses 3,719.11 

Cash on hand 101,500.73 

Total $827,860.63 


Capital stock $200,000.00 

Surplus 4,389.00 

Interest earned , 14,380.48 

Dividends unpaid 171.00 

Deposits 608,920.15 

Total $827,860.63 

Reviewing the banking history of the county, it is a history to 
be proud of, and challenges comparison. Extending over a period 
of nearly three-quarters of a century, there is no record of a failure 
of any bank, state, national or private. If one closed its doors, it 
did so because the managers desired to close them, and not because 
compelled to do so. Three times there have been panics, which pro- 
ducd a "run" upon as many of the financial institutions, and each 
time the doors stood open, the disbursing officers were increased in 
number, every one received his deposit back, until the tide turned and 
those who drew out their deposits early came back to redeposit 
them, and the floodtide which threatened, ebbed silently away. And 
in all that time there was no defalcation, no official dishonesty to re- 
cord, except the one lone instance McCulloch has mentioned in the 
far distant past. The stock quotations for August, 1905, were as 
follows, the first figure quoted in each instance being the price bid, 
the second figure price asked: Hamilton National Bank, 255, 310; 
White National Bank, 180; Old National Bank, 158, 175; First 
National Bank, 158; German-American, 105; Fort Wayne Trust, 
70, 90 ; Citizens' Trust, — , 58 ; People's Trust, 56 ; Tri-State Trust, 
57, and goes far to prove the standing claimed for these institu- 





This association was organized April 7, 1890, with a capital stock 
of two hundred thousand dollars. Officers : Gottlieb Heller, presi- 
dent; Charles W. Orr, vice-president; Ernest W. Cook, secretary; 
H. A. Keplinger, treasurer, and O. N. Heaton, attorney. 


This association, which was organized on April 11, 1884, has a 
capital stock of one million five hundred thousand dollars, P. J. 
McDonald is the efficient secretary. The regular meetings are on 
the first Tuesday after the 18th of each month, the annual meetings 
occurring on the second Wednesday in May. This association does 
an extensive business and is one of the solid institutions of the kind 
in the state. 


This institution, of which H. Buck is president, Charles Buek 
secretary and Charles Stellhorn treasurer, is also a popular and in- 
fluential organization, doing business largely among the Germans 
of the city, although extensively patronized by the public irrespect- 
ive of race. 



This society, which has its offices at No. 119 West Main 
street, was organized on March 22, 1893, and has enjoyed a con- 
tinuously prosperous growth from that time to the present. The 
president is Paul Richter; vice-president, Fred M. Geusenkamp; 
secretary, Carl J. Weber; treasurer, William Meyers. 


This institution, which is incorporated, has had a career of 
marked success and is today doing an extensive business, its influ- 
ence in the material advancement of the city being manifold and 
far-reaching. The present officers of the association are as follows : 
President, D. N. Foster; secretary, C. A. Wilding; treasurer, Jo- 
seph W. Bell ; attorney, W. J. Vesey. 


This popular and widely patronized organization has a capital 
of a half million dollars and occupies a conspicuous place among 
kindred associations of the city. Daniel Keatz is president and J. 
F. Bickle, secretary. 





It is not the purpose in an article of the scope and limitations 
of this review to attempt a detailed history of the origin, growth 
and present status of all the industrial enterprises of Fort Wayne, 
the first city of the state in the number of its manufacturing inter- 
ests, and the third in the volume of production; the principal object 
being to notice at some length several of the more important es- 
tablishments, with incidental reference to those of secondary rank. 
With a full appreciation of the difficulty attending an effort to trace 
correctly the history of an enterprise, however small or unimportant, 
the writer has endeavored only in a general way to note the various 
changes that have occurred in the growth and development of the 
several representative plants noted in the following pages, omitting 
as much as possible collateral data, and relying almost entirely upon 
basal facts. 

From its situation as an inland city, in the midst of a country 
of almost unexhaustible material resources, and about midway be- 
tween the populous cities of the East, West and Northwest, Fort 
Wayne, when but a mere frontier hamlet, gave promise of ultimately 
becoming an independent trading point, besides attracting attention 
as a favorable center for industrial enterprise. Time has fully 
demonstrated the correctness of the views entertained by public 


spirited men of the early day, to the effect that the future growth 
and prosperity of the place would depend, to an unusual degree, upon 
a location which presented extraordinary inducements for com- 
mercial expansion, unrivaled advantages in the way of manufacture 
and prospects of facilities for traffic such as few towns in the West 
could boast. The completion of the great avenues of travel and 
traffic between New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburg and other great 
cities of the east and the numerous populous centers of the West, also 
the splendid railways running north and south, have tended greatly 
to the upbuilding of Fort Wayne, by affording ample shipping 
facilities, the influence of which in the development of the city's 
industrial interests has been of inestimable value. By means of 
these avenues the city is brought into direct communication with 
all parts of the United States, north, south, east and west, thus 
making the markets of the world easily accessible, and furnishing 
a rapid and reasonable transit to the same, the result being the 
continuous growth of industrial enterprises which in number, magni- 
tude and far-reaching influence has made Fort Wayne one of the 
leading manufacturing cities of the west and given it wide publicity 
in this country and abroad. 

The history of the city's industries dates from a very early day. 
No sooner had the place assumed the dignity of a village than 
various artisans began to arrive and ply their respective trades, and 
within a comparatively brief period mills were erected along the 
different water courses, shops and factories were built, and the hum 
of industry marked the progress of country and town, promising 
much for the future prosperity of both. 

It would be interesting to follow the history of those early in- 
dustries were all the data accessible, but many of the essential facts 
pertaining to them have long since faded from the memory of man, 
and the buildings, disappearing with the several owners, have left 
only here and there a few faint traces to mark the sites they occupied. 
Among the first industries was the manufacture of lumber, as dense 
forests of the finest timber afforded abundant means from which to 
draw, and the streams furnished motive power for the mills until 
the introduction of steam and a much improved grade of machinery 
rendered primitive methods obsolete. Flouring mills were also built 


in an early day, and as the town increased in population and gave 
promise of becoming an important trading and distributing point, 
other lines of enterprise were established, including the manufacture 
of leather, barrels, cooperage material, fish oil, furniture, wagons, 
various kinds of iron work, hubs, spokes, wheels, textile fabrics, 
especially woolen goods, and many other interests, some of which 
prospered, while others ran their course in a short time and went 
out of existence. 

Marquis & Holcomb were among the first tanners, engaging in 
the business as early as 1828 in a building on the southeast corner 
of Columbia and Harrison streets, the establishment subsequently 
passing through different hands, and continuing until late in the 
'40s, Robinson & Page being the last proprietors. Henry Work and 
Samuel Hanna erected a tannery of forty vats in 1843, on tne north 
side of the canal, west of Barr street, which was afterwards burned, 
and replaced by a brick building known as the Phoenix Tannery, the 
latter being in operation until vacated in the year 1854. 

Madore Truckey came to the town in 1828, and engaged in the 
cooperage business, making kegs and barrels for the Indians, and do- 
ing a fairly prosperous business until about 1834. The firm of Ball 
& Johnson, in the latter year, started quite a flourishing cooper shop 
on lot No. 546 Hanna's addition, and later the manufacture of va- 
rious kinds of cooperage material, such as staves, heading and truss 
hoops, enlisted the attention of a number of enterprising men. 

In 1839 Jacob C. Bowser and James Story established a foun- 
dry and machine shop on lot No. 86 of the original plat, which was 
operated by horse power, the building, a substantial frame structure, 
being forty by forty feet, and well equipped. It was burned in 1840, 
and the following year Messrs, Bowser & Story rebuilt on the south 
side of Water street, lot No. 17 original plat, subsequently extending 
the plant over lot No. 18, also lot No. 565, Hanna's addition. The 
enterprise was conducted quite successfully, being enlarged and 
greatly improved from time to time, the firm of McLachlan & Olds 
becoming proprietors in 1876; two years later the style of the firm 
was changed to C. L. Olds & Company, by which it continued to be 
known for a number of years. 

A planing mill was established in 1853 by the firm of Humphrey 


& Hurd, which ran several years, and yielded a handsome income to 
the proprietors. Prior to the above date, about the year 1841, Wil- 
liam Robinson erected a sash factory, which was operated until 1873, 
passing through different hands the meantime, Fronfield & Todd 
being the last owners. 

The Fort Wayne Steel Plow Works was started in 1852, and 
while in operation did a fair business, being patronized principally 
by local tradesmen. The manufacture of stoves was carried on for 
some time with moderate success, as were various other kinds of 
iron works, some of which are still in operation, being noticed on 
other pages of this chapter. 

The making of distilled liquors was also an early industry of 
Fort Wayne, but crude methods did not long enable the proprietors 
to compete with larger establishments elsewhere, and they gradually 
went out of business and allowed their buildings to fall into decay. 

A successful plumbing and brass works establishment was 
started in 1855 by the firm of Barker & Oakey, the enterprise subse- 
quently passing into the hands of Alfred Hattersley, who conducted 
the business for a number of years with encouraging financial re- 
sults. Hamilton & Company in the early '70s erected what was 
known as the Spice Mills, on the west side of Clinton street, which 
afforded employment for a number of men, and did a remunerative 
business during the time it was in operation. 

Another enterprise which grew to large proportions and did 
much to spread the name of the city abroad was the Western Bridge 
Works, established in 1877 by Olds & Wheelock, for the manufac- 
turing of iron bridges exclusively. The firm selected large build- 
ings on Water and Harrison streets and the canal, which were fully 
equipped, and when running at its normal capacity about seventy 
men were employed at the plant, besides four gangs to handle and 
place the bridges which the company sold and shipped. For a con- 
siderable period the firm carried on a thriving business, building 
bridges under their own letters patent and disposing of them through- 
out Indiana and other states. After a successful career of a number 
of years, the manufacture of bridges gradually declined and the es- 
tablishment was merged into other lines of enterprise. 



The country adjacent to Fort Wayne being heavily timbered, the 
manufacture of lumber early became one of the leading industries 
of the town, a number of parties engaging in the saw milling busi- 
ness long before the place had attained to the dignity of a city. One 
of the first lumber mills of any importance was established in 1868 
by J. R., A. E. and W. H. Hoffman, and stood on lot No. 19, Rock- 
hill's addition. It was enlarged from time to time until the plant 
covered the square from Van Buren to Jackson street, off Main, be- 
sides occupying a number of additional lots over which the material 
extended. This was a band saw mill, and during the time it was in 
operation did a large and flourishing business. Krudop & Company 
built a fine lumber mill in Hanna's addition, on the north side of the 
canal, in 1862, and continued the business for a time, when the en- 
terprise passed into other hands, various parties owning it before it 
ceased operation. The size of the mill was two stories, twenty-eight 
by sixty feet, with circular saw of sixty inches diameter, the output 
averaging four thousand feet of lumber per day. 

The Baker mill, on lot No. 7, county addition, was perhaps the 
first steam lumber mill in the town, having been established early in 
the '40s by John, George and Jacob Baker, their brother Henry be- 
coming a member of the firm in 1848. In 1850 the mill changed 
hands, Jacob, Kilian and Henry continuing the business until 1867, 
at which time Henry retired; Kilian Baker became sole proprietor 
in 1878, and ran the business with marked success until a few years 
ago, when he disposed of the property to other parties, by whom it 
is still operated. 

Among other saw-mills that have been in operation from time to 
time were the Edsall steam mill, built in 1848, in Hanna's addition, 
north of the canal; the Olds mill, established in 1879, on East 
Coombs street by Henry Olds, and the Empire mills, erected on the 
south side of the canal basin, in the fall of 1872, by J. C. Peters, all 
of which were well patronized and yielded handsome incomes to 
their respective proprietors. Although not so extensive as formerly, 
the manufacture of lumber is still classed among the important in- 
dustries of Fort Wayne, the following firms being engaged in the 


business : The Hilker Brothers, who operate a large steam mill at 
the intersection of Schick and Hanna streets; Smith & Randall, 
whose plant, near Broadway, on the Wabash Railroad, has an exten- 
sive and lucrative patronage, and the Hoffman Brothers, who do a 
satisfactory business at No. 800 West Main street. 


In every new settlement one of the first and most important con- 
siderations is that of supplying the family with breadstuff, to which 
end various devices and expedients have been resorted to, including 
the tin grater, the mortar and pestle, the handmill, following which 
was the primitive pair of stone buhrs operated by horse power, and 
still later the little mill constructed near a spring or stream, the fall 
of which supplied the motive power. A mill site in pioneer times 
was considered a valuable property, and fortunate indeed the indi- 
vidual on whose land was found sufficient water to operate the sim- 
ple machinery of the mill upon which the settlers relied for their 
supply of meal, and which above all other improvements in the com- 
munity was most highly prized. 

The first grist mill was built as early as 1827, by James Barnett 
and Samuel Hanna, and stood on the west bank of the St. Mary's 
river, near where the stream is crossed by the Bluffton road. Later 
Louis H. Davis purchased the mill, and he in turn sold it to Asa 
Fairfield and Samuel C. Freeman, by whom it was operated until 
A. C. Beaver became proprietor a few years afterward. It was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1878, the last owner being George Esmond. A 
company was afterward organized by Mr. Esmond for the erection 
of a new mill, which was completed in due time, and stood on the 
site of the former structure. It was a decided improvement on 
its predecessor, being built of brick, three stories high, forty-four by 
sixty feet in area and equipped with three turbine wheels and five 
runs of buhrs, capable of grinding eighty barrels of flour per day. 
This mill did a thriving business until 1888, when it also fell a prey 
to the flames, and was never rebuilt. The City Mills, erected in 
1842-3, by Allen Hamilton and Jesse Williams, stood on the north 
bank of the canal, between Clinton and Calhoun streets, and did a 


very successful business as long" as it was in operation. Owing to the 
water supply being cut off by the New York, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railroad, it was afterward converted into a warehouse, and as such 
was used for a number of years. The Woodlawn, or Wines mill, 
was long one of the best known of Fort Wayne's flourishing mills. 
It was erected in 1838 by Marshall Wines, at a dam across the Mau- 
mee, near the foot of Harrison street, and a short distance west of 
the canal lock. Hanna & Bird subsequently purchased the property, 
and still later it passed through the hands of different parties, the 
last proprietor being E. A. Orff, during whose ownership it was de- 
stroyed by fire, about the year 1879. This mill cost the sum of six 
thousand dollars, and during its most prosperous period had a daily 
capacity of fifty barrels of flour, which commanded a high price by 
reason of its superior quality. The Empire or Stone Mill was one 
of the largest flouring mills in the northern part of the state, as well 
as one of the most successful. It was begun in 1843 by Samuel Ed- 
sall, completed in 1845, an d when operated at its full capacity pro- 
duced two hundred barrels per day. It was subsequently remodeled 
and supplied with improved machinery, and continued in operation 
until a recent date. 

One of the oldest mills in this section of the country was erected 
about the year 1830 by Rudisill & Johns ; it stood on the St. Joseph 
river, one mile north' of Fort Wayne, received its motive power from 
that stream, and is said to have been the first mill in Allen county to 
manufacture flour for the general trade. Other mills were built from 
time to time, the most successful of which was a large, three-story 
steam mill, erected in 1857 by the firm of Comparet & Hubbell, and 
destroyed by fire about four years later. Another mill on the same 
site was built in the year 1862 by D. F. Comparet, who invested 
thirty-five thousand dollars in the enterprise. This mill passed 
through various hands and did a prosperous business until 1876, 
when, like its predecessor, the building was wrecked by the fire fiend 
and rendered unfit for milling purposes. The manufacture of flour 
continues to be an important industry, and at this time several mills 
are in operation, the proprietors being among the enterprising busi- 
ness men of the city. 

The Bloomingdale Mills, on Wells street, is a finely equipped es- 


tablishment, making* a high grade of flour, for which there is a wide 
demand from both the local and general markets. 

C. Tresselt & Sons, whose mill is located at the intersection of 
Clinton street and the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, do 
an extensive local and general business, shipping to the leading cities 
of Indiana and neighboring states, the fine grade of their brands of 
flour being their best recommendation. The gentlemen interested 
in this enterprise are experienced mill men, and as a firm have much 
more than a local reputation in business circles. 

Among the several mills that supply the markets of Fort Wayne 
and other points is the Mayflower Mill, located at Nos. 1 18-120 
West Columbia street, which is operated on quite an extensive scale 
and doing a business second to no other mill of the same capacity 
in the city. The popularity of its several brands of flour, especially 
the celebrated "Silver Dust," has created a great demand among the 
merchants and dealers of Fort Wayne, and it is doubtful if any 
other mill in the northern part of the state can claim a larger local 

The Volland Milling Company operate a small, but very finely 
equipped, mill on Columbia street, and manufacture several brands 
of flour which in point of excellence are equal to the best in the mar- 
ket, and which have a large sale, taxing the capacity of the mill to 
meet. The mill is supplied with machinery for the manufacture of 
flour by the latest improved process, and the production is mostly 
disposed of to local dealers. 

The City Mills, one of the largest and most important interests 
of the kind in Fort Wayne, is situated at the corner of Clinton street 
and the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, and commands a 
large and lucrative patronage in the home markets and elsewhere, 
extensive shipments being made to various points in Indiana and 
other states. The latest improvements in flour making have been 
adopted by the proprietors, and wherever sold the output has easily 
held its own, ranking high in all the essential qualities of first-class 
flour and losing nothing when compared with the fancy grades from 
the leading mills of the country. 

Another mill that has earned an enviable reputation by the supe- 
rior excellence of its make of flour is the Globe Mills, at No. 301 


East Columbia street, which is operated at its full capacity to supply 
the demands of the market for its output. The proprietors are among 
the most experienced mill men of the city, and the interest they mani- 
fest in keeping in touch with the latest improvements in flour mak- 
ing bespeaks for them a continuance of the successful business which 
they now command. 

The manufacture of several brands of cereal foods, which of re- 
cent years have come into general use throughout the country, is 
now included in the long list of Fort Wayne's industrial interests, a 
large establishment for the making of this popular product being in 
operation at No. 2039 South Fairfield avenue, under the name of 
the South Side Cereal Mills. The success of the enterprise is at- 
tested to by the rapid growth of the business and the high reputation 
of its brand of goods wherever sold, the local patronage being very 
satisfactory, while large quantities are consigned to other points. 
The mill is ably managed by men of wide experience in this line of 
manufacture, and its creditable standing in industrial and commer- 
cial circles is sufficient assurance of its permanency as one of the 
city's prosperous business enterprises. 


"In taking up the subject of the greater manufacturing interests 
of Fort Wayne," says a local writer, "the Bass Foundry and Ma- 
chine Shops naturally suggest themselves because of their over- 
whelming importance to the city and her interests." These words 
well serve as an index to an enterprise which, under the direction 
and masterly leadership of a captain of industry, than whom this 
country knows no greater, has grown from a modest beginning into 
a business of such collossal proportions that it not only greatly sur- 
passes any other enterprise of the kind on the American continent, 
but has made its influence felt in every civilized country on the 
globe, the name being familiar wherever railroads have been con- 
structed and in marts of trade where the highest and most skillful 
results of inventive genius are to be found. To quote again from 
the author of the introductory sentence, "While it is not as old an 
institution as some of its compeers in the Empire State and New 


England, it wears the distinguished honor of making some lines of 
manufactured products which in quantity and quality are without 
successful rivals in the world," to which may be added that in a cer- 
tain important sense it occupies a distinctly unique place among the 
great industrial enterprises of the country, in that ever since its 
origin, over a half century ago, it has been under the splendid man- 
agement of the same presiding genius to whom its phenomenal 
growth and series of continued successes are due. The Bass Foun- 
dry and Machine Company more than any other industrial estab- 
lishment has added to the growth and development of Fort Wayne 
and given the city publicity, in view of which it has become an ob- 
ject of pride to our citizens, all of whom have felt its influence and 
directly or indirectly been benefited by its presence. 

The history of this great enterprise dates from the year 1853, 
at which time a machine shop was established on the site of the 
present plant by a firm known as Jones, Bass & Company, under 
whose management the business rapidly advanced until within a 
comparatively brief period it became one of the leading institutions 
of the kind, not only in Fort Wayne, but in the northern part of the 
state. With several changes in the personnel of the company, it ran 
as a private concern until 1873, when it was reorganized and incor- 
porated as the Bass Foundry and Machine A/Vorks, with John H. 
Bass, president; John I. White, secretary, and R. J. Fisher, treasu- 
rer. With a largely increased capital and greater facilities in the 
matter of equipment, the business under the new regime was given 
an impetus which soon placed the shops among the foremost of the 
kind in the country and earned for the company a reputation second 
to that of no other in the land. Under the efficient management of 
John H. Bass, president and principal owner, it rapidly extended its 
influence, especially in railway circles, and continued to grow in 
magnitude and importance until, as already indicated, its chief prod- 
uct, car wheels, became widely known throughout the world, being 
purchased by the leading roads of this country and Europe, besides 
large shipments made to the Orient. The interim from 1873 to 
1898, which witnessed the phenomenal success of the enterprise and 
the extension of its business to the leading markets of the world, 
was also characterized by changes in the firm from time to time, until 


it was finally deemed advisable to again reorganize, which was duly 
effected the latter year under the name of the Bass Foundry and Ma- 
chine Company, which, in addition to the Port Wayne plant, in- 
cluded a large foundry at Lenoir, Tennessee, and a blast furnace for 
the manufacture of pig iron at Rock Run, Alabama. As already in- 
dicated, the plant at Fort Wayne makes a specialty of car wheels, of 
which it manufactures a greater number than any other establish- 
ment in the United States, and which are sold to all the leading roads 
in this country, Canada, Mexico and Cuba, besides a large trade in 
the various countries of Europe, the Philippine Islands, China and 
Japan. In addition to car wheels, the company does a general foun- 
dry and machine shop business, besides making all kinds of castings 
for railroads, and other heavy castings, in fact all grades of castings 
used by manufacturing establishments throughout the world, large 
shipments of which are made to various foreign countries, to say 
nothing of the colossal proportions to which the local trade in this 
product has grown. 

Not the least important of the several lines of work done by this 
great establishment is the manufacture of the celebrated Bass Corliss 
engines, which are famed everywhere for their remarkable excel- 
lence in points of material, construction and wearing capacity, the 
demand for these ponderous machines coming from nearly every civ- 
ilized country on the globe. A fact worthy of note in this connec- 
tion is that the Bass works is the only establishment in the world 
that builds the Corliss engine "from the ground up," the company 
owning and operating its own mines, smelting and reducing its own 
ore, and manufacturing ready for use every particle of iron and 
other metal which enters into the construction of these wonderful 
products of scientific invention. 

Another important feature of the plant is the boiler shop, in 
which all kinds of boilers are made, including those for locomotives 
and stationary engines, the water tube and tubular types and others, 
in addition to which the company manufactures all grades of sheet 
iron, besides doing an extensive business in the forging of heavy 
work for other establishments and the making of heavy machinery 
of various kinds, the forge being the largest in the country, as well 
as the most complete. 


The moulding department, in which there is nothing lacking in 
the matter of equipment, is also large, and manned by a full force of 
skilled workmen under the direction of a foreman whose efficiency 
and skill are attested to by a period of service greater perhaps than 
that of any other official of the kind in the United States, having 
been with the company continually for over fifty years. Indeed, the 
employees in every department have been selected with special ref- 
erence to their ability and faithfulness to the company's interests, 
many of them having spent the greater part of a lifetime in the serv- 
ice of the firm. The relations between proprietors and employees 
have always been characterized by a reciprocity of interests, nothing 
being permitted to interfere with the spirit of amity and good will 
which from the beginning has obtained in the establishment. Since 
the origin of the business, over fifty years ago, the Bass Company 
has disbursed to its employees many millions of dollars, which vast 
revenue has furnished a prosperous livelihood to hundreds of trades- 
men, besides being of untold benefit in advancing the material wel- 
fare of the city. Mr. Bass has always paid the highest wages com- 
patible with the interests of his business, and during the many years 
that his works have been in operation hundreds of his employees have 
been enabted to purchase and improve their own homes, to live in hap- 
piness and content and to fill respected and honorable places in the 
community. Some idea of the magnitude of the enterprise may be 
obtained from the fact that the plant in Fort Wayne alone, which 
covers an area of over twenty acres, requires the labor of seventeen 
hundred men, at a monthly pay-roll of nearly eighty thousand dol- 
lars, while the amount of business done every year amounts to the 
enormous sum of three million dollars. 

In order to supply the large and constantly growing demand for 
their various products, the company some years ago established 
branch plants in Chicago, St. Louis and other points, the business of 
which added to that of the parent establishment represents the sum 
of five million dollars annually, this sum being largely in excess of 
that of any other company in the United States engaged in the same 
lines of manufacture. Reference has already been made to the area 
of the main plant in Fort Wayne ; suffice it to state that the buildings 
of the same are substantially constructed of brick and iron and thor- 


oughly equipped with the latest improved machinery and devices, 
nearly all of which are made in the company's works by skillful me- 
chanics employed for this especial purpose. The company owns large 
tracts of valuable mineral land, twenty-one thousand acres of which 
are in the richest ore-producing region of Alabama, this being pro- 
nounced by experts to be among the finest iron land in the world. In 
addition to iron, which abounds in seemingly inexhaustible quanti- 
ties, and of the finest quality, this tract is remarkably rich in various 
other minerals, notably among which are unusually valuable depos- 
its of high-grade boxite, which is shipped principally to Philadelphia, 
where it commands a price considerably in excess of the finest grades 
imported from France and other European countries. The iron from 
the Alabama lands is smelted at the town of Rock Run, where the 
company owns and operates a large blast furnace, which with the 
mining of the ore has become the leading industry in that part of the 
state, giving employment to a large number of men and adding 
greatly to the wealth and prosperity of the town and surrounding 
country. The Bass Foundry and Machine Company is officered at 
this time as follows: John H. Bass, president; C. T. Strawbridge, 
vice-president and secretary; F. S. Lightfoot, treasurer; the first- 
named owning the majority of the stock and being the directing and 
controlling spirit of the enterprise. 


This colossal enterprise, although of comparatively recent origin, 
is admittedly the largest and most successful of the kind not only in 
the United States, but in the world; had added much to Fort 
Wayne's reputation as an important manufacturing point, and, with 
an influence in the industrial world such as few establishments exert, 
its presence is a source of pride to the city, besides affording remu- 
nerative employment to a small army of workmen who depend for 
their livelihood upon the different merchants and tradesmen, thus 
contributing to the benefit of all classes and bearing its full share in 
the material development of the community. 

The history of the Western Gas Construction Company begins 
with the year 1888, at which time O. N. Guldlin, a mechanical engi- 


neer of ripe experience, especially skilled as an inventor and manu- 
facturer of apparatus for the storage and handling of artificial il- 
luminating gas, perceiving what he considered a favorable opening 
for an engineering firm in the West, took advantage of the same by 
forming a partnership at Fort Wayne with F. D. Moses and W. A. 
Croxton, Mr. Guldlin being elected engineer and manager of the 
enterprise, and the other two superintendent and secretary, respect- 

Opening a modest office of a single room, the new firm at once 
began perfecting plans for future action, and it was not long until a 
goodly amount of business was secured, the work of manufacture 
being done by various shops and foundries in the city. Notwith- 
standing the favorable auspices under which the enterprise was in- 
augurated and the constantly increasing volume of business, Mr. 
Moses soon withdrew, and subsequently, in 1890, Mr. Croxton also 
severed his connection with the firm, although the demand for ap- 
paratus had become so great by that time as to justify more commo- 
dious offices and call for increased facilities of manufacture. 

Immediately after the dissolution of the original firm a new 
company was organized and incorporated, with Mr. Guldlin as the 
principal owner and president, which position he has since retained, 
and in the discharge of the duties of which he has displayed not only 
a high order of executive ability, but a critical knowledge of the busi- 
ness demonstrating thorough mastery of the craft. 

From a voluminous historical and descriptive circular recently 
issued by the company, in which is carefully traced the career of the 
enterprise from its inception to the present time, the compiler of this 
article assumes the privilege of quoting quite liberally, said pamphlet 
containing data more complete and reliable perhaps than could be 
obtained from any other source. Following the organization of the 
new firm, a vigorous policy of introducing originality in design of 
gas apparatus resulted in a steadily growing business, and 
on the expiration of the Lowe patent on water gas ap- 
paratus in 1892, the company, which had previously given con- 
siderable attention to this process, entered into the market with its 
design and several contracts were secured. This branch of the busi- 
ness was then vigorously pushed, and has ever since been given spe- 


cial attention, a number of patents being applied for and allowed, 
covering the development of the apparatus, and which development 
has continued, but with additional patents still pending, as repre- 
sented in the perfected type of water gas apparatus now built by the 
company, and in operation in some of the largest gas companies in 
the country. The special design of double gate valves for gas works 
was designed and patented during the earlier years, and by their 
popularity materially increased the company's business. 

By 1893 it was clearly demonstrated that the volume of business 
was greatly in excess of what could be systematically handled, being 
entirely dependent on outside shops for the execution of the work; 
accordingly, in that year about twenty-eight lots adjoining the tracks 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad were purchased and the original ma- 
chine shop erected, this being a substantial brick building, sixty-five 
by one hundred feet ground space, and well adapted to the object 
for which designed; a commodious office building adjoining the 
shops was also erected , which at the time of completion was thought 
to meet all the requirements of the clerical department. The contin- 
ued increase in the volume of the business was so great, however, 
that the capacity of the plant was soon overtaxed, rendering impera- 
tive still larger and better equipped quarters, to meet which demand 
the machine shop in 1895 was extended one hundred and fifty feet, 
which, with a complete installment of modern and special tools, was 
thought to afford not only the required relief, but sufficient working 
space for many years to come. 

Here again the calculations were in due time found to be in error, 
for the business continued to grow, notwithstanding the panic, and 
experiencing more and more difficulty in securing satisfactory foun- 
dry work as well as shell work, not only as to quality, but also deliv- 
eries, it was finally decided to establish both foundry and boiler 
shop; accordingly, in 1900 about one-third of the present shops were 
built, each having a capacity of from one to three times the com- 
pany's demands up to that time, the management feeling justified 
in assuming that the needs of the enterprise had thus been properly 
looked after for several years ahead. 

That the growth of the business was much underestimated was 
quickly demonstrated as to the boiler shop and foundry, by the ener- 


getic adaptation and introduction of new designs of gas apparatus, 
such as having taken up vigorously the introduction of an improved 
P. and A. tar extractor, with the earlier introduction of which Mr. 
Guldlin had been identified in 1882, when employed as engineer with 
another company. The popularity and resultant large orders of 
"Western Gas" design of valves, the introduction of the duplex puri- 
fier system, improved form of washers, both for coal gas and water 
gas, since further developed and patented, and further improve- 
ments in its water gas apparatus, as well as the introduction of the 
company's system of coal gas condensation with intermediate tar ex- 
traction, on which patent was granted, as well as the introduction 
in this country of the Holmes Patent Rotary Scrubber, which has 
already established such an unprecedented record abroad, resulted in 
such a volume of business that in 1902 it was clearly demonstrated 
that unless radical measures were taken for works of ample capacity 
it would be a question, and a very serious one, of not being able to 
fill orders as offered. It was then decided to act accordingly, disre- 
garding all previous consideration, and plans were immediately pre- 
pared for such radical extension and rebuilding of its works as is 
represented by the same as they stand today. 

Disregarding all ideas of conservatism, the company planned for 
still greater enlargement, purchasing additional grounds from time 
to time, until considerably in excess of twelve acres had been secured, 
the plant being gradually extended over the extra territory until it 
was all occupied. The equipment of machinery in all the depart- 
ments was replaced with electrical devices for driving the tools, com- 
plete heating and ventilating systems of the most approved types 
were introduced throughout the different buildings, the pattern and 
pattern storage departments, also the cleaning shop for castings, were 
separated from the foundry and taken care of in an independent 
sr n cious brick building of beautiful design and substantial construc- 
tion. The forge was also made into a separate department, a large 
building being erected for the purpose, while the foundry was trebled 
in capacity. The original machine shop being entirely remodeled, 
formed the central part of the new gallery design of modern ma- 
chine shop, equipped with double-decked electric traveling cranes, 
but in 1895 this department was also reconstructed, making it one of 


the finest and most thoroughly equipped shops of the kind in the 
country. In keeping with the several changes and improvements 
noted was the enlargement and refurnishing of the office building, 
which had also proven inadequate to the demands of the business, 
which, as already indicated, continued to grow in volume until more 
commodious quarters, as well as a greatly increased clerical force, 
became necessary. As reconstructed the office is certainly a model 
of convenience and elegance, consisting of a reception room, main 
office and accounting department, purchasing and shipping depart- 
ment, shop order and correspondence departments, engineer's room, 
a large room for draughting work and the president's private office, 
all finely finished and superbly furnished regardless of expense, 
neither money nor pains having been spared to make this feature of 
the establishment complete in its every detail, and attractive to the 
eye as well. 

During the period of reconstruction the business of the company 
continued to grow and expand, the plant being taxed to its utmost 
limit with a number of very urgent orders, including some of the 
largest contracts it had ever undertaken, but suffice it to state that 
regardless of the extra work required by the improvement, all de- 
mands were met and the plant finally brought into proper working 
condition with a full complement of employes numbering about four 
hundred, exclusive of the large force engaged in installing plants in 
different parts of the country. 

During the year 1903 was experienced considerable difficulty in 
obtaining satisfactory quotations and deliveries on gas holders, 
which certain customers requested should be included in their con- 
tracts. Up to the time indicated the company had maintained pleas- 
ant relations with the several firms making this branch of the busi- 
ness a specialty, but being convinced that the trouble would increase 
rather than diminish, the question of adding a holder department to 
the plant received very serious consideration, the consensus of opin- 
ion being decidedly in favor of making the improvement. Favorable 
action was taken in the spring of 1904, at which time the necessary 
work was begun, including the installation of a complete modern 
equipment of special tools for the construction of gas holders and 
steel tanks up to one million capacity, in addition to the previous 


complete equipment for general steel and wrought iron work. There 
was also a separate wood-working department added for the pur- 
pose of providing for the rapid growing business in the manufacture 
of Faben's patent trays for purifiers, which had become quite popu- 
lar, as had other patents by the same party, among them being an 
ammoniacal liquor and tar displacement apparatus for hydraulic 
mains as manufactured by the company. 

Following this enlargement of the plants, facilities for a number 
of detail improvements in gas works construction were added to the 
list of production, to the rapid extension of the business, and as a re- 
sult of two European trips by the president, during which he made 
close and critical investigations of the methods and designs of a 
number of plants in the different countries visited, business relations 
were established with the Manoschek firm, of Vienna, Austria, and 
the W. C. Holmes & Company, of Huddersfield, England, the prin- 
cipal object being the exchange of designs. In bringing about the 
relations indicated, as well as other important results, Mr. Guldlin 
was materially assisted by the co-labors of A. B. Slater, M. E., who 
is now in full charge of the engineering work of the company, and 
who for a number of years previous had been the president's confi- 
dential consulting engineer, his special qualifications being attested 
to by his membership in all the gas associations of national charac- 
ter in this country and abroad. 

It is proper, in this connection, to state that the hearty co-opera- 
tion received from practically all of its customers has materially 
aided the company in continuing the policy of improvements and 
raising the production to its present high standard of excellence. 
Suggestions coming from such sources have been carefully consid- 
ered by the engineers, and if deemed of value have been promptly 
followed up and acted upon, this, in connection with the established 
policy of following up all its contracts or apparatus sold to reach and 
maintain the highest possible efficiency, proving a source of gratifi- 
cation to the numerous patrons who by placing their work in the 
company's hands, gradually learned that they were not only buying a 
high-grade apparatus, but were also securing the continued advice 
and co-operation of skillful engineers in its operation. 

In the preceding paragraphs reference is frequently made to pat- 
ents, but it is proper to state that it has never been the policy of the 


company to sell or dispose of its apparatus on the basis of patent 
rights. With its extended manufacturing facilities, all of its pro- 
duction is disposed of on a manufacturing basis, the object of pat- 
enting improvements being simply for the purpose of protecting its 
own designs against unfair competition of such parties as have in 
no way contributed to the development of the apparatus, or who too 
often have been willing to copy the results after the company's ex- 
tensive and expensive experiments had terminated successfully. 

As indicated in a preceding paragraph, the Western Gas Con- 
struction Company is unquestionably the largest enterprise in the 
country devoted exclusively to the manufacture of gas apparatus, 
and it is not too much to say that the remarkable progress attend- 
ing its growth has more than realized the expectations of its pro- 
moters, besides being a source of wonder and pride to the public. 
The production, which includes an extensive list, consists of the 
latest and most approved apparatus for the manufacture, storage and 
successful handling of coal and water gas, many of the improve- 
ments, as already noted, being of the company's own designs and 
covered by letters patent, the superior merit of the various devices 
being demonstrated wherever used, besides receiving the highest 
awards conferred since the manufacture of illuminating gas gained 
recognition as one of the world's great industries. For this recognition 
due credit must be accorded the president of the Western Gas Con- 
struction Company, as it was mainly through his influence that a 
concentrated effort to secure approval of a modification, or addition 
to the official classification of the Louisiana Exposition, that would 
permit a separation of the different branches of the industry for 

The company's splendid exhibit at St. Louis, embracing every 
apparatus, device and improvement in its list of production, was a 
revelation to industrial circles, demonstrating for the first time the 
magnitude to which the gas industry had grown and permanently 
establishing its importance as one of the greatest enterprises in the 
domain of manufacture. The jury of awards for the department of 
manufactures, which included the various gas exhibits, was com- 
posed of eminent specialists of international repute, and to the judg- 
ment of such a distinguished body the Western Gas Construction 


Company was content to rest its case, satisfied that ample justice 
would be rendered in the matter of awards. The victory of the 
company over all competition was so complete that it is deemed 
proper in this connection to give the reader some idea of the same, 
by the following splendid showing: 

Awards under general official classification : Grand prize — su- 
perior and complete exhibit of methods and apparatus for the manu- 
facture of coal gas, water gas and the recovery of by-products; 
grand prize — superior valves and fittings for gas works; gold med- 
al — tar extractors, ammonia washers, ammonia stills and concen- 
trators; grand prize — colaborator, O. N. Guldlin, M. E., president 
The Western Gas Construction Company ; gold medal — colaborator, 
Percy F. Holmes, Huddersfield, England (Holmes Patent Rotary 
Scrubber); silver medal — colaborator, A. B. Slater, M. E., engineer 
The Western Gas Construction Company; silver medal — colabo- 
rator, C. R. Faben, Jr. (Faben patent purifying trays, Faben patent 
tar and ammonia displacement apparatus for hydraulic mains.) Ad- 
ditional awards under special divided classification recommended 
by group jury and adopted : Gold medal — Coal gas condensers, con- 
densing system and tar extractors, washers and rotary scrubbers for 
coal gas ; gold medal — charging floor and platform design of double 
superheater water gas apparatus with mechanical and hydraulic op- 
erating appliances, tar extractors, washers; gold medal — purifying 
system and apparatus for coal gas and water gas; silver medal — 
bench mountings and binder construction for retort benches, retort 
operating tools ; silver medal — multiple gauge boards and gauges for 
gas works. Awards for auxiliary exhibits : Gold medal — P. H. & 
F. M. Roots Company, Cbnnersville, Indiana, gas exhausters; gold 
medal — General Gas Light Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan, gas arc 
lamps ; bronze medal — Davis & Roesch, Trenton, New Jersey, auto- 
matic temperature regulators for condensers and ammonia stills. 

The plant of this colossal enterprise, with its massive shops and 
extensive yards, covering over twelve acres of ground, affords em- 
ployment to three hundred and fifty men in the various departments, 
not including the large clerical force, while from two hundred to 
two hundred and fifty are required to install the apparatus which is 
constantly being shipped to all parts of the United States and Can- 


ada, these countries affording the principal market, although con- 
siderable business is done in Europe, in addition to which the com- 
pany is also in receipt of orders from South America. It has repre- 
sentatives in New York, San Francisco and many other large cities 
of the union, also in various parts of Canada, England, Germany, 
Austria and other European countries, throughout all of which the 
enterprise has been given publicity, with the result that a large ex- 
port trade is being gradually built up. The success of the company 
during the past decade and a half has bordered upon the phenomenal 
and the continued rapid increase in the volume of the business, to- 
gether with its constant growth in public favor, bespeak a still fur- 
ther enlargement of the plant and its facilities at no distant day. 

The officers of the company at this time are as follows : Presi- 
dent and general manager, O. N. Guldlin; vice-president, S. M. Fos- 
ter ; secretary, Charles McCulloch ; treasurer, J. Ross McCulloch ; as- 
sistant treasurer, Clarence S. Swann. 


Among the greater enterprises of Fort Wayne that have contrib- 
uted to the solidity of the city and added to its reputation as one of 
the important industrial centers of the west, is the Kerr Murray 
Manufacturing Company, the record of which, covering a period of 
over half a century, presents a series of continued successes, and the 
character of whose product has won for it distinctive prestige in the 
domain of manufacture. Briefly outlined, the origin, growth and 
present status of this large and influential interest is as follows : At- 
tracted by the advantages of Fort Wayne as a favorable field in 
which to engage in his specific lines of industry, Mr. Kerr Murray, 
foundryman and machinist of Scotland, came to the city in 1854, 
and, in partnership with Hugh Beninger, established what was 
known as the Kerr Murray Foundry and Machine Works, erecting 
a building south of the Wabash Railroad, on the site of the present 
plant, and equipped the same with the necessary machinery and ap- 
pliances. Although inaugurated in a modest way, the business 
proved successful from the beginning, and continued to grow and 
expand until the patronage took a wider range and gained for the 
establishment much more than local repute. 1 


After several years, Mr. Beninger disposed of his interest to 
Henry Baker, who was identified with the business until his death, 
about the year 1868, at which time Mr. Murray purchased the entire 
interest and became sole owner, the original name, however, having 
been retained from the organization. The enterprise, which stead- 
ily grew in magnitude and importance, at first consisted of general 
foundry and machine shop work, with steam engines and boilers as 
specialties, in addition to which the firm also did a thriving business 
in the manufacture of various kinds of tools, making all that were 
used by their own artisans, besides disposing of considerable num- 
bers to the general trade. 

The adoption of artificial gas for illuminating purposes by many 
of the leading cities of the country early led to a wide demand for 
apparatus for the storage, distribution and general handling of the 
same; accordingly, some time in the early '60s the Kerr Murray 
Company turned their attention to this line of manufacture, the suc- 
cess of which from the beginning more than met their highest expec- 
tations. With the rapidly growing demand for these apparatuses, 
the company gradually discontinued its machinery tool department 
and the manufacture of boilers, but not altogether, however, until 
they had made and installed in the grain elevators of Toledo and 
several other cities a number of the largest boilers produced in the 
country at that time. 

In the year 1880 Mr. Murray died and his son-in-law, A. D. 
Cressler, succeeded to the business, and has since continued its execu- 
tive head. The year following the Kerr Murray Manufacturing 
Company was incorporated, with a paid-up capital of one hundred 
thousand dollars, nearly all of the stock owned by Mr. Cressler and 
family, as well as the management of the business being entirely in 
his and his sons' hands. The steady growth and wide extension of 
the business after the adoption of the line of manufacture to which 
the company now devotes its entire attention, soon made imperative 
larger and better equipped quarters; accordingly, in 1881, a three- 
story brick structure, sixty by one hundred and fifty feet dimensions, 
was erected, the first floor being used as a machine shop, with full 
equipment of the newest and most approved types of tools and other 
devices, the second story, a pattern department, where was made 


everything* in this line required in the business, while the third floor, 
also ample and commodious, was used for the storage of patterns, 
the entire edifice being complete in all its parts and well adapted to 
the various uses for which designed. With the completion of this 
building the original shops were added to the foundry, more than 
doubling its capacity, but despite this enlargement the continued de- 
mands on the company were so great that within a comparatively 
brief period it was found necessary to construct a new foundry of 
increased facilities, which improvement was begun and finished in 
the year 1885. When completed this feature of the establishment 
was found equal to the demands of the foundry department, but 
later an addition was made which greatly increased its capacity and 
left nothing to be desired in the matters of room and equipment, be- 
ing one hundred and ten by one hundred and fifteen feet in area, with 
cupola of twenty-five tons daily capacity. Subsequently, about the 
year 1888, a new boiler and plate shop was erected, two stories high, 
one hundred and sixty-five by two hundred feet ground space, with 
increased facilities for the handling of all kinds of heavy wrought 
iron work, this proving one of the most valuable additions to the 

Unlike the majority of large manufacturing enterprises, the Kerr 
Murray Company has been singularly exempt from disaster and 
loss, notwithstanding which a misfortune of no small moment oc- 
curred when the three-story machine and pattern building w r as de- 
stroyed by fire, in March, 1901. With the characteristic energy and 
determination by which they have even been animated, however, the 
proprietors at once proceeded to rebuild, but upon entirely different 
lines, the plans being for a one-story instead of a three-story struc- 
ture, with enlarged facilities, well lighted and ventilated, and with 
no feature of a complete and thoroughly furnished establishment 
omitted. The new building was finished in due time, and, meeting 
every requirement of a business enterprise of colossal proportions, it 
stands an eloquent reminder of the energy and wise forethought of 
a firm that hesitates at no difficulty and successfully overcomes every 
obstacle calculated to impede its progress. The new pattern shops 
occupy a space directly north of the new machine building, a com- 
modious shipping office being near the railroad in the yards, while the 


general office building, which was erected in 1904, is one of the finest 
and best arranged edifices of the kind in the city. This splendid 
brick structure is two stories high, and contains twelve apartments, 
devoted to as many specific uses, the first floor being occupied by the 
offices of the president, treasurer, acting cashier, superintendent and 
correspondence room, the whole connected by a complete private 
telephone exchange, enabling the different officials to communicate 
with each other easily and expeditiously. On the second floor are 
the engineering and drafting rooms, a series of engineers' offices for 
private correspondence, room for storage of tracings, cost and ac- 
counting department, also a full photographic equipment, this part 
of the building being constructed of brick and concrete and rendered 
as nearly fire-proof as art can devise. 

Since the erection of the buildings referred to and the practical 
reconstruction of the works other improvements have been added at 
intervals, and various departments increased so as to afford facili- 
ties for a business that has grown in magnitude with each recurring 
year, and whose vast proportions at this time bespeak greater en- 
largement of the plant in the no distant future. Ground to the east 
of the works has been secured, plans have been prepared and the 
company has under consideration the erection of a number of addi- 
tional buildings which when completed will, with those already in 
use, constitute an establishment second to no other of the kind in the 
United States. 

As already indicated, the Kerr Murray Company, since the '80s, 
have made the manufacture of gas apparatus a specialty, being one 
of the few concerns in the country engaged in this particular line of 
industry. Experts in. their employ have made a close and critical 
study of the subtle fluid, and many of the most important results of 
scientific research in the way of apparatus for handling and storing 
the same have emanated from this establishment. The principal prod- 
uct at this time consists of the following: Complete apparatus for 
the manufacture and storage of illuminating gas, coal gas benches, 
water gas sets, rotary and steam jet exhausters, automatic valve, con- 
ceded to be the best on the market, Pelouze & Audouin tar extracters, 
washers, scrubbers, condensers, purifiers, gas valves and fittings, re- 


tort house roofs and floors, gas holders, steel tanks, in fact every de- 
vice and appliance for the making and handling of gas. 

The number of men employed by the company will average about 
four hundred per year, including from one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty engaged in the installing of plants in various parts of the 
country. The force at the works in this city consists of experienced 
and thoroughly capable mechanics selected with especial reference 
to fitness for their respective lines of work, also of more skilled arti- 
sans for the departments in which a high order of technical training 
is required, among the latter being several that have gained wide dis- 
tinction as inventors. Since beginning the manufacture of gas ap- 
paratus the company has installed plants in the leading cities of 
nearly every state in the Union and Canada, the purifying boxes and 
other, apparatus in the three Chicago plants being among the largest 
in the United States and constructed on a system of the company's 
own invention which is conceded to be in every respect superior to 
any other. While ever maintaining a conservative policy and mak- 
ing no special efforts to give their business publicity, the character 
of its work furnishing its best advertisements, the proprietors of this 
great enterprise have contributed largely to the upbuilding of Fort 
Wayne and the advancement of its various interests, while the people 
have ever viewed with pride the presence of an establishment which 
for many years has done as much as any other to spread the name and 
fame of this city abroad. The personnel of the company at this time 
is as follows : A. D. Cressler, president ; G. H. Cressler, secretary, 
and A. M. Cressler, treasurer; A. J. Parisot being the efficient super- 
intendent of the plant. 

Between the proprietors and their employees a mutual interest 
has ever been maintained, several of the latter having been identified 
with the enterprise for more than an average life time, notably 
among whom are H. J. Remmert, superintendent of construction, 
who entered the employ of the company forty-three years ago, and 
William H. Crighton, chief engineer, whose record covers a period 
of over forty years of continuous service. 


Fort Wayne was among the first of western cities in the manu- 
facture of electrical machinery and appliances, and since i88t the 


industry at this point has grown to large proportions, the Jenny 
Electric Light Company and the City Electric Works being among 
the largest and most successful enterprises of the kind in the United 

The Jenny Electric Light Company was incorporated in Novem- 
ber, 1 88 1, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, the 
originators of the enterprise and principal stockholders being O. A. 
Simons, J. H. Bass, H. G. Olds, John Evans and R. T. McDonald, 
Mr. Evans retiring from the company in 1882, and his place as a 
member of the board of directors being taken by P. A. Randall, who 
purchased his stock and had since been actively identified with the 
industry. The board of directors under which the company contin- 
ued from its corporation until 1894, when the concern was sold to 
the Fort Wayne Electrical Corporation, consisted of the following 
members : R. T. McDonald, J. H. Bass, H. G. Olds, Oscar A. Si- 
mons, Winfield M. Simons and P. A. Randall, the last, as indicated 
above, purchasing an interest in the enterprise in 1882. Under the 
management of the Fort Wayne Electrical Corporation the business 
of the company was conducted during the ensuing five years, when 
it was merged into the General Electric Company, being purchased 
by the latter concern in 1890. 

The company began business in a small building connected with 
the Fort Wayne Iron Works, on Superior street, but later moved 
to a larger building on South Superior street, near the Nickle Plate 
Railroad, thence to the Randall building, on East Columbia street, 
where it remained until transferred to the present location on Broad- 
way and the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, in the year 


On November 22, 1888, the building which had been erected at 
the place last named was destroyed by fire, entailing a heavy loss on 
the company, but plans were at once prepared for rebuilding on a 
much more extensive scale and in due time the structure was com- 
pleted and the business renewed. The building, to which additions 
have been made from time to time to meet the demands of the large 
and steadily growing business, is a large three-story brick structure, 
well adapted to the purposes for which designed, and is not only one 
of the most important industrials plants, but ranks with the leading 
manufacturing establishments of the kind in the west. 


The first patents used by the company were chiefly those of 
James A. and Charles D. Jenny, whose reputation was second to that 
of no other electricians in the United States, and the fame of these 
gentlemen soon became world-wide, which fact gave the company 
great prestige in electrical circles and an influence which added 
greatly to the reputation of the city as the center of important indus- 
trial enterprises. Another fact which added to the high standing of 
the company and to the strengthening of its prestige was the winning 
of an important lawsuit in which the Alder Brush Electric Company 
of Cleveland, Ohio, sought to injure the company by suing an In- 
dianapolis firm which used the Jenny light, for damages, by reason 
of infringement of patent, the case being hotly contested and each 
side represented by the ablest lawyers that could be obtained. 

About the year 1887 Mr. Slattery, one of the most distinguished 
of the world's electricians, was secured, and his ingenious electrical 
devices gave additional reputation to the company throughout the 
United States and Canada, and gained for it a greatly increased pat- 
ronage. His system of producing light by alternate currents of 
electricity soon revolutionized the business of electrical illumination, 
and for several years the company made a specialty of the Slattery 
patents, paying particular attention to the incandescent light which 
bore his name, and which during the time of its use was greatly su- 
perior to any other light on the market. 

The adoption of the Jenny electric light by many of the leading 
cities of the United States is the best guarantee of its efficiency and 
superiority, the greater part of New York being lighted by this sys- 
tem, in addition to which it is found in other populous centers 
throughout the country, and there is hardly a city in which it is not 
used nor a line of steamboats that has not chosen it in preference to 
all others. 

The company continued the use of the Slattery devices until the 
death of the patentee, but the most remarkable era in the history of 
the concern began in 1890, when James J. Wood, admittedly one of 
the greatest and most skillful electrical experts in the world, became 
identified with the firm. Since the above year especial attention has 
been given to the manufacture of his various electrical inventions, 
which in point of skill and general utility claim superiority over those 


of any other establishment of the kind in the world, which claim is 
universally admitted by electricians and scientific men in every coun- 
try on the globe, many of his devices being marvelous in design and 
construction and a constant source of wonder to all who have intel- 
ligently observed or investigated the mysterious force which is 
conceded to be one of nature's most subtle and powerful agencies. 

The merging of the Jenny Electric Light Company into the Fort 
Wayne Electric Works leads logically to a review of the latter con- 
cern, some facts pertaining to which appear on other pages in this 
volume. In tracing the history of this large and steadily growing 
industry, which as much perhaps as any other of Fort Wayne's 
numerous manufacturing establishments has spread the name and 
fame of the city throughout the civilized world, the writer takes the 
privilege of drawing largely from a souvenir entitled "Fort Wayne 
Up to Date," issued by the News in the year 1894. 

"Unparallelled in a city of manufacturing successes has been 
the remarkable rise and progress of the Fort Wayne Electric Com- 
pany, an establishment which was in its infancy ten years ago 
(1884) and which today stands in the very first rank of our great 
industries. Its history would read like a romance; the story of its 
early struggles, of its tenacious fight for existence, of the lack of 
confidence on the part of some of the stockholders, of the hopeful 
and enduring contest of its managers, of its slow but steady growth, 
of the obstacles met and surmounted, of its final triumph, and bril- 
liant success, gaining victory over every rival in the great field of 
electrical science, would fill a volume teeming with interest to those 
who delight in the contemplation of splendid achievements." 

The leading spirit in the inception of the enterprise and to whom 
is due the credit of protecting and carrying it forward, and later of 
preserving it for the city, was R. T. McDonald, who organized the 
original company and, with a few hundred dollars of paid-up capital, 
started the business in a very modest way in a small building which 
stood near the Nickle Plate Railroad, a short distance west of Har- 
rison street. Under his efficient management it soon outgrew those 
dilapidated quarters and was moved to a more commodious building 
erected for the purpose, on East Columbia street. Later land was 
purchased and a new factory building of enlarged proportions 


erected on Broadway, near the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railroad, where the business was carried on during the several en- 
suing years, but in a manner not at all satisfactory to the manager, 
who, forseeing the wonderful possibilities of the enterprise if 
properly financed, chafed under the indifference of the stockholders, 
each of whom invested the sum of fifteen hundred dollars, and were 
clamoring for dividends before the enterprise was fairly under head- 
way, the meanwhile declining to increase their subscription. This 
indifference and lack of interest tended greatly to retard the progress 
of the enterprise which stood in such pressing need of improvement, 
but the manager, with a spirit that hesitated at no obstacles, hit upon 
an expedient which effectually removed the difficulty and paved the 
way to the achievement he knew to be possible and which from the 
beginning he kept constantly in view. Going to New York, he con- 
ferred with certain capitalists whom he succeeded in interesting in 
the enterprise, the result being that his co-ad jutors in Fort Wayne 
were not only surprised, but startled, when he wired for their ac- 
ceptance of an offer of eighty thousand dollars apiece for their 
interest in a property that had cost each of them the insignificant sum 
of fifteen hundred dollars. The deal was made and the Fort Wayne 
Electric Company passed into the hands of a great and wealthy cor- 
poration, but as Mr. McDonald had been true to the interests of the 
local stockholders, securing to them the munificent results of a sen- 
sational sale, so he was true to the interests of the city, for he made 
the sale conditional upon 1 the plant being maintained at Fort Wayne. 

A little later came the disastrous fire that reduced the plant to a 
mass of ruins, following which the corporation controlling the 
enterprise again proposed moving the establishment east, where 
vacant buildings owned by them could easily be utilized in resuming 
the business. To this proposition Mr. McDonald strenuously ob- 
jected and did all within his power to retain the enterprise in Fort 
Wayne. The company was just as obdurate in its determination to 
move, but desiring above all things to retain Mr. McDonald's 
services, a compromise was finally effected to the end that if the 
citizens would erect a building on a scale commensurate with the 
demands upon it, the plant should remain in the west. 

The matter, being adjusted to the satisfaction of these most con- 


cerned, was presented to the citizens by a committee consisting of 
some of the leading business men of the city who made a prompt 
and active canvass, which resulted in contributions to the amount 
of twenty-five thousand dollars. With this sum the plant was im- 
mediately rebuilt on a much more extensive scale than the original 
structure, additional land was acquired, and from time to time the 
company extended its buildings so as to meet the steadily growing 
increasing demand for its products. A large number of men, 
amounting at one time to eleven hundred, were given employment, 
the highest class of skilled artists and artisans were brought from 
abroad, many expert workmen being attracted here from New York, 
Brooklyn and other eastern cities. 

It would be impossible in the brief space left to narrate in detail 
all that has been accomplished for Fort Wayne by this great industry, 
or what its influence has been in giving the city publicity and 
prestige abroad. Not the least of the benefits of its presence is the 
disbursement of from twenty-five thousand to thirty-five thousand 
dollars per month among our citizens, besides affording remuner- 
ative employment to an army of workmen and the development of 
new suburbs in which have been erected hundreds of comfortable 
homes, with the accompanying auxiliaries of school houses, churches, 
public halls and beautiful parks where the employees and families 
find rest and recreation. It has also made Fort Wayne the best 
lighted place in America and, as already indicated, advertised it per- 
haps as no other city in the United States has been advertised, to say 
nothing of the numerous delegations of visitors who have been and 
are still being attracted hither to visit the mammoth establishment, 
witness the busy working of its interior and behold with amazement 
the wonderful mechanism which its skilled workmen produce. 

The company manufactures all kinds of electrical apparatus and 
appliances for the lighting of towns, cities and buildings, besides 
putting in plants, among some of the smaller articles being arc 
lamps of all kinds and for any circuit, alternators, high or low fre- 
quency, transformers, generators, motors, etc. One of the latest 
as well as one of the most skillful and curious of all of Mr. Wood's 
wonderful inventions manufactured at this plant is a "prepaid 
meter." by means of which the exact equivalent of electricity of any 


sum of money not exceeding one dollar may be had by merely 
dropping a coin into a receptacle which connects with the meter. 


This enterprise, which occupies a unique place among the in- 
dustries of the country, was established by Sylvanus F. and Allen 
A. Bowser, who in 1885 began in a modest way, in an unpretentious 
building on the South Side, the manufacture of tanks and devices 
for the handling of oils. These devices were the inventions of Mr. 
S. F. Bowser, who spent a number of years in perfecting them. 
Feeling that they would be acceptable to the trade, he secured the 
necessary patents and, taking the road in their interests, soon suc- 
ceeded in building up quite a prosperous business, which in due time 
led to the organization of a company and the enlargement of the 
manufacturing facilities, the former being effected on July 1, 1888. 
Under the new management a three-story frame building, with 
twenty thousand square feet of floor space, was erected and equipped 
with a full line of machinery, and with these increased facilities the 
enterprise was given an impetus which soon placed it among the 
leading industries of the city. 

On July 28, 1894, a serious disaster overtook the company in 
the complete destruction of their plant by fire, not so much as a 
wagon load remaining unburned, except the fine new brick office 
which had been finished but two weeks prior, and even this was 
very badly damaged. With the energy which has ever characterized 
them, the proprietors at once began to rebuild and in due time a 
fine new plant of brick, iron and heavy timber and of greatly en- 
larged proportions, was erected on the original site, being considered 
when completed one of the best fire-proof factories in the state. It 
was finely equipped with machinery and every appliance necessary 
to carry on the business in the most economical manner, having 
among other advantages large ware-rooms in the rear, fifty feet from 
the main building, in which to store surplus stock, these ware-rooms 
being roofed and sided with iron in keeping with the main 
structure, from a standpoint of safety. 

The firm had its own electric plant for arc and incandescent light- 


ing by which the factory, offices, residences and stables were bril- 
liantly illuminated. In these pleasant quarters, with a largely in- 
creasing force, the business was prosecuted with the same energy 
that had characterized the procedure from the beginning, and the 
rapid extension of the trade gave to the firm a high reputation in 
business circles throughout the entire country. 

A feature of the company that has added much to its success 
is the annual conventions of its salesmen, the first of which was held 
in January, 1896, when, during a two days' congress, everything 
relating to the business was thoroughly discussed to the mutual 
benefit of all concerned, and plans perfected for the future. These 
meetings have been held each successive year since the above date 
and the advantages derived therefrom have tended greatly to the 
building up of the business, besides continually adding to the enviable 
standing of the company in the world of trade. 

It was while preparations were in progress for the annual meet- 
ing to be held in January, 1898, that, on the morning of December 
25th preceding, the fire fiend again visited the works, completely 
destroying half of it and badly damaging the other half, entailing 
a very heavy loss, as the building was insured for only a moderate 
amount. With the same energy and decision which had before 
characterized them, the Messrs. Bowser at once set about to restore 
the burned portion, and on January 7, 1898, contracts were let for 
the construction of the buildings, for engines, dynamos and other 
machinery and appliances, all of which were completed and delivered, 
so that by the middle of February following the plant was finished 
and in full operation. The plant as it now stands is one of the 
finest and most attractive industrial establishments to be found any- 
where, the main building being two hundred by two hundred feet 
in area, with an addition one hundred by two hundred feet, the 
structure throughout being equipped with machinery of the most 
approved type, while nothing has been spared to make it complete 
in its every department. 

In addition to their tanks and various devices for the successful 
handling of all kinds of oil, the firm makes a new line of high grade 
washboards which, like the principal product, has proved a great 
success, the rapid growth of this branch so overtaxing the capacity 


that an addition was recently made to the main building for this 
especial line of manufacture. 

The Messrs. Bowser sell all their goods direct, either by traveling 
salesmen or mail orders, and at this time they are represented by 
experienced men in nearly every state of the union, also in Canada 
and Cuba, besides doing a large export business by mail. The prin- 
cipal articles in the line of oil devices are the Perfect measuring oil 
tanks, for retail use; druggist's graduate oil cabinets; adjustable 
measure for handling lubricating oils for factory use ; gasoline stor- 
age outfits; complete oil house equipments for railroads and fac- 
tories, all of which, as already indicated, are of Mr. Bowser's own 
invention and as nearly perfect as inventive genius and mechanical 
ingenuity can make them. The largest order ever received by the 
company was for five carloads of the Complete oil house equipment 
and factory distribution device, from the Singer Manufacturing 
Company, of Kilbowie, Scotland, the shipment of which was made 
in April, 1905. Other large shipments are continually being made 
and the business has so increased that it now represents the enormous 
sum of nearly seven hundred thousand dollars per year, with the 
prospects of soon greatly exceeding these figures. 

To run the factory at its normal capacity the services of one 
hundred and forty operatives are required, in addition to whom 
there is an office and clerical force of forty persons and five sales- 
men in addition to the home plant. The firm maintains branches at 
Boston, Massachusetts, and Toronto, Canada, fourteen people being 
employed at the former and six at the latter. The following, from a 
beautifully illustrated souvenir issued by the company in 1899, 
furnishes a very appropriate* conclusion to these articles. 

"The Messrs. Bowser knew the worth of their goods from the 
first. How to make a success of the business with almost no capital 
(being in the fix usual to inventors) was the problem solved by 
these gentlemen; a problem that has distracted and impoverished 
many bright men since the era of invention began. 

"That the Bowsers are able, by sheer force of personal integritv 
and tireless energy, to carry out this enterprise, gradually increas- 
ing its capacity to meet the growing demands, without incurring 
liabilities fatal to its prosperity, is a consummation for which they 


have cause for self-congratulation and in which every citizen of 
Fort Wayne has an interest, since the product of this factory has 
done so much to advertise the name of their fair city." 


This line of industries has long- been among' the leading- interests 
of Fort Wayne and at the present time there are quite a number of 
large establishments, all in capable hands and doing" an extensive 
business. The Central Foundry Company, whose works are on the 
southwest corner of Clinton and Fourth streets, is among" the lead- 
ing establishments of the kind, having thoroughly equipped shops 
in which all grades of work in the line are carried on quite ex- 
tensively, the business being ably managed and the firm one of the 
strongest and most successful of the kind in the city. 

The Menifee Foundry Company, which does a general foundry 
and machine shop business, has a large and well equipped plant at 
Nos. 2321 and 232J Oliver street, where a full force of skillful 
mechanics are required to enable the firm to do the vast amount of 
work which it has constantly on hand. 

The leading enterprise of the kind in the city, however, as well 
as the oldest, is the Fort Wayne Foundry and Machine Company, 
on the southeast corner of Harrison and Superior streets, of which 
John H. Bass is president; C. T. Strawbridge, secretary; F. S. 
Lightfoot, treasurer, and A. W. Pickard, assistant treasurer, but as 
this foundry is now a part of the J. H. Bass Manufacturing Com- 
pany, its history will be found in connection with the latter enter- 
prise on another page of this chapter. 

The Indiana Machine Works, on Osage street and the canal 
basin, is also an old and reliable concern, the high grade of its work 
giving it a reputation second to that of no other works of the kind 
in the city. Firmly established and conducted on sound business 
principles, the enterprise has been remarkably successful and its 
steady advancement under a safe and conservative policy, augurs 
well for its future growth and prosperity. 

W. E. Harden, who is engaged in the manufacture of building 
columns, iron and brass castings, with general job work as a 


specialty, has a model plant on the corner of Barr and Duck streets, 
which is operated by a large force of artisans, selected with reference 
to their efficiency and skill in the lines of work required of them. 
Mr. Harden commands an extensive patronage, there being a great 
demand for his building material in Fort Wayne and other points, 
and in due time his establishment is destined to grow into one of 
the city's most important industries. 

Frank Gruber conducts a prosperous business in the making and 
repairing of boilers and similar work, his shops on the east side of 
Barr and north of Superior street, being well equipped, while it? 
high standing in industrial circles has drawn to him a business 
of constantly growing magnitude. Other establishments besides 
those enumerated do a general machine shop and repair business, 
and the same line of work is carried on by a number of the larger 
manufacturing concerns where it is made subordinate to the regular 

In the manufacture of engines Fort Wayne easily stands in the 
front rank of Indiana's great industrial cities, this line of enterprise 
being represented by a number of firms and many thousands of 
capital, the product ranging in size from the small gas engine of 
very limited capacity to the mammoth Corliss type, used only where 
great motive power is required. In the production of the latter the 
J. H. Bass Manufacturing Company leads not only in Fort Wayne, 
but in Indiana and the greater part of the central and western states ; 
in the manufacture of other grades there are several concerns whose 
business has grown to great proportions and whose reputation for 
high class workmanship is much more than local. Among the firms 
that do a large and lucrative business in this line of industry is the 
L. A. Centlivre Manufacturing Company, which operates a finely 
equipped plant on the northwest corner of Superior street and Spy 
Run, the principal output consisting of different types of gas 
engines, which are extensively used and for which there is a con- 
stantly increasing demand. The engines made by this company are 
models of ingenuity, combining the latest discoveries and improve- 
ments in the realm of scientific invention, and in all that constitutes 
high grade workmanship and mechanical skill they challenge com- 
parison with any on the market. 



The Haberkorn Engine Company, whose plant, at the corner 
of Grant street and the Wabash Railroad, has forged to the front 
as a leading industrial establishment, was incorporated on July 5, 
1900, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, the object being the 
building of engines, various styles and grades of which have been 
produced in numbers sufficient to supply the growing demand from 
all parts of the country. Their use has fully demonstrated their 
value and justified every claim made for them by the company, 
while their popularity is attested by the progress of the business 
which, as above stated, has become quite extensive, with encouraging 
prospects of still greater growth. The men at the head of this con- 
cern are practical and enterprising, with large experience in the line 
of business to which their energies are being devoted, their deep 
interest in the company affording abundant assurance of its con- 
tinued success. G. H. Loesch is president; T. D. Hoham, secretary, 
and F. L. Jones, treasurer. 

The making of engines is carried on to a greater or less extent 
by other than the parties mentioned, but sufficient has been said to 
afford a fairly accurate idea of the growth and present scope of a 
business which has added greatly to Fort Wayne's importance as a 
great industrial city and which, at no distant day, is destined to grow 
to much larger proportions and become if not the first, at least among 
the first manufacturing enterprise in this part of the state. 

Prominent among the rising industries of Fort Wayne whose 
growth in public favor has elicited a great deal of attention and met 
the approval of the rural populace, is the Indiana Road Machine 
Company, which was organized a few years ago by a number of the 
city's representative men, the product of the concern being indicated 
by the style of the firm. 

The matter of the improvement of public highways has been 
agitated of recent years throughout the entire country, especially in 
the northern and central states, some of the ablest public men of the 
nation giving it their attention, while able and scholarly articles in 
favor of the good road movement have appeared from time to time 
in the columns of our leading newspapers, magazines and other 
periodicals. To construct good roads without proper material is 
manifestly impossible, and it is just as impossible to engage in the 


undertaking' with the prospect of success when improperly equipped 
with poor or indifferent machinery and labor-saving devices. 

It was the latter need that led to the organization of the com- 
pany under consideration. Men who had devoted years to the im- 
provement of road-making machinery finally succeeded in perfecting 
certain devices which fully met their expectations, and in due time 
after letters patent had been granted a company was organized in 
Fort Wayne for their manufacture. This company, as already in- 
dicated, consists of some of the city's most energetic men, and noth- 
ing has been spared to place the enterprise upon a solid basis and 
make it answer the purpose for which organized. It was incorpor- 
ated with a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, a large brick 
building was erected on the east side of Osage street, and within 
a comparatively short time the plant was fully equipped and in 
operation, the success from the beginning more than meeting the 
expectations of the promoters and stockholders and justifying the 
investment required to inaugurate the business. 

Various kinds of road machinery are manufactured by the com- 
pany and the sales have been large and confined to no particular sec- 
tion or state, orders coming from nearly all of the northern and 
central states, while an extensive trade has also been built up in the 
southern and eastern parts of the country, the value of the various 
devices being fully demonstrated wherever used. The officials of 
the company at this writing are as follows : A. Ely Hoffman, 
president; J. C. Peters, vice-president; J. M. Landenberger, secre- 
tary and treasurer. 


The making of various kinds of wheeled vehicles early engaged 
the attention of Fort Wayne mechanics, and ere the town had fairly 
emerged from the condition of a backwoods hamlet several shops were 
in operation. In the main these were shops for blacksmithing and 
general repair work, and it was only when specially ordered that 
vehicles were constructed, but as population increased and the ne- 
cessity of a division of labor became apparent, skilled mechanics 
were attracted to the place and it was not long until wagon and car- 


riage making" grew into an important industry. Without entering 
into a detailed account of the several wagon-making shops that were 
located here from time to time, suffice it to state that the oldest and 
for many years the leading establishment of the kind is the City 
Carriage Works, which was organized in 1857, an d which has 
maintained a continuous existence to the present day, being still in 
a healthy financial condition, and, as formerly, meeting its com- 
petitors on a common ground and holding its own among them. 
Formerly this establishment did a large and lucrative business in 
the manufacture of carriages, buggies and sleighs, nearly all of 
which were sold to the local trade, but of recent years the output has 
not been so great, although the works are still on a sound financial 
basis and the vehicles wherever disposed of are noted for their high 
grade of workmanship, also for the excellency of the material used 
and durability to withstand the roughest kind of usage. 

The factory, a substantial three-story brick building, sixty by 
one hundred feet in area, with the usual accessories in the way of 
sheds and dry houses, is located on Clay street, in addition to which 
there is a large storage warehouse on Clinton street, where the 
product of the establishment is displayed and the greater part of it 
sold. The style of the firm at this time is Dudenhofer, Daniels & 
Company, the rating being first-class and the reputation in business 
circles comparing favorably with that of any other manufacturing 
concern in the city. 

The Olds Wagon Works. — The excellence of the Olds wagon 
and its high reputation among farmers, trustees and others have 
created for it a demand which the makers find difficult to supply, 
in consequence of which an enlargement of the plant's facilities is 
being favorably discussed. The Olds Wagon Company occupies 
a large four-story brick building, sixty by one hundred and twelve 
feet in area, with blacksmith shop seventy-five by one hundred and 
fifty feet ground space, on the south side of Murray, between Cal- 
houn and Lafayette streets, the plant including extensive sheds, dry 
houses, etc., taking up the entire square, and constituting one of the 
most important establishments of the kind in northern Indiana. The 
company was incorporated in 1882, with a capital stock of two hun- 
dred thousand dollars, and since that time the business has been con- 


ducted under able management, the history of the concern presenting 
a series of successes which speak well for its past and afford the best 
assurance of its continued prosperity in the future. Firmly 
established, financially strong and in the hands of men of sound 
judgment and wide business experience, the company enjoys dis- 
tinctive prestige among the leading industrial establishments of the 
city, the daily output averaging from forty-five to fifty vehicles, 
which in the points of material, excellency of workmanship and 
durability, will compare favorably with the product of other and 
much more pretentious plants, W. H. Olds is vice-president and 
treasurer of the concern, and N. G. Olds, secretary, both gentlemen 
standing high in business circles and as citizens enjoying honorable 
prestige among the most intelligent and enterprising of their con- 

There are in the city several other establishments for the manu- 
facture of wagons, carriages, buggies, etc., notable among which 
is the Wayne Buggy Company, whose works, at Nos. 218-220 East 
Columbia street, are well patronized locally and by the general trade, 
the concern being in the hands of capable, conservative business men 
who have made their influence felt in the circles with which they deal. 

The Eclipse Buggy Company, at the corner of Nelson and Wall 
streets, does a safe and eminently satisfactory business, the vehicles 
turned out of this establishment competing with the best on the 
market, the reputation of the firm for fair and honorable dealing 
being above suspicion, and losing nothing when compared with other 
concerns of a like character. 

L. C. Zollinger & Brother conduct a large establishment on East 
Superior street, in which are manufactured several grades of buggies 
and carriages, especial attention being devoted to delivery wagons 
and trucks, in the making of which the firm has earned a high 
reputation, as is attested by the demand for their output, not only 
in Fort Wayne, but in various other towns and cities of Indiana. 

B. H. Baker operates a wagon and carriage shop at Nos. 614-616 
Lafayette street and commands an extensive and lucrative patronage. 
He employs skilled workmen, takes pride in the success which he 
has achieved and, like his fellow craftsmen, has been untiring in 


his efforts to promote the city's welfare while advancing his own 

Another establishment devoted to the manufacture of wagons 
and other wheeled vehicles is that of Chauvey Brothers, at No. 135 
East Superior street, which has been in operation for some years 
and which has steadily forged to the front by reason of the energy 
of the proprietors and the high grade of their product. Reliable in 
all the term implies, financially well established and with honorable 
dealing as one of their objects, these gentlemen have won a large 
place in the confidence of their patrons and the public and bid fair 
to build up a large and flourishing business in the no distant future. 
Not the least among the enterprising wagon and carriage makers of 
Fort Wayne is Charles Ehrman, whose works, at the corner of West 
Main and Fulton streets, is one of the well known establishments 
of the kind in the city, and his business already large, is steadily 
growing in magnitude and importance, promising to rival that of 
some of his more pretentious competitors before the lapse of many 
years. Familiar with every detail of the trade which he so success- 
fully carries on, a thorough business man whose workmanship is his 
best advertisement, he has done well his part in building up a 
lucrative industry and the city is proud to number him among its 
enterprising men. 

C. I. Flack carries on a prosperous business in the manufacture 
of wheeled vehicles at No. 2003 Calhoun street, where he has a well 
equipped establishment in which a number of men are employed. 

Others engaged in this line of manufacture at the present time 
are C. H. Koenig, J. A. Spereisen and Andrew Vogely, all of whom 
are well situated and command their respective shares of the trade. 


Another wood-working concern whose product is indicated by 
the style of the firm is a reorganization of an older enterprise, its 
history under the present management dating from January, 1905. 
The plant, including buildings, sheds and yard, covers an area of 
about five acres on Walton avenue, the main building being a sub- 
stantial brick structure in which is manufactured all kinds of spokes 


and buggy bows, about fifty men being employed, many of them 
skilled artisans who command very liberal wages. The product of 
this establishment is sold to wagon and carriage manufacturers and 
wheel makers in many states of the Union, in addition to which the 
company has built up a large export trade, principally in spokes, the 
business of the firm amounting to considerably over two hundred 
thousand dollars every year. The encouraging progress of this 
enterprise has won for it a solid standing in industrial circles, and, 
under the management of capable, far-sighted business men, its 
future prosperity seems assured. B. F. Scheie is president; W. A. 
DifTenderfer, secretary and treasurer, and Victor Sallot, super- 

The universal use of the wooden pulley as applied in mills and 
factories, indeed by nearly every kind of machinery, renders imper- 
ative a heavy production of these wheels ; accordingly, in many cities 
their manufacture has become a large and very important industry. 
One of the leading concerns in Indiana for the making of all kinds 
of pulleys is the 


of Fort Wayne, which was incorporated in the year 1892, with a 
capital of twenty-two thousand five hundred dollars, and which has 
since gradually enlarged its facilities and extended its business, until 
it now commands a large local and general patronage, supplying 
many of the leading establishments of the city with pulleys, also 
shipping them in immense numbers to different manufacturers in 
other places. While making a specialty of pulleys, the firm produces 
various other articles, its success in the different lines of work being 
commensurate with the demand, and the excellence of its every prod- 
uct giving the firm the high reputation it has long enjoyed. The 
plant, which is substantially constructed and well equipped, is located 
at the intersection of Sixth and Calhoun streets, the officers at the 
present time being as follows : H. C. Paul, president ; H. W. Lep- 
per, secretary, and Charles A. Paul, treasurer. 



This firm, which was established in the year 1882, is engaged in 
the manufacture of buggy bows, carriage material, wood rims for 
bicycles and automobiles, making a specialty of all kinds of bent 
woodwork, besides doing an extensive business in making steering 
wheels for automobiles, auto tops and wheels for artillery, the plant 
being the largest and most successful of the kind in northern Indi- 
ana. Formerly considerable attention was devoted to the manufac- 
ture of sporting goods, such as racquet and baseball bats and many 
other articles, the factory for several years having been the chief 
source from which A. G. Spalding & Sons, of Chicago, obtained their 
supplies, but recently this line of work was abandoned for the more 
lucrative business indicated above. 

The first factory, a two-story brick building, with about five 
thousand square feet of floor space, was erected in 1882, but as the 
business increased it was soon found necessary to provide more com- 
modious quarters; accordingly, in 1888, the plant was considerably 
enlarged, the improvement furnishing sufficient capacity during the 
seven years ensuing. At the expiration of the time indicated the 
growth of the concern was such as to render imperative another en- 
largement, which was done in 1895, since which time various other 
improvements have been added to the plant until it now covers an 
area of two acres, being two stories high, well lighted and ventilated 
and a substantial and imposing specimen of architecture. The rapid 
strides in the business during the last twenty years has won for the 
firm a permanent place among the progressive industries of Fort 
Wayne, and being in the hands of intelligent, wide-awake men of 
sound judgment, wise discretion and superior executive ability, its 
past success may be accepted as an earnest of its continuous ad- 
vancement in the future. The establishment is owned and controlled 
by Louis Rastetter and his son, W. C, the former being president 
and the latter superintendent and general manager. 

In addition to an extensive domestic trade, which includes nearly 
every state in the Union, the firm also has a large and constantly 
growing foreign patronage, the popularity of their products finding 
for them a ready sale in many of the leading cities of England and 


other countries of Europe. The plant affords remunerative employ- 
ment to an average of one hundred and fifty men, the majority of 
whom reside in the vicinity and own the homes they occupy. 


Conspicuous among the enterprises of Fort Wayne is the windmill 
industry, which, despite its recent origin, has passed through many 
important developments and forged rapidly to the front as one of 
the city's important manufacturing concerns. This company was in- 
corporated in 1903, and continued to operate under the original 
management until July, 1905, when a reorganization took place, 
with the following gentlemen as officials : President, Charles Pape, 
Sr. ; vice-president, W. E. Mossman; treasurer, E. F. Yarnelle; sec- 
retary, W. A. Stockman; manager, George W. Graham. 

The establishment is located on High street, and since its organ- 
ization the company has entered upon an area of prosperity which 
augurs well for the future. The mills made by this company gained 
popularity from the beginning, but with valuable improvements re- 
cently introduced and the facilities for the manufacture greatly en- 
larged, the serviceableness of the product has been much increased, 
while the business has steadily grown until the company is now en- 
abled to pay liberal dividends to the stockholders. 

The Fort Wayne windmills are manufactured under patents 
owned by Charles Pape, and in point of durability and construction 
are pronounced by capable judges to be equal to the best mills on 
the market and far superior to the majority. One of their distinctive 
features is that the gearing is completely enclosed and sheltered from 
the elements, and that it allows of a direct pull on the up stroke of 
the pump, while an automatic appliance throws the mill out of gear 
when the tank is full and puts it in operation as soon as the supply 
is depleted below the point desired. Not the least interesting of the 
several features of the factory is the galvanizing department, which 
is not only used for preparing the products of the plant, but iron and 
steel are here galvanized for several other concerns in the city. The 
iron or steel is first immersed in a huge tank of sulphuric acid, where 
all the rust and corrosion are removed, after which it passed through 


a similar tank of muriatic acid and is then dipped into the galvaniz- 
ing solution, composed of zinc compounded and heated to a liquid 
state. The metal tank is heated by gas from the producer that sup- 
plies the engine ; it holds about twenty tons of molten metal, and the 
cost to charge it amounts to the sum of twenty-five hundred dollars. 

In addition to the manufacturing of windmills, the company does 
a large jobbing business in pumps, and at this time arrangements 
are being perfected for the construction of a foundry in which to 
make all the castings needed, also for the manufacture of a high- 
grade iron pump, for which the firm owns the patent. 

The factory quarters are large, roomy and admirably adapted 
to the purposes for which designed, the machine shops being well 
equipped, while in the apartment above samples of the finished prod- 
uct are kept on exhibition. The machinery is operated by a fifty- 
horse-power gas engine supplied with gas from a producer in the fac- 
tory, being the only plant in Indiana in which gas is produced from 
oil. As already stated, the business of the company has made rapid 
strides during the past few months, and when all the improvements 
contemplated are installed it will easily out-distance any establish- 
ment of the kind in the country. 


Standing in the front ranks of Fort Wayne's manufacturing es- 
tablishments is the Packard Company, formerly the Fort Wayne 
Organ Company, whose history of over a third of a century has 
been replete with continuous triumphs and brilliant successes. The 
products of this company have won recognition the world over, and 
it may safely be stated that in our own land there is today no like 
concern whose popularity is as great or whose success has been more 

The history of this enterprise dates from the year 1871, at which 
time a company for the manufacture of musical instruments was es- 
tablished, consisting of the following business men: J. A. Fay, 
Charles McCulloch, Oscar Simons, C. L. Hill, C. D. Bond, J. H. 
Bass and S. B. Bond, who organized with a capital stock of twenty- 
four thousand dollars, and at once proceeded to carry out the pur- 


poses of the enterprise. L. M. Ninde served as president until 1873, 
when he was succeeded by S. B. Bond, under whose able and judi- 
cious management the company has achieved its almost unprecedent- 
ed success and who still continues the executive head of the concern. 

Although established for the manufacture of various kinds of 
musical instruments, the company make a specialty of organs, whose 
superior workmanship, durability and correctness of pitch soon 
gained for them wide popularity, the result being a large domestic 
trade, and in due time a liberal patronage from the different coun- 
tries of Europe. Business was carried on under the original style 
of the firm until 1895, when the name was changed to the Packard 
Company, by which it has since been known. The manufacture of 
the celebrated Packard piano began in the latter year, the demand for 
which since that time has been so great as to tax the factory to its 
utmost capacity, the number of these superb instruments turned out 
every year amounting to considerable in excess of twenty-five hun- 
dred, more than one thousand of which are to be found in the homes 
of Fort Wayne alone. 

The manifest superiority of the Packard organ has led to such a 
steady growth in its manufacture that the annual output at this time 
amounts to over four thousand, the prospects of continuous increase 
in this branch of the business being most encouraging. The organs 
include all kinds and grades, from the smaller instruments for parlor 
use to the superb church organ, hundreds of which have been placed 
in the leading churches and cathedrals of the United States and Can- 

In this connection we quote the following tribute to the Packard 
instruments, which all who read will pronounce merited and proper : 
"It is believed that there is no country in the world inhabited by civ- 
ilized beings that has not heard the strains of the Packard organ, 
manufactured in Fort Wayne. There is one in the boudoir of the 
Empress of Germany, and they are sold by the foremost music houses 
of London, England. The great firm of Steinway & Sons are proud 
to be counted agents of this superior instrument. George W. Mor- 
gan, S. B. Mills, Clarence Eddy, Harrison M. Wild, George F. 
Root, Albert Ross Parsons, S. N. Penfield, Ad Neuendorf and other 


renowned organists have vied one with the other in terms of praise 
over its superlative merits." 

The first building 1 used by the; company contained about sixteen 
hundred square feet of space, and the business was inaugurated in a 
very modest way. The series of continued successes which have 
characterized its progress stamps the concern as one of the leading 
enterprises of the city, the present factory being an immense brick 
edifice with one hundred and fifty thousand square feet of floor 
space, while the business represents over three-fourths of a million 
dollars annually. 

The stock of the company is now owned by J. H. Bass and S. B. 
Bond, the latter, as already stated, being president, and Albert Bond, 
secretary of the company. 


Among the old and well established industries of the city is the 
Peters Box and Lumber Company, which was organized in 1870 by 
John C. Peters, and incorporated on November 26, 1873, by J- C. 
Peters, Charles Pape and Joseph Schaffer, the capital subscribed 
amounting to the sum of fifty-five thousand dollars. For some time 
the principal product was boxes of various kinds, but later the manu- 
facture of furniture was added, a specialty being made of quartered 
oak of the finest grades, in which the company successfully competed 
with the larger concerns of Michigan and other states. The plant, 
which occupies lots 79 and 112, High street, consists of four floors, 
each fifty by one hundred feet, two forty by seventy feet, and one 
whose dimensions are forty by sixty feet, the establishment through- 
out being supplied with the finest productions of modern invention 
for the manufacture of the different articles which constitute the out- 

During the years of its greatest prosperity the establishment af- 
forded employment at liberal wages to an average of about seventy- 
five men, and in addition to supplying the local demand, the product 
was shipped extensively throughout Indiana, Ohio and other central 
and western states, also to various cities in the eastern part of the 
Union, besides a large export trade which the proprietors built up 



with London and other points in England and Scotland. While 
somewhat changed from its former lines of manufacture, the com- 
pany, as already indicated, is still one of the permanent establish- 
ments of the city, being under the management of men of high 
standing and fine business ability, whose names are a guarantee of 
its present and future success. The officials of the enterprise at this 
time are Charles Pape, president and general manager, and Charles 
G. Pape, secretary and treasurer. 

Another firm that does a thriving business in the dressing of 
lumber and the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds and other build- 
ing material, is the Diether Lumber Company, whose large plant, 
occupying lots 208 and 218, East Superior street, is equipped with 
everything in the way of machinery and devices for the successful 
prosecution of an enterprise of the magnitude to which their works 
have grown. 

Interested in the same kind of industry are the Hoffman Broth- 
ers, who have a well located and thoroughly equipped planing mill 
and auxiliary shops at No. 800 West Main street, where they man- 
ufacture everything in their line with neatness and dispatch, keep- 
ing on hand a large and varied stock of lumber and building mate- 
rial, besides doing an extensive custom business, their patronage tak- 
ing a large range in both city and country. Several other parties 
and firms are engaged in this line of industry, the amount of build- 
ing in Fort Wayne making the business very profitable. 

The White Wheel Works, formerly one of the city's most im- 
portant industrial enterprises, as well as one of the leading establish- 
ments of the kind in the country, was founded in 1872 by Hon. 
James B. White, for many years a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne 
and a man of state and national repute in military and political cir- 
cles, having served as captain in the late Rebellion, besides repre- 
senting with distinction the twelfth Indiana district in congress. 
Associated with Mr. White was his son, John W. White, the two 
putting into the enterprise the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, 
capital sufficient to insure its success, as is attested by the value of 
the output, which for a number of years amounted to one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars annually. While in successful operation 
these works gave employment to one hundred and thirty men every 


working day of the year, the pay roll running as high as four thou- 
sand dollars per month, while considerable in excess of fifty thou- 
sand dollars was annually expended for raw material. The White 
works added much to the city's reputation as a business point, and 
contributed not a little to its material prosperity, nearly all of the 
large sums paid for labor and material finding its way into the local 
channels of trade. After enjoying a number of years of prosperity 
the proprietors finally closed out the business, disposed of the plant 
and turned their attention to other lines of activity. 


The Fort Wayne Box Company, whose handsome and spacious 
two-story brick building on the corner of East Superior and South 
Calhoun streets, is devoted to the manufacture of all kinds and 
grades of paper boxes, is one of the growing enterprises of the city, 
the establishment being thoroughly equipped and affording employ- 
ment to a large force of workmen, and the business has advanced to 
an important place among the industrial interests of this section of 
the state. The plant, which is an imposing edifice and complete in 
all of its parts, represents a capital of seven thousand dollars, while 
the quality of the production has gained an extensive patronage and 
won for the company a high standing in business circles. Several 
other parties are engaged in the manufacture of boxes of different 
kinds, both paper and wood, and the industry, already large, promises 
to become much more extensive, the locating of manufacturing 
plants requiring boxes for the packing and shipment of their product 
being of frequent occurrence. 


Few industries of Fort Wayne are as well known or have given 
the city such wide publicity as the Olds Wheel Works, the history of 
which dates from 1861, when Noble G. Olds established the enter- 
prise and continued as its head and manager until his death, in April, 
1876. After his death it was conducted as a partnership until 1882, 
when the firm was incorporated under the name of N. G. Olds & 


Company, with a capital stock of four hundred thousand dollars, the 
officers at that time being Henry G. Olds, president; John D. Olds, 
vice-president ; Joseph Henry Wilder, secretary, and Thomas C. Rog- 
ers, treasurer. 

The plant, which was established at the southeast corner of La- 
fayette street and the Wabash Railroad, covered nearly ten acres of 
ground, the buildings consisting of a series of brick and wooden 
structures, with sheds of large dimensions, the machinery being op- 
erated by a six-hundred-horse-power engine, while a force of from 
four hundred to five hundred workmen were required to keep the 
works in operation during the years when the demand for the prod- 
uct was greatest. The record of the establishment shows that for a 
number of years the annual output averaged ninety thousand sets of 
wheels, which were shipped to nearly every state in the Union, many 
wagon and carriage factories relying upon the Fort Wayne plant 
for their supply. In addition to the making of wheels, in which the 
plant excelled any other in the United States, there was made and 
sold every year the enormous number of seven million spokes, be- 
sides one million five hundred thousands strips for felloes, and up- 
ward of a half million hub blocks. In the manufacture of this im- 
mense product vast quantities of timber were required, much of 
which was unloaded from wagons at the works, the rest being 
brought by rail, the number of cars averaging from twenty-five hun- 
dred to three thousand every year. When in full operation the 
monthly pay-roll amounted to over sixteen thousand dollars, which, 
with the large sums expended for raw material, proved of great ben- 
efit to the local business houses of the city, many of which derived 
their chief support from employees of the establishment. 

For reasons which need not be discussed in this connection, the 
business of this once mammoth concern has gradually subsided, and 
although still in operation this product has been greatly modified 
and the patronage confined to an entirely different class of trades- 


Among the industrial interests of Fort Wayne which has 
been represented in the city from quite an early day, and which 


since the adoption of new machinery and improved methods of man- 
ufacture has advanced to a position in line with a number of other 
interests, is the cooperage business, in which several firms are en- 
gaged and many thousand dollars invested. The making of barrels 
by the old hand process, which in the early times afforded remunera- 
tive employment in nearly every city, town, village and cross-road 
hamlet in the land, long ago became obsolete, the new process by 
machinery, made especially for the purpose, supplanting it to the 
detriment no doubt of many an honest mechanic's livelihood, but to 
the increase in production and decrease in cost. 

The Fort Wayne Cooperage Company conducts a very success- 
ful business in the manufacture and handling of all kinds of cooper- 
age material, operating an extensive plant and shipping their output 
to many points in Indiana and other states, besides supplying such 
local firms as have use for this kind of merchandise. S. D. Bitler is 
also engaged in the same line of manufacture, with encouraging 
financial results, and has built up quite a large business, which is 
constantly being extended. 

The largest and most successful enterprise coming under this 
head, however, and one which has made rapid strides since the estab- 
lishment of the plant a few years ago, is the Noble Machine Com- 
pany, whose history is briefly outlined as follows : 


One of the most recent of Fort Wayne's manufacturing enter- 
prises, but one that is rapidly gaining a prominent place among the 
city's leading industries, was established in the year 1889, by W. K. 
Noble, who began business in a modest way on Harrison street, his 
object being the manufacture of cooperage machinery, for which 
there was a wide and growing demand from the timbered sections of 
Indiana and neighboring states. Being a new enterprise and in a 
field without competition, Mr. Noble's business prospered from the 
beginning, and so rapidly grew the demand for his product that 
before the end of the second year he found it necessary to enlarge 
his facilities; accordingly, in 1897 ne erected the commodious brick 
building on Hayden street, in the southeastern part of the city, where 


he has since conducted operations upon a much more extensive and 
successful scale. The building, which is not only a credit to the en- 
terprise of the proprietor, but a valuable addition to the substantial 
improvements of Fort Wayne, is fifty by two hundred feet in area, 
two stories high, handsomely furnished and equipped with the latest 
improved machinery for the manufacture of all kinds of. machinery 
used in the making of staves, heading hoops, etc., not a few of the 
improvements in this line of work being Mr. Noble's invention. From 
fifty to sixty men are required to operate the Fort Wayne plant, in 
addition to which the proprietors do an extensive cooperage business 
outside the city, owning mills at Baldwin, Mummaville, Conway, 
Sheldon, Ohio City and other places in Ohio and Indiana, all of 
which are managed from the office in this city. 

Associated with Mr. Noble in his brother, C. E. Noble, who, like 
the former, is an intelligent, wide-awake business man, much of the 
outside management falling to him, the general oversight of the en- 
terprise being largely in the hands of the original proprietor. 


The manufacture of furniture has long been a prominent indus- 
try in Fort Wayne, and from quite an early day men of enterprise 
and ability have been identified with the business, some of them 
meeting with success, others not being so fortunate. At the present 
time there are several establishments of this kind, the most import- 
ant perhaps being the Fort Wayne Furniture Works, at Nos. 213-215 
West Main street, of which Edward Helmke, Jr., is proprietor and 
manager, and in which special attention is devoted to the manufac- 
ture of showcases, office and store fixtures, after designs and pat- 
ents owned by the proprietor, in addition to which quite an exten- 
sive business is conducted in the making of special high-grade fur- 
niture to order. The enterprise is well established, the patronage 
liberal and all articles turned out of the factory are of artistic de- 
sign and superior workmanship. There are other establishments in 
the city where furniture is both made and repaired, and in which 
skillful workmen, commanding remunerative wages, are employed, 
the capital invested being considerable and the amount of business 
running far up into the thousands every year. 



Perhaps the largest and most successful manufacturer of furni- 
ture in the past was D. N. Foster, whose establishment on East Co- 
lumbia street, was one of the best known places in the city, as well 
as a distributing point for various wholesale and retail establish- 
ments under the same management, at Lafayette and Terre Haute, 
Indiana, and Jackson, Michigan, and other points. For a number of 
years Mr. Foster made a specialty of the celebrated Brunswick fold- 
ing bed, which had an extensive sale throughout Indiana and ad- 
joining states, and he was also quite successful in the manufacture 
of the better grades of furniture, besides commanding a large and 
lucrative trade in church furniture, having purchased the Auburn 
Church Furniture Factory and merged it into his Fort Wayne plant. 
Later he gradually withdrew from manufacturing, to devote his at- 
tention to the retailing of furniture, which line of business he still 
carries on, having at this time the largest and best stocked house of 
the kind in the city. 

The Pape Furniture Company was also a leading establishment 
of the kind a few years ago, and won an excellent reputation for the 
high character of the output, which consisted of all kinds of house- 
hold and office furniture, the factory, which was located on the 
North Side, being under the direction of a mechanic of superior skill, 
while none but the best of workmen were employed. Within a few 
years after starting the business grew to large magnitude, the name 
of the firm became widely and favorably known, and during the pe- 
riod of its greatest activity ranked with the leading enterprises of the 
kind in the state. The business is still prosperous, although Mr. 
Pape, the head of the company, has) of late been devoting the greater 
part of his attention to other lines of manufacture. 

The Fort Wayne Special Furniture Company, with works at No. 
608 Pearl street, is a flourishing concern that does a large and grow- 
ing business in the manufacture of specialties in the furniture line. 
the management being in capable hands and the outlook encouraging. 
The local patronage is quite liberal and the proprietors are gradually 
building up a large general trade, shipping their product to a num- 
ber of cities in Indiana and other states. This company, which was 
incorporated in 1902, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, has 
been under the management of capable and enterprising business men 


and is today one of the solid manufacturing concerns of the city, 
N. Keltsch serving as president and H. F. Franke as secretary and 


From quite an early day Fort Wayne has been noted for its 
large and important business in the manufacture of various kinds of 
beverages, notably that of malt liquors, the brewing of which has 
grown into an industry of mammoth proportions and earned for the 
product a wide reputation throughout the country. Among the early 
breweries was the one established in 1853-54 by a gentleman by the 
name of Phenning. It stood on the east side of Harrison street, 
north of Wayne, in Hanna's addition, and was operated by the orig- 
inal proprietor until his death, when it passed into the hands of 
George Meier, under whose management the business was conducted 
until i860, at which time George Haring rented the property, and 
two years later became its owner. In 1866 he built cellars, etc., on 
Main street, west of Van Buren, and in 1874 moved all the brew- 
ing machinery and apparatus into a large brick brewery erected on 
the same site, and did a thriving business, manufacturing upon an 
average of twenty-five hundred barrels of beer every year. This 
enterprise was operated until a comparatively recent date, and was 
long the leading industry of the kind in the city. 

In. 1 85 6 F. J. Beck engaged in the brewing business on the south 
bank of the feeder dam, erecting a suitable building which was well 
equipped and which he continued to operate until 1869, when he was 
succeeded by the firm of Certia & Rankert, the establishment the 
meantime undergoing many important improvements. The style 
of the firm was subsequently changed to that of Rankert, Lutz & 
Company, under whose management a large and successful business 
was carried on for a number of years. 

As early perhaps as 1855, Harman A. Nierman built a brewery 
on the southwest corner of Water and Harrison streets, which was 
long known as the Stone Brewery. Mr. Nierman carried on the 
business of beer making until his death, his brother Martin becoming 
identified with the industry the meantime. The enterprise proved 
quite successful while it lasted, representing a capital of twenty 


thousand dollars, and using every year thirty thousand bushels of 
barley and twenty thousand pounds of hops, its product being noted 
for its high grade of excellence. The building was subsequently 
sold and converted into bottling works. 

While the different establishments referred to were successfully 
conducted and did a fairly prosperous business in their day, it was 
not until 1864, however, that the manufacture of beer attained special 
prominence and took its place among the leading industries of the 

C. L. Centlivre, an intelligent and enterprising Frenchman, from 
the Rhine province of Alsace, established on the west bank of St. Jo- 
seph river, about one and a half miles northeast of the court house, 
what was long known as the French Brewery, and which has since 
become one of the largest and most widely known enterprises of the 
kind in northern Indiana. Like all new undertakings, the business 
began in a small way, but successfully passing through the various 
stages of growth and development, it was not long until it obtained 
permanent footing and forged to the front among the leading brewer- 
ies of the state, by reason of the high grade of its product which 
early gained much more than local repute in commercial circle. 

The first brewery, a frame edifice, was built on a strip of land 
between the river and the canal feeder, the difference in the levels 
of which was about twenty feet, thus insuring a constant supply of 
pure flowing water, and making the location an ideal one for the 
purpose to which it was devoted. Within a few years the business 
outgrew the original building and made necessary larger and more 
convenient quarters ; accordingly, a fine brick structure was erected 
and equipped, with greatly improved facilities for the manufacture 
of the popular beverage, for which there was such a constantly in- 
creasing demand. The latter building was totally destroyed by fire 
on the night of July 16, 1889, the bottling works and boat house also 
falling a prey to the devouring element. This fire entailed a very 
heavy loss, but with the progressive spirit characteristic of the pro- 
prietor, he at once perfected plans for rebuilding on a still larger 
scale, and in due time the present splendid brick structure was com- 
pleted and in successful operation. In the matter of improvement it 
greatly exceeds the former building, is much better adapted to the 


requirements of the business, and with subsequent additions 
to the plant and the enlargement of its facilities, it is now conceded 
to be one of the! best equipped and most successful enterprises of the 
kind in the west. The output in 1887 was twenty thousand barrels, 
but the capacity since then has been so largely increased that many 
times that amount are now annually manufactured and sold, the pur- 
ity and wholesomeness of the favorite brand for which the plant is 
noted having created a demand which taxes the establishment to its 
utmost to supply. To facilitate the approaches to his brewery, Mr. 
Centlivre spent considerable money in improving the streets, besides 
investing the sum of nine thousand dollars in a street car line which 
connects with the general street railway system of the city. He was 
also a leading spirit in bringing about the macadaming to Spy Run 
avenue, and in many other ways displayed commendable energy in 
advancing the general improvement of the city. 

For a number of years Mr. Centlivre' s sons, Louis A. and Charles 
F. were associated with him in the management of the business, 
but since his death the latter, together with John B. Reuss, 
a brother-in-law, have conducted the enterprise, adding every 
year to the efficiency of the plant and to the popularity of its product. 
They are among the most energetic and progressive of Fort Wayne's 
men of affairs, stand high in business circles, and as proprietors of a 
large and growing establishment have added greatly to the city's high 
standing as an important industrial center. The popular brands of 
beer for which the brewery has long been noted and for which there 
is a constantly growing demand, are the Centlivre Special, the Cent- 
livre Extra Pale, Muenchner, Special Export, Nickle Plate Special, 
Muenchner Export and the justly celebrated Centlivre Tonic. 

The Berghoff Brewing Company, being the largest enterprise of 
the kind in Fort Wayne, with a reputation more than state wide, 
was established in the year 1887 by Herman Berghoff, a native of 
Dortmunder, Germany, and a member of a noted family of brewers 
who have long enjoyed distinction by reason of their skill in the man- 
ufacture of pure and wholesome brands of beer. Mr. Berghoff came 
to Fort Wayne in 1870, and seventeen years later organized the Her- 
man Berghoff Brewing Company, which was incorporated in 1887, 
with a paid-up capital of one hundred thousand dollars, Herman 


Berghoff being elected president and Henry C. Berghoff, vice-presi- 
dent and secretary. A building commensurate with the designs of 
the company was soon projected and completed, but on August 22, 
1887, before operations had fairly begun, it was destroyed by fire, 
immediately after which preparations were made to rebuild on a 
much more extensive scale. The new building, a handsome brick 
structure, one hundred by one hundred and sixty feet in area, and 
six stories high, was finished in due time and equipped throughout 
with the most approved appliances for the manufacture of high 
grade beer, the capacity of the plant at the time of its completion 
being one hundred thousand barrels a year, much of which was sold 
to the local trade. Since then the facilities of the plant have been 
greatly increased, and in addition to the large and local demand the 
company does an extensive business in the western and northwestern 
states, besides shipping immense quantities of beer to other parts of 
the country. The special brands of beer which have gained 
wide popularity, and for which there has always been a steady de- 
mand, are the Salvator and Dortmunder, the latter so called after 
the birthplace of the Berghoffs, these names being familiar in every 
part of Fort Wayne and in other places where the product of the 
plant is sold. 

The Berghoff Brewery is admirably located in the eastern part of 
the city, on Washington street, and impresses the beholder as one 
of the leading plants in a community noted for the number and im- 
portance of its manufacturing enterprises. The officials of the com- 
pany at this time are Herman Berghoff, president; Hubert Berg- 
hoff, vice-president; William A. Fleming, secretary and treasurer, 
all three of these gentlemen standing in the front rank of the city's 
influential business men and substantial citizens. 


To this large and rapidly growing enterprise but scant justice 
can be done in a description of the limits to which this article is 
necessarily confined, occupying as it does a leading place among the 
manufacturing plants of Fort Wayne and doing as much as any 
other to advertise the city abroad and give it prominence as an im- 


portant industrial center, being the only exclusively full-fashioned 
hosiery mill in the United States and the first to compete successfully 
with the mills of Germany and other European countries. The fame 
of its goods extends from coast to coast, and the demand for the 
same by the leading trade houses of the country has enabled the com- 
pany to build up a business of a million dollars per year, with the 
prospects of still greater patronage and wider influence in the fu- 

The prime mover and leading spirit in the inception and organi- 
zation of this great industry was T. F. Thieme, through whose ef- 
forts a company was formed in September, 1891, consisting of the 
following well-known business men of Fort Wayne: H. C. Paul, 
W. H. Dreier, W. A. Bohn, C. H. Bash, J. C. Peters and T. J. 
Thieme, of whom H. C. Paul was elected president; T. F. Thieme, 
secretary and manager, and W. H. Dreier, treasurer. The amount 
of stock being sufficient to justify the company in proceeding with 
the enterprise, a small building on the corner of Clinton and Main 
streets was rented and equipped with the necessary machinery, and 
in due time operations began, modestly at first, but as the business 
grew the success was such as to encourage the promoters to still 
greater exertions; accordingly, at the end of one year and four 
months it was found necessary to increase the facilities and provide 
a larger and better adapted building, plans and specifications for 
which were at once prepared and accepted. This building, which 
has formed the nucleus of the present plant, was pushed to comple- 
tion as rapidly as conditions would admit, and when finished and 
ready for use the industry entered upon an era of prosperity which 
within a comparatively brief period not only established it upon a 
firm and enduring basis, but won for it a prominence and prestige 
second to that of no other manufacturing enterprise in the city. The 
continued growth of the business required frequent additions to the 
buildings, which were enlarged from time to time, until the plant 
now contains one hundred and twenty thousand square feet of floor 
space, being an imposing three-story brick structure, handsomely 
furnished and admirably suited to the purpose for which designed. 
In this mammoth establishment, which is a veritable hive of human 
industry, eleven hundred operators are employed every working day 


of the year, during which time the product of their labor amounts to 
four million eight hundred thousand pairs of hose, which in points 
of durability, neatness and all the other qualities of high grade hos- 
iery, are unexcelled by the output of any other establishment of the 
kind in the world. 

A special feature of the Fort Wayne Knitting Mill is the manu- 
facture of a practically indestructible black stocking for both ladies 
and gentlemen, which in the matters of color and wear is fully guar- 
anteed, few if any mills in this line having thus guaranteed their 
goods. As already indicated, the great popularity of the product of 
this mill has created a correspondingly great demand, and at this 
time its goods are sold in every state and territory of the Union, 
leading all others wherever brought into competition. The opera- 
tors are mostly residents of the city, and have been carefully trained 
for their respective kinds of labor, the majority having entered the 
mill when old enough for the duties required of them, and their 
long periods of service bespeaks not only efficiency and skill on their 
part, but kind and considerate treatment on the part of the man- 
agement, reciprocity of interest being the dominant principle of the 
establishment. From its inception the enterprise has been maintained 
exclusively by Fort Wayne capital, the officers and stockholders be- 
ing residents of the city and among its most enterprising and capable 
business men. For their interest in building up an establishment, 
which is not only a credit to the city, but to the state and nation as 
well, they deserve and have the esteem and high regard of the com- 
munity, and in a special manner they have won the thanks of the 
people of the city for bringing the hosiery industry from Chemnitz, 
Germany, where for a period of over one hundred years it had 
grown and flourished. 

Under the benign influence of our tariff' laws, the Fort Wayne 
plant has been enabled to compete successfully with the imported 
product of many foreign factories, and build up and maintain a busi- 
ness of large proportions and far-reaching influence, the establish- 
ment, with all of its success in the past, its high reputation at the 
present time, and its bright prospects of future growth, standing as 
a monument to American enterprise under the protection of an 
American policy. The officers into whose hands the management of 


the mill is now entrusted are : S. M. Foster, president; W. E. Moss- 
man, vice-president; T. F. Thieme, secretary and manager; Edward 
Helmcke, treasurer, and F. J. Thieme, superintendent. The orig- 
inal capital of the company was thirty thousand dollars, which 
has been increased from time to time until the stock now amounts to 
seven hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, the additions to its 
capitalization indicating not only the phenomenal success of the en- 
terprise, but its financial solidity and permanency as well. 

In addition to hosiery there are several establishments in Fort 
Wayne for the manufacture of gloves, mittens and similar lines of 
goods, all of which appear to be well patronized and in a flourishing 
condition, Many merchants of the city purchase their stock of mit- 
tens and gloves of these local concerns, and they are also liberally 
patronized by business houses in a number of neighboring cities and 
towns, while a large and growing business is maintained by shipment 
to more distant points. 

The Economy Glove Company, at No. 301 Wallace street, does 
a lucrative business in the making of handwear, also the Fort Wayne 
Glove and Mitten Company, whose establishment, at No. 119 East 
Columbia street, is well known to the local and general trade, as the 
magnitude of its patronage abundantly attests. Both enterprises 
are conducted by men of sound judgment and enjoy excellent repu- 
tation in the industrial and commercial circles of the city. H. Lev- 
ington has been engaged in the manufacture of these lines of goods 
for some time at No. 339 East Main street, and the Toby Glove 
Factory, No. 522 Mechanic street, is a well known and liberally pat- 
ronized establishment, as is also the Union Manufacturing Com- 
pany, the product of which is greater perhaps than that of any sim- 
ilar enterprise in the city. 

The Paragon Company, of which M. C. McDougal is president 
and treasurer, was incorporated in 1896 with a paid-up capital of 
forty thousand dollars, the object of the concern being the manu- 
facture of shirt waists, all kinds and qualities of which are turned 
out and find a ready sale in Fort Wayne and many other cities and 
towns of Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and throughout the country gen- 
erally. The high grade of the goods made by this firm commends 
them to the trade, and the works, situated on East Columbia street, 


are taxed to their utmost capacity to meet the demands of the nu- 
merous customers. 

The Union Manufacturing Company, the chief product of which 
is gloves, was incorporated in 1901, and from that time to the pres- 
ent the business has grown steadily in magnitude, the output being 
largely sought by dealers who handle first-class goods of the kind. 
The original capital of ten thousand dollars has been considerably 
increased, and the plant, which is located on Maiden Lane, has been 
enlarged at intervals to enable the company to keep pace with the 
trade. Julius Tonne is president of the company, in addition to 
which office he also holds the position of treasurer, discharging his 
duties in a capable and eminently praiseworthy manner. W. F. 
Ranke, the secretary, is a man of fine business ability, and has done 
much to win for the company its present high standing in industrial 

The Hoosier Manufacturing Company, which was incorporated 
in April, 188 1, with a capital of thirty thousand dollars, has ad- 
vanced to a respectable position among the influential industries of 
the city, the principal product consisting of overalls, shirts, pants, 
and like wearing apparel, which are manufactured in immense quan- 
tities, and which are highly prized by the general trade, easily com- 
peting with the best made goods of the kind on the market. John P. 
Evans is president of the company, O. F. Evans, vice-president, and 
George P. Evans, treasurer. 

The Boss Manufacturing Company, a popular enterprise whose 
principal output consists of mittens and gloves, has a large and sub- 
stantially constructed two-story brick building at the intersection of 
South Calhoun and East Superior streets, where a full complement 
of men, women and girls are employed, the establishment being well 
equipped and affording every evidence of prosperity and growth. 


An enterprise of Fort Wayne second in magnitude and import- 
ance to few others is the manufacture of shirt waists, which S. M. 
Foster has built up and which has steadily grown in proportions 
until it now represents many thousands in capital, while the product 


of the immense establishment finds its way into the markets of every 
state and territory of the Union. Mr. Foster engaged in this line 
of ■ manufacture about the time the child's shirt waist attained pop- 
ularity, and within a comparatively brief period the demand for the 
goods was so great that he was obliged to enlarge the facilities of his 
establishment, Dame Fashion the meanwhile issuing a decree to the 
effect that women's, as well as children's apparel, would be incomplete 
and out of date without the addition of this modern innovation, ren- 
dering necessary a still further increase in the productive capacity of 
the factory. 

Mr. Foster has kept pace with the progress of the times and the 
demand for high-grade goods, and since the year 1886 his business 
presents a series of advancements and successes such as few manu- 
facturers achieve, his establishment at this time affording remunera- 
tive employment to several hundred operators, mostly females, and 
ranking with the leading industries of the city. The building is 
large, well lighted and ventilated, and thoroughly equipped with the 
latest machinery and devices for expedious work, and the finished 
product represents every kind of shirt waists on the market, from 
the plain, cheap type, to the most expensive and ornate. 


An enumeration of the enterprises that have advanced the indi- 
vidual interests of Fort Wayne and added to the city's general de- 
velopment and improvement would be incomplete without due refer- 
ence to the extensive and growing business of the Perfection Biscuit 
Company, which has become one of the largest and most important 
enterprises of the kind, not only in the city, but in the state. The 
output of this immense establishment is so familiar as to require no 
description, and its value to the public in the matter of domestic 
economy is great beyond compare. The company's business is con- 
ducted in a large five-story brick building, in the construction and 
equipment of which neither money nor pains has been spared, and 
the vast amount of bread, biscuits, crackers, cakes, etc., marked with 
the favorite brand, bear witness to the energy and enterprise of a 
firm which not only in this city, but in many other populous centers, 


hesitates at no obstacle in order to provide the people with cheap and 
wholesome articles of food. A large number of young* men and 
young women find remunerative employment in the plant at this 
place, the building when in full operation being a veritable hive of 
activity, in addition to which there are commodious offices and 
storerooms where the product is prepared for delivery to local deal- 
ers and for shipment. The following are the officers of the Perfec- 
tion Biscuit Company at this time : J. B. Pranke, president ; W. A. 
Bohn, vice-president, and M. B. Singleton, secretary and treasurer. 

An enterprise similar to the above and of equal value to the pub- 
lic, though not on quite such an extensive scale, is the Craig Bis- 
cuit Company, which commands a large and lucrative patronage in 
Fort Wayne and throughout the state, the business from the begin- 
ning having met the expectations of the proprietors and justified 
them in the investment of their capital. The facilities of the com- 
pany are ample for present requirements, the buildings being sub- 
stantial, commodious and admirably adapted to the purpose for 
which designed, while nothing has been done in the way of machin- 
ery and appliances, the latest and most approved methods of bread- 
making being the governing principle of the establishment. The 
high place which this company occupies in the favor of the public 
proves that it has become and will continue to be one of Fort Wayne's 
permanent and popular enterprises, and its past success justifies the 
prediction of greater advancement and wider influence in the future. 
The officers of the company are J. C. Craig, president; George A. 
Durfee, vice-president; O. C. Krotz, secretary and treasurer, and 
J. J. Dannenfelser, manager. 

A third enterprise of the same nature is the National Biscuit 
Company, which does a very large business in the manufacture of 
various brands of crackers, cakes, biscuits, etc., competing success- 
fully with the two establishments already mentioned, and constantly 
extending its influence in trade circles. The local patronage in- 
cludes many of the leading business houses handling this kind of 
goods, while the general trade includes a wide range of 
territory, of which Fort Wayne is one of the most im- 
portant centers. The popular and efficient manager of the 
company in this city is Myron J. Downing. The build- 



ing in which the firm carries on its business is a large brick 
edifice admirably located in the very heart of the city, and contains, 
in addition to ample manufacturing facilities, handsomely arranged 
offices and other apartments, all well finished and furnished and es- 
pecially adapted to the different lines of clerical work required by the 


The manufacture of plumbers' supplies has become an important 
industry in Fort Wayne, being conducted upon an extensive scale 
by the Knott, Van Arnum Company, whose large plant, in the 
southern part of the city, is fully equipped with every device required 
for the successful prosecution of the business. The buildings of the 
firm are substantially constructed and commodious, while the char- 
acter of the output is such as to require the labor of mechanics espe- 
cially skilled in their line of work, a full complement of whom are 
employed. This is one of the more recent of the city's industrial 
enterprises, and the company was induced to locate its plant here 
largely through the efforts and influence of the Fort Wayne Com- 
mercial Club. 


The Anthony Wayne washing machine has attained wide celeb-, 
rity, as is attested by the vast number now in use throughout the 
United States and Canada, its popularity having increased with 
each recurring year ever since its manufacture was begun by the 
Anthony Wayne Manufacturing Company, which has long ranked 
among the important industries of the city. The superior quality 
of the material used in its construction, simplicity of mechanism and 
ease with which operated, are among the qualities which recommend 
the Anthony Wayne washer, and, as already indicated, they are now 
to be found in thousands of homes, and wherever tested have proven 
highly satisfactory, fully coming up to everything claimed for them 
by the manufacturers. 

In addition to washing machines, the Anthony Wayne Company 
has recently added oil tanks to its list of manufactured products, 
making a high grade tank which sells well and which is disposed of 


in large numbers, locally and elsewhere. The company was incorpo- 
rated in 1886, with a capital of eighteen thousand dollars, the officers 
at the present time being as follows : President, John Rhinesmith ; 
secretary and treasurer, J. H. Simonson. 

The Peerless Manufacturing Company's washing machine of 
the same name has also become widely and favorably known, the 
product of the works in this city competing with other washers on 
the market, and steadily growing in favor. The company is soundly 
financed, and, being managed by men of high standing in the busi- 
ness world, its future growth and success are beyond conjecture. 

The Horton Manufacturing Company, in the western part of 
the city, on Osage street, near Main, was organized early in the '80s 
for the manufacture of a high-grade washing machine, the superior 
merits of which soon gained wide publicity for the enterprise and a 
large lucrative patronage. In August, 1883, the company was in- 
corporated with a capital stock of thirty thousand dollars, since 
which time the business has steadily grown in magnitude until there 
are now about seventy thousand of its washing machines in use 
throughout the United States and Canada, the establishment being 
taxed to its utmost capacity to meet the constantly increasing de- 
mands of the trade. Considerable attention is also given to the man- 
ufacture of corn planters, of which there are four different types, and 
for these, as well as for the principal product, much is claimed and 
conceded by reason of their durability, simplicity and superiority of 
construction and mechanism. The large buildings and lumber yards 
of the company cover over an acre of ground, and when operated 
at its normal capacity a force of one hundred and twenty-five to one 
hundred and fifty workmen are required, the majority being skilled 
mechanics and especially proficient in their particular lines of work. 
The officers of the company for the year 1904-5 are as follows: 
President, H. C. Paul; vice-president, J. C. Peters; secretary, Wil- 
liam F. Peters; treasurer, Fred C. Peters; the vice-president being 
manager of the plant. 

It is fitting in this connection to state that the washing machine 
industry of Fort Wayne has been for a number of years one of the 
city's most important interests, more of these machines being made 
here than in any other city in the world. The Wei sell washer, for- 


merly made by Diether & Barrows; the Rocker, manufactured by 
Frank Alderman ; the Anthony Wayne, referred to above, the West- 
ern washer of the Horton Manufacturing Company, and the Peer- 
less, are all products of the highest character, while their output is 
something enormous. 

The Superior Manufacturing Company, whose works are on 
West Main street, has grown into an enterprise of considerable mag- 
nitude and stands well to the front among the city's industries. This 
company, of which B. Hedekind is president, and M. B. Tyger, sec- 
retary and treasurer, was incorporated in August, 1902, with a cap- 
ital of ten thousand dollars, and, as indicated above, has achieved 
well merited success and is constantly extending its business, being 
ably managed by men of discreet judgment and wide practical expe- 


The Fred Eckart Packing Company, the oldest concern of the 
kind in Fort Wayne, was established nearly a half century ago by the 
father of the present proprietors, and has long been one of the lead- 
ing packing houses in the state. The plant, including grounds and 
buildings, is in the west end of the city, and covers two and a half 
acres of land. The main building is a large brick structure, two and 
three stories in height, in which an average of eighty men are em- 
ployed to handle the extensive business which the company now 
commands. About fifty thousand hogs are slaughtered and packed 
annually, and from five thousand to eight thousand beeves; in addi- 
tion to which the manufacture of sausage and the refining of lard 
have become important features of the concern, the popularity of 
these products, as well as the Eckart brand of meats causing a large 
demand of the local and general trade, the latter being confined to a 
radius of from forty-five to fifty miles around the city. The business 
has always been in the hands of the Eckart family, and at this time is 
owned and managed by two brothers and one sister, namely: Fred 
Eckart, who is president of the concern; Elizabeth Eckart, vice- 
president, and Henry Eckart, who holds the dual office of secretary 
and treasurer; C. E. Hartshorn being the efficient superintendent of 
the plant. 


The Bash Packing Company is also an old and firmly established 
enterprise which has done a large and flourishing business in its 
line, and which is still one of the substantial industrial interests of 
Fort Wayne. Its history of many years has been characterized by 
continuous successes, and being financially strong, the company has 
exercised its proportionate share of influence in advancing the inter- 
ests of the city and promoting its development. 

Another concern that does a thriving trade in the curing and 
packing of meats is the Leikauf Packing Company, in addition to 
which there are several parties who carry on a prosperous local busi- 
ness, but do little in the way of shipment. 


The making of rugs and carpets receives due attention in Fort 
Wayne, several firms being engaged in this line of industry, with en- 
couraging results. The Chicago Carpet Rug Factory, on the north- 
west corner of Superior and Wells streets, has built up a thriving 
business, also the Fort Wayne Rug and Carpet Factory, whose es- 
tablishment, at No. 1424 Broadway, has a very satisfactory patron- 
age, the output of both concerns being noted for beauty of design, 
skillful workmanship and durability of wear. 

Another firm engaged in the same line of manufacture is the In- 
diana Carpet Rug Factory, which has a well furnished establish- 
ment at No. 1207 Lafayette street, where work is done to order, as 
well as for the general trade, the business of the firm being all that 
could reasonably be expected from the amount of capital invested. 
Others engaged in the line are Leopold Beck, Charles Cragg, E. J. 
Fox, E. P. Hertweg, W. T. Schoen and J. T. Wolfram, all of which 
have a liberal patronage and are prospering in the undertaking. 


Among the various manufacturing interests of Fort Wayne, that 
of saddlery and harness making stands well to the front, the parties 
engaged therein being men of energy and enterprise, as the volume 
of business transacted by . them abundantly attests. Conspicuous 


among the firms in this line of work is the Fort Wayne Saddlery 
Company, on East Columbia street, which, in addition to manufac- 
turing all kinds of harness, keeps on hand a large and varied stock 
of the finest goods of the kind in the market, the trade of this firm 
being as large perhaps as that of any other concern of the kind in 
the city. 

J. W. Bell is also engaged in the saddlery and harness business, 
and commands a patronage which is satisfactory and steadily grow- 
ing. Other manufacturers and dealers are Fred Hilt, E. S. Johns, 
A. L. Johns, Henry Klebe, G. H. Kuntz, C. H. Rudolph, J. F. 
Sergeant, Louis Traub, Philip Wick, the Schroeder Brothers, and 
quite a number of others, all of whom make goods to order, as well 
as for the general trade, and do a creditable business. 

The horse collar industry has commanded the attention of Fort 
Wayne parties for a number of years, the oldest enterprise of the 
kind in the city being the Racine Horse Collar Manufacturing Com- 
pany, so named from the founder, Aime Racine, who, with a partner, 
engaged in the manufacture of harness as long ago as 1865, the 
making of collars being subsequently added. The latter article prov- 
ing more remunerative, the firm gradually made a specialty 
of its manufacture, and the excellence of the product in due time 
gave the company a wide and creditable reputation. To meet the 
growing demand of the trade Mr. Racine erected a large three-story 
building on the corner of First and North Cass streets, in which a 
very successful business was afterward conducted, the enterprise at 
this time being under the management of Mrs. Aime Racine, widow 
and successor of the founder. T. L. Racine is also identified with 
the industry, and other parties engaged in this same line of business 
are John Bayer and A. L. Johns, each gentleman conducting an es- 
tablishment of his own. 

The manufacture of paints, varnishes and oils has grown into a 
business of large proportions, the leading firm in these lines being 
William Moellering & Sons, whose goods have a wide sale, and wher- 
ever used are noted for their superior quality and excellence. Va- 
rious kinds of paints are also made by the Fort Wayne Steam Spe- 
cialty Company, whose establishment at Nos. 13 18 and 1322 Erie 


street, has grown into a large and prosperous concern, and whose 
different products in the line of specialties have an extensive sale. 

In the matter of patent medicines of different kinds Fort Wayne 
has taken rapid strides, several parties and firms being interested in 
the manufacture of popular remedies, with large amounts of capital 
invested. Prominent among these concerns is the Moeller- 
ing Medicine Company, which has achieved signal success in the 
manufacture of a number of curatives which have become quite pop- 
ular, and for which there is a wide and steadily increasing demand. 
H. H. Haines has earned an honorable reputation as the manufact- 
urer of a number of remedies, the efficacy of which is pretty generally 
recognized and appreciated, as is manifest by their sale in the lead- 
ing cities of the country, to say nothing of their popularity in smaller 
places and remoter districts. One of the largest and most liberally 
patronized patent medicine firms of the city is the Rundell Proprie- 

si 'pams J3]}iag is^g 61 £ 'O^r T& 'Ltoyejoqvi 3SOi|M 'Xirediuo;3 Xjb; 
fitted up on an extensive scale for the manufacture of the various 
remedies, which during the last few years have been widely adver- 
tised and sold, the large amount disposed of affording the best testi- 
monial as to their curative properties. Another medical concern that 
has done a creditable business and rapidly extended its influence is 
the Live Stock Proprietary Remedy Company, the nature of which 
is clearly and succinctly set forth in the style of the firm. This com- 
pany is engaged in the manufacture of a number of remedies for 
horses, cattle and other live stock, the efficacy of which has been 
critically tested to the satisfaction, not only of the patentees and own- 
ers, but to all who have used them. Among farmers and stock men 
they are held in high repute as curative agencies, and their popularity 
is creating a demand which has already won for the company honor- 
able repute throughout Indiana and neighboring states. 

Other industries deserving of special mention, but which the lim- 
its of this review admit of only casual notice, are the manufacture 
of office, store and bank fixtures by the Diether Lumber Company, at 
whose works, on East Superior street, a full complement of skilled 
artisans are employed, the product of the concern in design, construc- 
tion and all that constitutes artistic and well finished fixtures, being 
equal to the output of any other works in the city. 



The making of brick has long been an important industry, rep- 
resenting many thousands of dollars of capital, the growth of the 
business keeping pace with the city's growth and prosperity. Among 
those formerly engaged in this line of enterprise were John Braun 
and his son, John C. Braun, the latter taking charge of the business 
after the father's death, and conducting it quite extensively for a 
number of years, the output of his yard amounting to eleven million 
annually. Joseph Fremion also did a thriving business for some 
time, making upon an average of about one and a half million bricks 
per year. Others who followed the business from time to time, and 
did much to promote the material welfare of the city, were Nelson 
Leonard, Jefferson Leonard, Paul Koehler and John A. Koehler. 
The industry at this time is represented by J.W. Koehler. The Fort 
Wayne Brick and Tile Company, which has large kilns and exten- 
sive yards on Clinton street; William Miller, whose place of busi- 
ness is on South Hanna street, a short distance south of the city 
limits; William M. Moellering, at No. 231-241 Murray street, and 
William H. F. Moellering, on Calhoun street, adjoining the corpor- 
ate limits on the south, the last two gentlemen being the largest manu- 
facturers and dealers in the city and among the largest in the state. 
William Moellering, in addition to making and handling all kinds 
of brick, does a thriving business in hard plaster, fire clay and arti- 
ficial building stone. Indeed, there are nearly a dozen individuals 
and firms engaged in the manufacture of brick, among which the 
following are perhaps the largest and most successful representatives 
of the industry at this time : The Fort Wayne Cement Stone Com- 
pany, the Fort Wayne Pressed Brick and Tile Company, the Citi- 
zens' Brick Manufacturing Company, all of which have large and 
well equipped plants and do an extensive business, nearly the entire 
output being used by Fort Wayne masons and builders. 


There are several marble and granite works in the city, which in- 
dicate the extent to which the industry has grown, the business done 


by each being extensive, as there is always a demand for this kind 
of material either for monumental or building purposes. 

Among the firms and individuals engaged in the industry may 
be noted the following: Aichele & Son, on Portage avenue, near 
Lindenwood cemetery; Hattersley & Sons, whose establishment 
commands a lucrative patronage in the city and elsewhere ; Cornelius 
Brunner, on West Main street; C. G. Griebel, at Nos. 254-260 West 
Main, has an extensive local and general trade; Haag & Bates, No. 
344 East Columbia street, and Jacob Koehl, at the corner of Broad- 
way and Main streets, are also achieving marked success in this busi- 


The manufacture of artificial stone has recently become an im- 
portant industry, being represented in Fort Wayne by several in- 
dividuals and firms who are doing a prosperous business by reason 
of the growing demand for the material, many people preferring it 
to brick or natural stone for building purposes. Several large busi- 
ness blocks are constructed of the manufactured article, also a num- 
ber of dwellings of the better class, which present a very neat and 
attractive appearance, the material being pronounced as durable as 
any other that nature or art can provide. 

The Fort Wayne Cement Stone Company, one of the largest 
and most successful enterprises of the kind in the city, has extensive 
grounds and a finely equipped factory at Nos. 20, 27 and 31 Nelson 
street, where are made all kinds of artificial stone, building blocks 
and cement, in addition to which the firm does a large business in 
contracting, besides shipping immense quantities of its product to 
the leading markets of the country. At the head of this enterprise 
are men of good standing and wide experience, and the rating of 
the firm in business circles of Fort Wayne, and wherever known, 
is high and its reputation eminently honorable and praiseworthy. 

The Fort Wayne Pressed Brick Company, in addition to the 
manufacture of the product from which it derives its name, does a 
thriving business in cement and artificial stone, manufacturing large 
quantities of both material and commanding a lucrative patronage 
among the builders of Fort Wayne and other cities. 


William Moellering & Sons are engaged in the same line of 
manufacture in connection with their various other interests, as is 
the well known firm of Kruse & Busching, at whose place of busi- 
ness on East Superior street all kinds of building material, natural 
and artificial, are extensively handled, to say nothing of the large 
trade the firm has built up in fire clay and other materials. 

The manufacture of artificial stone necessitates the use of ma- 
chinery especially adapted to the purpose, the making of which has 
already enlisted the interest of Fort Wayne parties to the extent of 
a considerable investment of capital in what is known as the Fort 
Wayne Stone Machine Company. The firm has a complete and thor- 
oughly equipped plant in which is manufactured all kinds of ma- 
chinery and devices used in the production of artificial stone and 
cement, the increasing demand for the latter gaining for the com- 
pany a patronage which has so taxed the capacity of the plant that 
an enlargement of its facilities will soon become a necessity. The 
Fort Wayne Cement Machine Company, which is similar in many 
respects to the above enterprise, manufactures machinery for the 
making of cement, artificial stone and other kinds of building ma- 
terial, and does a very satisfactory business, the firm being soundly 
financed and composed of wide-awake, energetic men who have 
triumphed over every obstacle and built up an establishment which 
occupies no obscure place among the industries of the city. 


Among the important industries of Fort Wayne is the manu- 
facture of soap, one of the largest and most successful establishments 
of the kind in Indiana being the Summit City Soap Works, which 
was started here a number of years ago, and which has enjoyed 
continued prosperity to the present day, its reputation at this time 
comparing favorably with that of any other interest of the city, 
besides being highly rated in the business circles of a large section 
of the Union. 

Recently the enterprise came into the possession of Mr. Roche, 
a man of skill and experience, under whose efficient management 
the facilities of the works have been greatly enlarged and an im- 


petus given the business such as it never before experienced. The 
several brands produced at this factory, with the justly celebrated 
cleansing material " Rub-No-More, " have attained wide popularity, 
and it is not too much to say that they lead in the markets of many 
cities and defy competition wherever used. The works are operated 
at their full capacity and afford employment for a large force of 
men, women and girls, and, being on a solid financial basis and in 
the hands of a gentleman eminently qualified to conduct the business 
with a large measure of success, it is safe to predict for the concern 
a continuance of the prosperous condition by which its present 
status is characterized. 


In a city of the size and importance of Fort Wayne, where the 
majority of the adult male population and not a few juveniles of the 
same sex are addicted to the American habit of using tobacco, it is 
natural to suppose that the cigar industry would assume immense 
proportions, and such is indeed the case, as the number of firms and 
individuals engaged in the business abundantly attest. The product 
of many of the Fort Wayne factories have a high reputation, and 
their excellence has caused a large demand not only on the part of 
local dealers, but by the trade at large, quite a number of traveling 
men being employed to represent the goods at other points. 

The industry at this time is represented by the following manu- 
facturers : J. C. Eckert, C. F. Albrecht, Brayer & Whitney, R. Bever- 
forden, C. Bayer, Louis Frey, F. C. Grewe, F. J. Gruber, A. Hazzard, 

F. W. J. Horn, Hollister & Son, G. H. Humbrecht, Kasten & 
Kohlmeyer, Max Kirbach, P. G. Kirbach, T. C. Koch, H. Lauer, F. 
McCormick, G. Oberwitte, H. W. Ortmann, H. A. Plumadore, 
Pfeiffer & Thompson, M. Rosenthal, A. J. Scheie, W. J. Schmidt, F. 

G. Schneider, W. J. Steckbeck, S. G. Throckmorton, B. H. Trent- 
man, C. A. Tripple and Carl Wilhelm. 

As indicated on another page of this chapter, the industries of 
Fort Wayne are so numerous and varied as to render specific de- 
scription impossible, a general glance being all that can reasonably 
be attempted, save in the matter of the several representative enter- 


prises whose organization and history have been given at greater 
length. In addition to the many important establishments alluded to, 
there are others perhaps of equal standing and influence, whose his- 
tory would doubtless prove as interesting, but as the data relating 
thereto was not always accessible, the review will close with an 
enumeration of the different articles manufactured in the city, not 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph, some of the industries being 
of recent growth, others having long been represented in the com- 

In several establishments different kinds of tools are manu- 
factured, this line of industry having grown to considerable magni- 
tude of recent years. It would be difficult to enumerate all the results 
of inventive skill in this particular department of work, including 
as it does, all varieties of tools and implements, from the heavy 
axe and sledge used by the brawny workmen, to the most delicate 
instrument plied by the deft fingers of the physician, artist, or delver 
into the mysteries of science. Many of the larger establishments 
manufacture all the tools used by their employees, while others con- 
duct departments in which this line of work is carried on for the 
general trade. 

Reference has already been made to the manufacture of pianos 
and organs, but additional to these, various other musical instru- 
ments are made in the city, including fifes, flutes, clarionets and 
violins, the last being distinguished for skillful construction and 
purity of tone. 

Tent making has grown into quite an important industry, but it 
is not prosecuted as it was on the plains of Shinar during the days 
of Abraham, nor after the manner of the orientals of the present 
day, but by machinery of the most modern type, as witness the num- 
ber and quality of this line of goods annually produced. 

A fine quality of leather is one of the outputs of Fort Wayne, 
the business of tanning having long been carried on in the city, but 
of recent years the industry has made rapid strides by reason of the 
new and improved process now in use. 

Not the least interesting among Fort Wayne's many manu- 
factured products of a high grade is art glass, which is made in large 
quantities and used in churches, cathedrals, in the windows of the 


finer class of residences, and for decorative purposes generally, the 
output of the works in this city comparing favorably with the finest 
and most artistic glass imported from Germany, Italy and other 
European countries. 

In this connection it may be stated that other lines of artistic 
work are successfully carried on, among which is the making of 
various kinds of statuary which, though in its infancy, is steadily 
growing into a remunerative business. 

The Fort Wayne Cornice Works has become an important in- 
dustry, many of the city's most imposing dwellings, as well as public 
buildings, being beautified by the workmanship of this establish- 

The manufacture of street cars now ranks among the city's lead- 
ing industries, also the manufacture of automobiles, the latter being 
of recent origin, but the success which has attended the business thus 
far bespeaks the mammoth proportions to which it is bound to grow 
at no distant day. 

Tinware of all kinds is manufactured in quantities to meet the 
local demand and the general trade; oil stoves, which have become 
as much of a necessity as a luxury, are produced in large numbers 
by different establishments ; grates and mantels, plain and of artistic 
design, are the special feature to which the attention of several 
parties is being devoted, their manufacture having long since passed 
the experimental stage and grown into an industry of large pro- 
portions. The leading men in this line of industry at the present 
time are William Carter & Sons, who conduct a thriving business, 
and Hattersley & Sons, whose establishment commands a large and 
lucrative patronage, not only in the city, but in various points in 
Indiana and elsewhere. 

The broom industry is well represented in Fort Wayne by a 
number of parties, the larger manufacturers being C. A. Cartwright, 
Joseph Didnerjohn, Robert Gage, F. C. Gaskill and J. L. Hunter, 
each of whom conducts a well regulated shop and employs an ade- 
quate force of workmen, the output of their respective establish- 
ments going far to supply the local dealers with one of the most 
useful articles of household economy. 

The making of handles for all kinds of tools and implements 


is an industry of no little importance in this city, several parties car- 
rying on the same, the largest concern of the kind being the With- 
ington Handle Company, on the corner of Erie and Hanna streets, 
which does a very extensive business, shipping its products to all 
parts of the United States, in addition to a thriving local trade. 

The manufacture of mattresses is carried on by Edward Miller, 
P. E. Wolf, Hugh Wormcastle & Company, and the Pape Furniture 
Company, all of whom report a successful business and a growing 

Awnings, automobile and buggy cushions, canvas gloves, and 
articles of a similar nature have engaged the attention of business 
men, and their manufacture is by no means the least of the city's 
industrial enterprises. 

Among the various other articles manufactured in Fort Wayne, 
the following are deserving of mention, as each represents the in- 
vestment of no little capital, and the businesses, being in the hands 
of men of intelligence, sound judgment and recognized integrity, 
are steadily growing and adding luster to the city's reputation as an 
industrial center. While the list is by no means complete, it doubt- 
less includes the majority of articles not referred to in preceding 
paragraphs, namely: Furs, yeast, shoes, gum, potash, veneers, 
vinegar, perfumes, drag saws, wood saws, carpenters' and mechanics' 
saws, bed-springs, show cases, baking pans, and other cooking 
utensils, hoop-coilers, razor straps, photo mounts, zinc etchings, 
leather and rubber heels, baking powder, leather gloves, boiler clean- 
ers, dental supplies, automobile tops, hot air furnaces, theatrical 
scenery, half-tone engravings, hay and stock racks, cotton racks, 
ice, chairs, shirts, trunks, fertilizers, incubators, cigar boxes, pop 
valves, lawn swings, confectionery, lithographing, gravel roofing, 
rubber stamps, leather mittens, hardwood floors, ice cream, butter, 
blank books, tablets, underwear, pop and all kinds of soft drinks, 
cider, skirts, books, tallow, baskets, charcoal, petticoats, dust pans, 
and other household articles, buggy tops, wall plaster, electrotypes, 
paper boxes, bolting saws, safety valves, bolt equalizers, roasted 
coffee, glove leathers, hats, caps, steam launches, canoes, shoveling 
boards, meats of all kinds, asphalt paving material, stencils, and 
many other articles representing nearly every line of manufacture, 


the production of which is steadily growing in volume, and con- 
tinually adding to the reputation of a city which today ranks first in 
the state in the number of industries, and which ultimately is destined 
to become one of the greatest industrial centers of the west. 




The following historical sketch of the schools of Fort Wayne 
down to 1896 was written by Dr. John S. Irwin, who for many 
years was connected with the public schools of Fort Wayne as trus- 
tee and superintendent, and is taken from a report of the city gov- 
ernment. From 1896 to the present the matter is furnished by 
J. N. Study, superintendent of the Fort Wayne public schools. 

" Under the original constitution of Indiana no attempt what- 
ever was made toward the opening of a public school. But ef- 
forts, more or less successful, had been made by churches and pri- 
vate individuals to provide for the education of the children then 
living in the town. It is known that at a very early day a school 
was established by the society of Friends somewhere in that por- 
tion of what was then part of Randolph county, but which is now 
Allen county, but no records or reminiscences whatever concerning 
the school can be found. 

"In 1 82 1, the Rev. Isaac McCoy was sent by the Baptist church 
as a missionary and teacher to the Indians, opening a school for 
these wards in the old fort; he also received the children of such 
white parents as were sent to him. In this school he was assisted at 
various times by Matthew Montgomery, Hugh B. McKean and 
Mr. and Mrs. Votts. After leaving Mr. McCoy, Mr. and Mrs. 
Votts taught school in a house on the banks of St. Mary's river 
near the present site of the gas works office. 

"In 1825, after the organization of the county, the first school 
house of Fort Wayne was built on a lot adjoining the old grave 


yard, in the rear of the present jail, and was known as the County 
Seminary. In this building for many years, under the old ideas so 
admirably and tersely put by 'Pete Jones,' the young of the town, 
male and female, were taught by Mr. John P. Hedges and his suc- 
cessor in office. About the same time Mr. Henry Cooper, father of 
a present member of the school board and afterwards well known 
as a lawyer, taught in an upper room of an old log house on the 
southwest corner of the public square. The barred windows of this 
primitive school house must have served to* depress the spirits of the 
scholars in the bright spring weather, while the rough floor and 
seats could have had little resemblance to the comfortable and even 
elegant appliances now provided for the pupil. 

"Mr. Aughinbaugh, after teaching in the old Masonic Hall of 
that day, had charge of the seminary in 1832-3, being followed in 
1834 by Smallwood Noel, who died many years later an honored 
and respected old man. He was followed in the next year by Mr. 
James Requa. About the same time Mr. Beggs taught in a small 
building on Columbia street. 

"In 1835-6 Mr. Myron F. Barbour, a most popular and suc- 
cessful teacher, who is still living (and in his eighty-sixth year) in 
the enjoyment of a well earned and dignified ease and comfort,* had 
charge of the seminary, where he laid the foundation of a solid and 
practical education to the benefit of many of the best business men 
and citizens of the town. He was followed by Mr. John C. Sivey, 
afterwards well known as a civil engineer on the Wabash and Erie 
Canal, who later became a resident of Wabash. In years gone by 
an anecdote was well known concerning an applicant for the posi- 
tion of teacher in the seminary, of whose moral qualifications the 
examiners entertained some suspicions. Want of moral character 
being apparently no ground of action they endeavored to defeat 
him by a strict and thorough examination in the essentials. In less 
than an hour the examination resulted in the entire defeat of the 
Board, and the licensing of the applicant. 

"In the spring of 1836, Miss Mann, now the honored wife of ex- 
Secretary of the Treasury McCulloch, and the mother of Charles 
McCulloch, president of the Hamilton National Bank, and Miss 

*Mr. Barbour died some years ago.— Ed. 


Hubbell, the late Mrs. Royal Taylor, came from the east and opened 
a school of a very high and distinguished character in a room in the 
old court house; after teaching there for a short time they joined the 
Rev. Jesse Hoover, who, on August 2d of that year, had opened 
a school in the basement of the Presbyterian church, the first and 
then the only church in town, which stood on the site of the present 
residence of Col. D. N. and Mr. Samuel Foster.* In the charge of 
this school Mr. Hoover was succeeded by the Rev. W. W. Stevens, 
with Alexander Mcjunkin as assistant. Mr. Stevens subsequently 
built a school house on West Berry street, where, with his wife, he 
taught for many years. 

"Probably no teacher in Fort Wayne, certainly none of the 
older ones, has so impressed himself and his characteristics upon 
the memories and respect of his pupils as did Alexander Mcjunkin. 
After leaving Mr. Stevens, he built a house, still standing, on the 
east line of Lafayette street, between Berry and Wayne streets, 
where he most successfully taught school for many years, until in 
1852 he became the treasurer of the Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
road Company. A fine scholar, a strong, judicious instructor, and 
a stern, rigidly strict disciplinarian, he most forcibly impressed his 
ideas and teachings upon the minds of his scholars, and not infre- 
quently with equal force upon their bodies. 

"In the fall of 1845 the Presbyterian church opened a Ladies' 
Seminary under the charge of Mrs. Lydia Sykes, which promised 
great usefulness, but, after a year and a half of very successful 
work, Mrs. Sykes' health failed, and she was succeeded by the Rev. 
Mr. James, who had come to the town in 1846, and taught in several 
different buildings. Many other small private schools were taught 
in Fort Wayne, with varying success by residents of the town, one 
of whom, was the present Mrs. Barbara Renan. 

"In 1849 the Methodist College, afterwards the Fort Wayne 
College, and still later the Taylor University, situated at the west 
end of Wayne street was opened for higher education under the 
charge of Prof. A. C. McG. Huestis, who passed from life only a 
few years since. Mr. Huestis was possessed of marked ability and 
great originality as a teacher and educator, and it is impossible fully 

*This might be misleading now, as neither of the gentlemen have lived there for several 
years. — Ed. 


to estimate the good seeds that were sown by his labors, or the 
fruits that have grown from them. The institution, with a life of 
varied success and depression under its different heads and man- 
agement, has finally passed away. 

"In August, 1852, the Presbyterian Academy was reopened 
on the site of the present high school,* under the charge of Mr. 
Henry McCormick with Jacob Lancers as assistant. The school 
was continued under different teachers with varying success until 
1867, when it was abandoned, as the public schools were more eco- 
nomically carrying out its objects, and the lots sold to the board of 
school trustees. Large and well organized parochial schools had 
also from time to time been opened under the care and direction of 
the Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, and other churches, many of 
which are still existing well managed, well appointed, and success- 
ful in teaching their pupils the fundamental elements of religion, as 
held by the respective churches, in connection with the more secular 
subjects of education. So extensively are these parochial schools 
patronized by those connected with their respective religious bodies, 
and so high is the character of the work done therein, that in con- 
nection with the private and the public schools, no excuse whatever 
can exist for an ignorant child or an illiterate adult. 

"In closing this part of the report, it is proper to refer to an- 
other institution of learning in the city, whose origin is of a later 
date, but whose character is worthy of especial commendation and 

"In 1883, Miss Carrie B. Sharp and Mrs. Delphine B. Wells, 
two of the strongest and best qualified principals of the public 
schools, strongly impressed with the growing necessity for such a 
school, opened the Westminster Seminary, for the higher education 
of young ladies, not only of the city, but of the surrounding towns. 
This institution has had a growing career of usefulness and success 
which the writer earnestly hopes may increase and continue till the 
present principals and their successors and their pupils, for many 
generations, have gone to their higher rewards.** 

*Since this was written the high school mentioned has been abandoned for the magnifi- 
cent new structure in another portion of the city. — Ed. 

**This school went out of existence several years ago. — Ed. 


"Of Virginia in 1671, it was said that 'the almost general want 
of schools for their children was of most sad consideration, most 
of all bewailed of the parents.' 'Every man,' said Sir William 
Berkeley in his report to the home government, 'instructs his children 
according to his ability. The ministers should pray more and preach 
less. But I thank God there are no free schools nor printing, and 
I hope we shall not have these hundred years; for learning has 
brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and print- 
ing has divulged them and libels against the best government. God 
keep us from both.' Most loyal follower of Jack Cade who tells 
Lord Say, 'Thou has most traitorously corrupted the youth of the 
realm in erecting a grammar school ; and whereas before our fore- 
fathers had no other books but the score and the tally, thou hast 
caused printing to be used ; and contrary to the king, his crown, and 
dignity, thou hast built a paper mill.' Under this same wise Gover- 
nor Berkeley, on reference of the subject to the king, a printing press 
was destroyed, and public education, and printing all news or books 
forbidden. Yet when the same Virginia, in connection with other 
states, ceded to the general government her territory northwest of 
the Ohio river, the congress of the confederation, in accordance 
with the spirit of the deed of cession, declared in article 3, of the 
celebrated ordinance of 1787, enacted for the perpetual government 
of the ceded lands, 'Religion, morality, and knowledge being neces- 
sary to good government, and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.' And 
Washington in his farewell address, said, 'Promote, then, as an ob- 
ject of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of 
knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives 
force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be 

"Guided by these wise and judicious views, the framers of the 
first constitution of Indiana, in 181 6, adopted as a fundamental prin- 
ciple the following, which was confirmed by the people, 'Knowledge 
and learning generally diffused through a community being es- 
sential to> the preservation of a free government, and spreading the 
opportunities and advantages of education through the various parts 
of the country being highly conducive to this end,' it shall be the 
duty of the general assembly 'to 1 provide by law for a general sys- 


tern of education ascending in a regular gradation from township 
schools to a state university, wherein tuition shall be gratis, and 
equally open to all.' The language of the revised constitution of 
185 1 differs slightly from this, but recognizing fully the principles 
of the ordinance of 1787, is essentially of the same import. It makes 
it the duty of the general assembly to 'encourage by all suitable 
means, moral, intellectual, scientific and agricultural improvement; 
and to provide by law for a general and uniform system of com- 
mon schools wherein tuition shall be without charge, and equally 
open to all.' 

"In article 8, section 2, it declares that 'The common school 
fund shall consist of the congressional township fund, and the lands 
belonging thereto; the surplus revenue fund; the saline fund and 
the lands belonging thereto; the bank tax fund, and the fund aris- 
ing from the one hundred and fourteenth section of the charter of 
the state bank of Indiana; the fund to be derived from the sale of 
county seminaries, and the moneys and properties heretofore held 
for such seminaries; from the fines assessed for breaches of the 
penal laws of the state; and from all forfeitures which may ac- 
crue ; all lands and other estate which shall escheat to the state for 
want of heirs or kindred entitled to inheritance; all lands that have 
been, or may hereafter be granted to the state, where no special pur- 
pose is expressed in the grant, and the proceeds of the sale thereof ; 
including the proceeds of the sales of swamp lands, granted to the 
state of Indiana by the act of congress of the 28th of September, 
1850, after deducting the expense of selecting and draining the 
same; taxes on the property of corporations, that may be assessed 
by the general assembly for common school purposes.' 

"Section 3 declares that 'The principal of the common school 
fund shall remain a perpetual fund, which may be increased, but 
shall never be diminished; and the income thereof shall be invio- 
lably appropriated to the support of common schools, and to no 
other purpose whatever.' 

"In the enabling act, authorizing the state of Indiana, congress, 
to insure the carrying out of the directions of the ordinance of 1787, 
provided that section sixteen in every township should be granted 
to such township for the use of schools, and also provided that two 


whole townships should be appropriated to the use of a seminary of 

"Under the original constitution of 1816, no effort whatever 
was made, in what afterwards became Allen county, towards the 
opening of any public school. 

"Under the school law of 1852, passed by the general assembly 
to give force to the provisions of the revised constitution of 1851, 
Hugh McCulloch, Charles Case and William Stewart were, in 1853, 
appointed the first board of school trustees, to organize and manage 
the public schools of Fort Wayne. They found themselves in charge 
of the school affairs of a city of some five thousand persons, of whom 
about twelve hundred were of school age, no school building, no 
school appliances whatever, and not a dollar -with which to buy them. 
They rented the Mcjunkin school house on Lafayette street, ap- 
pointing Mr. Isaac Mahurin, and his sister, Miss M. L. Mahurin, 
to teach therein ; and a small house on the site of Mr. Henry Paul's 
present residence on West Wayne street, belonging to Mr. A. M. 
Hulburd, who, with his wife, was engaged to teach in it. Both 
schools were opened in September of that year, with a tuition fund 
for their support of three hundred and thirty dollars and seventy- 
two cents, and no special fund whatever. To acquire the funds 
necessary to continue the schools, the trustees, as provided by law, 
called a public meeting to vote upon levying a tax for that purpose. 
The purpose of the meeting failed ignominiously, and the trustees 
resigned. James Humphrey, Henry Sharp, and Charles G. French 
were appointed their successors, and these gentlemen, under a modi- 
fied law, assessed a tax of two mills on the dollar for school pur- 

"With the growth of the city the necessity for additional school 
accommodations grew rapidly, but the means under control of the 
trustees kept no corresponding pace. In 1855, Mr. Henry Sharp 
resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. William Smith. The board 
determined to do all in their power for the relief of the pressing 
needs, purchased the site of the Clay school from Judge Samuel 
Hanna, and that of the Jefferson school from Dr. Charles E. Stur- 
gis, and advertised for proposals to build the Clay school. They met 
and adjourned from time to time, but no bids having been received, 
with wonderful moral courage they assumed a responsibility the ex- 


tent and weight of which can not now be readily appreciated. They 
proceeded with the work themselves, letting it in portions as they 
found opportunity and persons willing to assume the risk. After 
overcoming many and great difficulties and in the face of innumer- 
able discouragements they opened the building on February 9th, 
with appropriate exercises, having appointed the Rev. George A. 
Irvin, superintendent. Those and those only who have themselves 
experienced such trials and difficulties can fully appreciate the grati- 
fied feelings with which they beheld the completion of their ardu- 
ous but valuable labors. 

"In September of this year, ten gentlemen of the city generously 
mortgaged their personal realty to the state sinking fund for $500.00 
each, sending the full amount to the trustees who agreed to protect 
the mortgages and pay the interest as it should become due. With 
this money the board built the Jefferson school, furnishing, with the 
Clay school, accommodations for about six hundred pupils. With 
the heavy debt hanging over them the trustees could do< nothing 
further, although the number of children entitled to school privi- 
leges was constantly increasing. 

"In 1 86 1 the supreme court decided the school law then ex- 
isting unconstitutional, and the schools were closed for a short time. 
A new law was passed, but under circumstances so depressing and 
disheartening that the membership of the school board was being 
constantly changed by resignation and appointment. In June, 1863, 
the Rev. George A. Irvin resigned his position as superintendent to 
become a chaplain in the Federal army, and was succeeded by Mr. 
E. S. Green, under whose administration a reorganization of the 
school and the course of study was attempted, but owing to the 
great difficulties in the way, without much success. 

"Early in 1865 tne school law was materially and advantageously 
amended, and the city councils were empowered to elect boards of 
school trustees, three in number, to serve for three years each. In 
April of that year the Fort Wayne council elected Oliver P. Mor- 
gan, Edward Slocum and John S. Irwin trustees, who entered at 
once upon the duties of their office. In the following June they 
graduated the first class who had passed through the high school, 
consisting of four young ladies of very marked ability, two of whom 
are still teaching successfully in the schools which had educated 


them. At the close of the school year in June Mr. Green resigned 
his position as superintendent. 

"The new school board found the schools were totally inade- 
quate, no accommodations, no school appliances or aids whatever, 
themselves the inheritors of a magnificent debt, and not a dollar of 
money. They had, however, keen appreciation of the importance 
of their work, and great faith in the eventual recognition of that 
importance by the community. They elected Mr. James H. Smart, 
now Dr. Smart, president of Purdue University,* as superintendent. 
With a high reputation for teaching ability acquired in the Toledo 
schools, and strong power of organization, he entered at once upon 
the accurate and practical grading of the schools, bringing the work 
within a reasonable number of years and elevating the standard to 
the highest practical level. From this time the growth of the 
schools in numbers and popularity was rapid and steady. 

"In 1866 the board purchased part of the present site of the 
Hoagland school and built thereon a plain one-story frame build- 
ing of three rooms, seating when closely filled some two hundred 
pupils. For both site and building they issued warrants, which was 
all they could do. Two rooms were opened in September, but it 
soon became necessary to 1 open the third. This building has, at 
various times, been enlarged and modified so that now it contains 
thirteen class rooms, all full. The growth of the population in that 
part of the city, and the condition of the building itself, the small 
size and comparatively inconvenient character of the room, must in 
the near future make the erection of a new and improved building 
a positive necessity. 

"In 1867 the board purchased the sites of the present High, 
Hanna and Washington schools, and petitioned the city council to 
issue bonds for the payment of these sites, and the erection of the 
necessary buildings thereon, which petition was granted and the 
bonds issued. 

"They immediately contracted with Messrs. Cochrane, Humph- 
rey & Company for the erection of the High and the Washington 
schools. Both buildings were furnished and opened for occupancy 
September 7th of that year. In the year 1877 a large addition was 
made to the High school building, and the older part greatly modi- 

*Dr. Smart died several years ago.— Ed. 


fied. In 1894 still further modifications were made in it to meet 
the rapidly growing demand for additional space. Notwithstand- 
ing all this the rapid growth of the classes promoted from the 
grammar schools will demand greatly increased accommodations, 
which must be met in the very near future. 

"The Washington school was also opened in September, 1868, 
and was originally a four-room building. In the year 1877 its in- 
ternal arrangements were entirely reconstructed, changing it to an 
eight-room building. In 1884 so rapid had become the growth of 
the western part of the city that it became necessary to make an 
addition of four rooms, increasing the accommodation to twelve 
rooms in all and all required. 

"In 1869 the Hanna school, a four-room building of the same 
plan as the Washington school, was built and one room occupied. 
In 1877 ^ was a l so transformed into an eight-room building, and 
in 1882, to meet the rapid growth in that part of the city, four 
more rooms were added, all now in use. 

"In 1870 the small frame building which had stood upon the 
site of the high school, and had been moved to lots on the north- 
west corner of Jefferson and Harmer streets, bought from Mr. 
Horace Hanna, was opened as the Harmer school with one teacher. 
In the next year two rooms were added and occupied. But the de- 
mands for more room grew so rapidly that in 1876 the buildings 
were sold and removed and an eight-room brick building erected 
on the site. In 1893 it became necessary to build a four- room addi- 
tion, making the whole a twelve-room house. 

"In 1 87 1 the villages of Bowserville and Bloomingdale were 
added to the city, and the school in the one-room frame building 
opened in September. The next year it became necessary to add 
two rooms to the building, and in 1875 the board was compelled to 
buy an additional lot, sell the frame building and erect a large and 
substantial eight-room brick, to which, in 1884, a four- room addi- 
tion was made, all in use. 

"In 1874 small districts were added to the city on the north, 
east and south, each having a small school building, which the 
board immediately occupied. They also rented another small frame 
building on the north for a German school. These districts, with 


the exception of that on the north, have since been returned to the 
respective townships to which they formerly belonged 

"But all these improvements and additions very soon proved 
inadequate to the rapid growth of the school population, and in 
1886 the board was compelled to purchase sites for buildings on the 
corner of Boone and Fry streets in the west, on the corner of 
Creighton and Holton avenues on the southeast and on the corner 
of West DeWald and Miner streets on the south, and erected there- 
on the Nebraska and the Holton Avenue schools, each two-room 
brick buildings, and the Miner Street school, a four-room brick. 
The construction of these buildings was such that they could be en- 
larged and receive second stories without the destruction of the 
roofs, and at comparatively small cost. 

"In 1888, to relieve the wants of the extreme eastern portion of 
the city, the board purchased handsome lots from Judge McCulloch 
on the corner of McCulloch and Eliza streets and erected thereon 
a substantial four-room brick, opening two rooms in January, 1889. 
All the rooms are now full. 

"In 1 89 1 the overcrowded condition of the Hoagland and 
Bloomingdale schools compelled the board to purchase sites on the 
corner of Clinton and Pontiac streets, on which they built the Ham- 
ilton school, a four-room brick, and on the corner of Franklin ave- 
nue and Huffman street, on which they built the Franklin school, 
similar to the Hamilton school. The Hamilton school is all occu- 
pied, and only one room of the Franklin unoccupied. 

"In 1 89 1 two rooms were added to the Holton Avenue school, 
making it a four-room building, which is already overcrowded. 

"In 1893 the Nebraska school was also enlarged by two addi- 
tional rooms, and all four are filled, even beyond a healthy point. 
At the same time a second story was put upon the Miner Street 
school, making it an eight-room building, all the rooms being now 

"In February, 1894, the Clay school, the first house built for the 
city schools, was destroyed by fire. On the same site the board 
have erected a twelve-room brick building, which we regard in its 
construction, arrangements and appliances, as a truly model build- 
ing, and one erected at an exceptionally low cost, when its full 
character is considered. All the rooms are fully occupied. 


"Fully recognizing the fact that the character of the school de- 
pends very largely upon the character of the teachers, in 1867 Mr. 
Smart, under the direction of the board, established a training 
school for the proper education of teachers. As a rule, graduation 
from the high school was a necessary precedent to' admission to the 
school. Thorough education in pedagogical principles and methods, 
and accurate practice in the school room, under strong, well-quali- 
fied teachers, was the work of this school. The wisdom of the 
measure was rapidly manifested in the higher ability of the teach- 
ers, the broader, more accurate and more solid character of their 
work and in the rapidly growing reputation of the schools amongst 
prominent educators. In 1877 the instruction in this school was 
limited to the primary grade, another being opened for instruction 
in the higher grades. This latter school was continued 
for two years only, and the. former until June, 1886, when, for 
pressing reasons then existing, the board discontinued it for the 
time being. So great were the advantages of the school in many 
ways that its reorganization is greatly to be desired. 

"Having been elected state superintendent of public instruction 
in October, 1874, Mr. Smart resigned his position as superintend- 
ent of the city schools in the early part of March, 1875, and was 
succeeded by John S. Irwin, who had for ten years been a member 
of the board of trustees. 

"The growth, prosperity and character of the schools have been 
largely influenced by the skill and labor of Mr. Smart. Elected 
when a man young for the position, he brought to the work abili- 
ties of a high order, energy and perseverance that knew no tiring 
or defeat, knowledge of his profession, theoretical and practical, 
much beyond his years, and out of virtual chaos elaborated a system 
well arranged, with courses of study well adapted to the wants of 
the community, and productive of results valuable to the pupils, 
serviceable to the city and honorable alike to the superintendent and 

"In 1877 tne 'colored question,' which had caused much 
anxiety and trouble, and serious expense, was satisfactorily settled 
by placing the colored children in the regular schools, grades and 
districts for which their advancement fitted them, and they are now 



to be found doing satisfactory work in every grade from the baby 
room to 1 the high school. 

"In March, 1878, certain movements in the legislature, un- 
friendly to high school interests, caused the board to change the 
name of 'High School' to that of 'Central Grammar School.' The 
old name, while neither being objectionable in itself nor giving ad- 
ditional strength to the schools, at that time excited useless but very 
unpleasant opposition. The change of name without any lowering 
of the standard of education, caused a closer and more sensible ex- 
amination of the subject, and it being found that in the five states 
erected from the Northwest Territory school authorities were fully 
empowered to teach any study, however high, for which the pupil 
was prepared, and the board had the money to pay, the opposition 
to high schools and high school work has died out, and last year 
the name of High School was restored by the board. At no time 
has the standard of the work required been in any manner or degree 
lessened, nor its extent lessened. The course of study, while it is re- 
garded by no means faultless, has proved itself valuable by the suc- 
cess of our graduates both in higher institutions of learning and in 
the professional and business walks of life. It is the aim of all in 
charge not to weaken the schools, but rather to< strengthen them, 
and that more by the accurate and thorough prosecution of a 
few solid, necessary and valuable branches, than by the skimming 
of the whole field of art, literature and science." 

In July, 1896, Justin N. Study was appointed superintendent of 
schools and assumed the duties of his office August 1st. 

The course of study was rearranged in accordance with the 
ideas of the "new education" ; a system of semi-annual promotions 
was adopted, and various other steps taken to bring the school sys- 
tem more nearly abreast the current of educational progress. 


The special branches of music and reading, which had for some, 
years been discontinued as subjects of special instruction, were re- 
established and supervisors appointed. 

William Miles was appointed as supervisor of music and has 
held the position up to the present time. The study of music is 


reorganized as a highly valuable part of the public school curricu- 
lum and the supervisor has succeeded in establishing a taste for 
good music among the pupils and the schools have reached a high 
degree of efficiency in execution. 

Of all branches embraced in the common school curriculum 
reading is by far the most important. To be able to gather the 
thought from the printed page is an absolute necessity to the mas- 
tery of all the remainder of the course of study. As a rule the 
pupil who reads well does well in his other studies, and as a rule 
the poor reader is poor in his geography, arithmetic, grammar and 
other studies. To read well orally is one of the most valuable ac- 
complishments, as unfortunately it is also one of the rarest. Read- 
ing is of such vital importance that it was deemed wise by our 
school authorities to put it under the supervision of a special teach- 
er of the subject. From 1896 to 1900 the subject was under the 
supervision of Miss Mary E. Stephens, whose training and per- 
sonality rendered her particularly successful in bringing about a 
great advance in the reading work of the schools. To the regret 
of all connected with the schools, Miss Stephens severed her con- 
nection with the schools at the close of the school year of 1900- 
190 1. The vacancy so> caused was filled by the appointment of Mrs. 
Jennie Ray Ormsby, who brought to the work a wide and success- 
ful experience as a special teacher of reading in private work. But 
at the end of a very useful year Mrs. Ormsby decided to re-en- 
gage in independent work. The place has not been filled as yet, 
the duties thereof in the primary grades having been delegated to 
the primary supervisor. It is probable as well as desirable that the 
supervisorship of reading shall be filled again at an early date. 


Fort Wayne was one of the first cities in Indiana, if not the 
first, to recognize the value of drawing as a part of common school 
education, and for many years a special teacher of drawing was 
employed in the schools. But the employment of a special teacher 
was discontinued and the study dropped. That this was a great 
loss to the school needs no argument. In 1898 the board of 
trustees wisely decided to re-introduce this eminently practical 


branch of instruction into the schools, and Miss Alice E. Hall was 
elected as special teacher and supervisor of drawing. Miss Hall 
had received a much wider art training than the majority of teach- 
ers of drawing in public school work, and brought to the work not 
only wide knowledge of the subject, but also an enthusiasm that 
was an inspiration alike to teacher and pupil. The time that had 
elapsed since drawing had been taught in the public schools made 
it necessary to begin again with the fundamentals with teachers as 
well as pupils. The department has prospered and the results of 
the work as evidenced in the various exhibits of work made from 
time to time have received much merited praise. 

A special teacher of free-hand drawing is also employed in the 
high school and a course of four years in mechanical drawing in 
connection with the manual training work established under direc- 
tion of the teachers of the manual training department. 


In 1902 it was decided to add a special instructor in physical 
culture, and Dr. Robert Nohr was chosen for the position. Phys- 
ical culture work had been done for some years under the direction 
of the special teacher of reading, but it was felt that the physical 
training of the pupils was of such great importance that a teacher 
was needed to give all his time to the subject. The success of the 
department has justified entirely the establishment of a special de- 
partment in the schools. 

Reference is made to these so-called special branches to show 
that the city schools of Fort Wayne are not behind other progres- 
sive schools in acknowledging the value of these studies and pro- 
viding special instructors for them. 


In 1897 the City Training School, which had been discontinued 
in 1886, was re-established to give an opportunity to graduates of 
the high school and those having an equivalent education to> pre- 
pare for work as teachers in the elementary schools. Miss Jessie 
B. Montgomery, a graduate of the Indiana State Normal, was ap- 


pointed as principal of the school. At the time of her appointment 
she was a critic teacher in the Michigan State Normal at Ypsilanti. 
Miss Montgomery was principal of the school for four years and 
placed the work upon a high plane of efficiency. In 1902 she re- 
signed and was succeeded by Miss Flora Wilber, a graduate of the 
Michigan State Normal, and also the Oswego (New York) Training 
School. The school has maintained its high standing under Miss 
Wilber' s care, and is furnishing to the public schools a corps of 
teachers well trained and equipped and imbued with high ideals of 
the teacher's work. 


For a number of years preceding the re-establishment of the 
training school appointment to positions in the grades, for most 
part, had been made from the ranks of the graduates of the high 
school. These young women had entered school work with no pro- 
fessional training whatever. The art of teaching had to be ac- 
quired by experiment upon the pupils committed to their care. A 
corps of teachers made up mostly of untrained teachers needs close 
and skillful supervision. By 1899 the increase in the teaching 
force had brought it to the point where the general superintendent 
was utterly unable to give the attention to the individual teacher 
that was required in so many cases, and it was deemed advisable to 
employ some assistance. It was determined to employ some one 
who should be competent, by professional training and by experi- 
ence, to give to the teachers in the primary grades some at least of 
that training which is given in the best normal schools, and also 
supervise the instruction in those grades. Miss Annie Klingen- 
smith, a graduate of the State Normal School at Indiana, Pennsyl- 
vania, and also a graduate of the Oswego (New York) Training 
School, and fitted by an extended experience for the duties of super- 
vision, was selected for the position, and for six years devoted her 
time to the instruction of the primary teachers and the supervision 
of their work, with the most beneficial results. In 1905 Miss Kling- 
ensmith resigned to accept a like position in Paterson, New Jersey, 
and Miss Gail Calmerton, a graduate of the Oshkosh (Wisconsin) 


Normal, and also of Chicago University, was elected as her suc- 

Teachers without professional training are no longer selected 
for positions in the elementary schools, but the constant influx of 
young teachers in the primary grades renders the services of a 
supervisor of primary work absolutely indispensable to good re- 
sults, as even a training school graduate needs much aid and advice 
during the early years of her service. 


The kindergarten at one time was a part of the school system, 
but was discontinued. Miss Norma Allen was employed in 1899 to 
open a kindergarten in one of the rooms of the new Hoagland 
school building. This proved so popular and the work so beneficial 
that the next year an additional kindergarten was opened in the 
Bloomingdale school, both kindergartens being under the super- 
vision of Miss Allen. In the year 1901-02 two more kindergartens 
were opened, one in the Hanna school and one in the Nebraska 
school. At the present time six kindergartens are open to the pub- 
lic. Miss Allen was supervisor of kindergarten work until her 
death, since which time the kindergarten instruction has been under 
the general care of the superintendent and the supervisor of primary 

It is impossible to give due credit to all who have served as ex- 
ecutive officers and principals of buildings for their invaluable serv- 
ices in bringing the public school system of Fort Wayne up to its 
high standing among city school systems. Many have built the 
best years of their lives into the schools, and have done so with a 
devotion to duty and a spirit of self-sacrifice that no word of praise 
or commendation can adequately recognize. The recognition of 
their services must ever be in the grateful remembrances of those 
who have profited by their toil. 

Since 1865 there have been but three superintendents of 
schools, as follows: James H. Smart, 1865-1875; John S. Irwin, 


1 875- 1 896; Justin N. Study, 1896 — . Dr. Smart and Dr. Irwin 

have both passed to their reward in the great beyond. 

The following list of trustees of the public schools of Fort 

Wayne since 1853 embraces many names of state and national 
prominence : 

When Served 

Trustees. Elected. Until. Served. 

Hugh MeCulloch 1853 1854 1 year. 

Charles Case : u 1853 1854 1 " 

William Stewart 1853 1854 1 " 

James Humphrey 1854 1857 3% " 

Henry Sharp 1854 1855 1 " 

Charles G. French 1854 1856 2 " 

William S. Smith 1855 1856 1 " 

Frank P. Randall 1856 1856 % " 

Pliny Hoagland 1856 1856 y 2 " 

John M. Miller 1856 1857 y 2 " 

Charles F. Sturgis 1856 1858 1% " 

William Rockhill 1857 1859 2 " 

William H. Link 1857 1857 % " 

James Humphrey ,. 1857 1859 1% " 

Thomas Tigar 1858 1861 3 " 

Wiliam Edsall 1858 1859 1 " 

Charles G. French 1858 1859 1 " 

Samuel Edsall 1859 1861 2 u 

Charles E. Sturgis 1859 1861 2 " 

Oliver P. Morgan 1859 1863 4 " 

Robert E. Fleming 1859 1861 2 " 

William Rockhill 1861 1863 2 " 

James H. Robinson 1861 1863 2 " 

John C. Davis 1861 1863 2 " 

Orin D. Hurd 1861 1863 2 " 

Samuel Edsall 1863 1863 % M 

A. Martin , 1863 1863 %" 

Christian Orff 1863 1865 2 " 

Charles E. Sturgis 1863 1865 2 M 

Ochmig Bird 1863 1865 2 " 

Emanuel Bostick 1863 1865 1% " 

Virgil M. Kimball 1863 1865 1% " 

Oliver P. Morgan 1865 1873 8 " 

John S. Irwin 1865 1875 10 " 

Edward Slocum 1865 1869 3% " 

Pliny Hoagland 1869 1880 10y 2 " 

Alfred P. Edgerton 1873 1888 15 " 

Oliver P. Morgan 1875 1896 21 " 

Max Nirdlinger 1880 1886 6 " 

John M. Moritz 1886 1895 9 " 



















A. Ely Hoffman 1888 1897 9 years 

Samuel M. Foster 1895 

William P. Cooper 1896 

Andrew J. Boswell 1897 

George F. Felts 1898 

Allen Hamilton 1899 

W. W. Rockhill 1900 

Eugene B. Smith 1901 

Charles S. Bash 1903 

William O. Gross 1904 

Ernest W. Cook 1905 


Within the school year of 1896-7 the Lakeside and the South 
Wayne buildings, both fine structures, were completed and occu- 
pied. In 1898 four rooms were added to the Holton Avenue 
school, and an addition of four rooms built to the old high school. 
In 1899 the new Hoagland school, an elegant twelve-room build- 
ing, was erected in place of the old frame school building. The 
next year four rooms were added to the Hamilton school, and in 
1 90 1 four rooms were added to the Nebraska school, making forty 
school rooms added in the years from 1896 to 190 1. 

In 1 90 1 steps were taken looking to the erection of a new high 
school building and in September, 1904, the high school was moved 
into the most elegant and best equipped high school building in the 
state. The new high school, besides the regular curriculum of the 
high school, provides for a full four years' course in manual train- 
ing for boys, as also courses of domestic science for girls, and now 
employs a corps of teachers twenty-two in number, and has an en- 
rollment of six hundred pupils. 

In 1904 the board decided to replace the Jefferson and the 
Hanna school buildings with buildings of modern type, both being 
antiquated and inconvenient, and the Hanna having become espe- 
cially objectionable as a school on account of its proximity to noise- 
producing industries. Additional ground was secured at the Jef- 
ferson school site and a site purchased for the new Hanna building 
at the corner of Williams and Lafayette streets. 

Plans were prepared and contracts let in the summer of 1905 
for the construction of elegant modern school buildings of fourteen 


rooms each, at the respective sites. These should be ready for oc- 
cupancy at the beginning of the school year of 1906-07, and will 
afford a much needed relief to the school system. The old high 
school building is being used by the Jefferson school during the con- 
struction of the new school building. With the completion of these 
two ward schools, the school city will have fifteen ward schools and 
the high school, besides the old high school building. The school 
property is valued at more than one million of dollars. 


The city school system employed one hundred and twenty-eight 
teachers in 1895, and in 1905 one hundred and eighty-two teachers 
are employed, with the certainty that still more will be added be- 
fore the close of the school year of 1905-06. The enrollment in the 
schools for the school year ending June, 1905, was six thousand one 
hundred and sixty-two, and there was expended for salaries of 
teachers, $110,221.05; other school expenses, $61,170.59; making 
a total of $171,391.64. 


The parochial schools of the Catholic and German Lutheran 
churches provide educational advantages for about three thousand 
eight hundred pupils, and Fort Wayne is also the seat of Concordia 
College, under control of the Lutheran synod. This is a prosper- 
ous institution and within the last year has added extensively to its 
buildings and equipments. Several business colleges furnish in- 
struction in commercial studies to those seeking to qualify them- 
selves for business life. 





In treating on the subject of agriculture in Allen county it is 
necessary to note the conditions which confronted the first settlers, 
who attempted to gain a livelihood, in part at least, by the tillage 
of the soil. Prior to the first settlement of the white men within 
her borders the Indians are known to have planted and cultivated 
in a very primitive manner small patches of corn, but living largely 
on fish and game, as they did, their need for the cereals was indeed 
small. In about the years 1823-4 the first white settlements were 
made in Wayne and Adams townships, and marked the beginning 
of the settlement of the county outside of what was then the vil- 
lage of Fort Wayne. The entire county which was not submerged 
with water was covered with a huge growth of timber, consisting 
of oak, hickory, poplar, walnut, beech, sugar, ash, elm and other 
varieties. The underbrush or small growth was in many places 
destroyed by fires started by the Indians. 

The first work of the pioneer farmer was to provide a shelter 
for his household. This was rudely constructed out of logs of a 
convenient size, of which there was an abundance, and in fact no 
other material was available. The first cabins did not afford a 
glass window, nor were any nails used in their construction. The 


roof was made of clapboards, split by hand and held in place on the 
roof by round logs laid on each tier of boards. The floor was 
either mother earth or made of puncheons, split out of timber, and 
in their time answered a good purpose. The door, if there was one, 
was made of the same material and hung on heavy wooden hinges ; 
the fastening was a wooden latch; locks there were none; there 
were no burglars, for there was nothing to steal. Cooking stoves 
were not yet in use, but instead a huge fireplace in one end of the 
cabin, made of sticks for a framework, covered with mortar made 
of clay. This, with a flat stone or clay hearth, afforded ample fa- 
cilities for the practice of the culinary art as carried on by the first 
settlers of what is now one of the best agricultural counties in the 
state. It also afforded a place where one could warm one side of his 
person at a time; of course there was nothing to prevent one from 
turning around and warming the other side except that the afore- 
said warmed side would perceptibly cool off in the operation. 

The shelter for the family provided for, the pioneer farmer 
must next turn his attention to clearing the ground and prepare it 
for planting. This was no easy task. The principal tool was the 
ax; saws for cutting timber had not come into general use. It is 
a noteworthy fact the first settlers were excellent axmen, an art 
which at the present time is almost lost. The undergrowth and 
smaller timber were felled and burned and the logrollings were nota- 
ble gatherings in the early days. A yoke of oxen (horses were not 
much in use), a half-dozen stalwart pioneers and a gallon jug of 
corn whisky completed the outfit that began at least the subjuga- 
tion of the forest and made primitive agriculture possible. It was 
not the custom to remove all the timber at one time; many of the 
larger trees were girdled and left standing, and afterwards as op- 
portunity afforded were cut down and burned. The process of 
clearing the land was a slow one, and without the brawn and en- 
ergy which was a strong characteristic of the frontiersman, would 
indeed have seemed a Herculean task. 

The first crops grown were corn and potatoes. Later on wheat 
was added to the list. The implements of agriculture were indeed 
primitive. The hoe was the most important tool in use, and was 
not much like the hoe of the present day. It was forged by hand 
and was very heavy. The author of "The Man and the Hoe" must 


have had in mind one of the hoes which was first used for cutting 
the roots and digging up the soil in Allen county. But little metal 
was used in constructing the plows then in use. An iron or steel 
share, with a wooden moldboard ; an A-shaped harrow, with iron or 
wooden teeth ; a yoke of oxen and a cart or sled, made an outfit of 
which the owner might feel justly proud. The work of subduing 
the primitive forest was indeed one of magnitude, and of necessity 
must extend over a long period of time, and to us of the present 
day who lack the patience and persevering energy and who by en- 
vironment are wont to see every enterprise move with the speed 
of steam or electricity, would indeed be discouraging ; and were the 
young men of today placed under the same conditions as were our 
pioneer farmers, I very much fear the result would not be the same. 
Some of our sister states on the west as well as some of the western 
counties in our own state presented no such obstacles to rapid prog- 
ress as were found in Allen county. Being as they were without 
timber, and naturally well drained, they were easily and quickly 
brought under cultivation. 

Besides subduing the forests, it was necessary to cut out roads, 
for at this time only Indian trails, which were not adapted to travel 
by team and wagon, were in use. Many of Allen county's pioneer 
farmers were compelled to go> ahead with the ax and cut out a road, 
while the wife came on with the ox-cart which contained the chil- 
dren and household goods. The progress was slow, often not cov- 
ering more than one or two miles a day. The swamps and lowlands 
were impassable, and the traveler had to detour around them, often 
making the distance much longer. The streams must be forded, 
and this could only be done in the drier part of the year. Ferries 
were early in use on some of the larger streams, and it became ap- 
parent that in order to protect the public against exorbitant charges, 
as well as to insure the safety of the travelers, certain restrictions 
must be enforced. The county board therefore granted a license 
to Zenas Henderson & Company to keep a ferry across the St. 
Mary's river, near the old fort. This is said to be the first ferry in 
the county established by law. Other ferries were kept where the 
travel demanded them. The first road laid out in Allen county was 
the Winchester state road, running south from Fort Wayne. This 
was in the year 1824. The Goshen road, running north from Fort 


Wayne, was opened in 1841 and at about the same time the Bluff- 
ton and Yellow River roads were opened. Rapidly following this, 
the Lima, the Piqua and the Huntington roads were also opened. 
All of these roads had for their central terminus Fort Wayne, the 
citizens of which, by private subscription, aided in building them. 
The farmers also did their share either by subscription or labor do- 
nated. As Fort Wayne was early the market for farm produce not 
only of Allen county, but of northern Indiana, as well as southern 
Michigan, it was but natural that all should be interested in the 
highways leading thereto. But to the farmers themselves was left 
the task of opening roads from one settlement to another. And 
when we compare the present system of public highways, which 
check our county throughout her borders, made and kept in repair 
by public taxation, we have indeed reason to be proud of our 
achievements. However, this is not the work of a day or a year, 
but covers a period of upwards of eighty years, or the lifetime of 
our oldest citizen. 

In the early settlement of the county, agriculture was carried 
on, not so much as a means for pecuniary profit, as for the purpose 
of getting a living for the farmer and his family. There was not 
much incentive to produce rnore than the family could consume, for 
markets for the surplus were hard to find. While the constantly 
arriving new settlers were in need of supplies, and the balance could 
be disposed of in Fort Wayne in the way of barter and trade, it was 
not until 1848, when the Wabash and Erie Canal was opened for 
traffic, that the city assumed any importance as a market center. 
But this event opened an era of prosperity to agriculture not before 
known in the county. Since Fort Wayne shared in the same, this 
date may be said to mark the beginning of the growth and great- 
ness of the city. 

This also was a great incentive to road building. Adjoining 
counties took up the work and gave valuable assistance. Private 
capital built toll roads, made of plank, which served a good purpose 
in their time. Notable among these was the Lima road, extending 
north through Noble county, and making a market outlet for south- 
ern Michigan. The amount of produce hauled over this road to the 
Fort Wayne market was enormous. Dozens of wagons loaded with 
wheat might be counted at one time on their way to the Fort Wayne 


market. Several days were taken to make the trip. A notable land- 
mark on the Lima road was the old tavern kept by Howard Dun- 
ton at Huntertown, near the north line of the county, ten miles dis- 
tant from Fort Wayne. This was a regular stopping place for 
teamsters. Food and lodging could be had for a nominal sum, and 
whisky free. Good fellowship was the rule. But time and energy 
change all things. Good wagon roads, steam and electric railways 
intersect the country in all directions. Fine carriages and automo- 
biles have taken the place of the lumbering ox wagon, and all that 
pertains to agriculture has kept pace with advancing civilization. 

The first agricultural society was organized in the year 1841, 
having for its purpose the advancement of agricultural interests. 
Its first officers were : Col. N. A. Woodward, president ; Hon. Sam- 
uel Hanna, vice-president; J. Barkey, treasurer; Henry Rudisill, 
secretary; directors, Joseph Morgan, William Hamilton, Elias 
Waters, L. G. Thompson, Marshall S. Wines, Rufus McDonald, 
John Valentine and W. S. Reid. This society continued in exist- 
ence for a number of years, held stated meetings for the discussion 
of agricultural subjects and also held one or more fairs. Interest, 
however, began to wane, presumably from lack of proper financial 
support. However, the work begun here and carried on simultane- 
ously in other sections of the state, had its desired effect. A public 
sentiment in favor of improvement and better methods in agricul- 
ture was created and found expression in the acts of the general 
assembly in 1852 in the passage of an act for the encouragement 
of agricultural societies. This was the first step taken by the 
state in that direction, and it resulted in much good. 

On the 1 6th of August, 1852, the Allen County Horticultural 
Society was organized. Hon. I. D. G. Nelson was elected presi- 
dent; O. W. Jefferds, treasurer, and F. P. Randall, secretary. Un- 
der this organization the first statistics of farm crops were formu- 
lated, showing that Allen county, from its small beginning, had in 
the year 1856 produced 110,333 bushels of wheat, worth $146,303; 
408,913 bushels corn, valued at $98,273; 12,080 pounds of wool, 
valued at $2,853; l 93> 2 &5 bushels of oats, worth $41,765; 38,975 
bushels of potatoes, valued at $19,389; 11,053 tons °f hay, valued at 
$59,352, and other crops in proportion. 

When we take into consideration the conditions which con- 
fronted the pioneer farmer it is indeed gratifying to note the prog- 


ress made. Better methods were being adopted; labor saving im- 
plements were coming into use; improved live stock, with the ad- 
vent of the steam railways, which opened a wider market, were in- 
troduced; the log cabin had given way to comfortable dwellings; 
commodious barns were built on many of the farms, and an era of 
prosperity and contentment was enjoyed by the Allen county 

In 1865, ten years later, the Indiana state fair was held in Allen 
county on the grounds which now encompass our beautiful Lawton 
Park. This was indeed a great show and is said to have been one 
of the most successful state fairs ever held in the state. This greatly 
encouraged agriculture in this part of the state,, and it was surely 
a godsend to Allen county. 

The State Horticultural Society, of which I. D. G. Nelson was 
president, held its annual meeting here during the state fair, and 
many eminent horticulturists from other states were present. The 
official reports show that in 1870, which was fourteen years after 
the crop reports given above, there were in Allen county 4,916 
farms in regular cultivation, and that the wheat crop amounted to 
432,752 bushels, an increase of nearly four hundred per cent, in 
fourteen years. Other farm crops had correspondingly increased. 
This noted increase was brought about by widening markets, the 
introduction of labor-saving machinery and improved methods. 
The mower and reaper had taken the place of the scythe and the 
sickle; the grain drill had supplanted the primitive method of sow- 
ing the grain ; the horse rake took the place of the hand rake ; horse 
forks were used for unloading hay; all other labor-saving imple- 
ments, coming as they did at a time when the great Civil war had 
called thousands of our stalwart boys and men from the farm to 
defend our country's flag and honor, were eagerly sought after, and 
had it not been for their use those left on the farm would have been 
at a great disadvantage. With this help, however, the farmers were 
enabled to accomplish more than they had formerly done. 

In 1873 the Allen County Agricultural Society and the Horti- 
cultural Society of Northern Indiana were merged into one organi- 
zation, under the name of the Northern Indiana Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association, with headquarters at Fort Wayne. The 
officers were : F. P. Randall, president ; Allen Link, treasurer, and 
William Lyne, secretary. Annual fairs were held by this associa- 


tion and were generally successful and resulted in mutual good. 
But as time passed interest abated and for causes with which the 
writer is not conversant the annual fair was discontinued, and the 
Northern Indiana Agricultural and Horticultural Association be- 
came a thing of the past, and for a number of years Allen county 
was without a fair or an agricultural association. But time passes 
and with it come the apparent needs of organized effort, and on 
March 31, 1900, a new organization was effected, to be known as 
the Allen County Agricultural and Horticultural Association. 
Alexander Johnson was chosen president and George V. Kell 
secretary, who, with the following named gentlemen, composed the 
executive committee : Stephen Heath, G. L. Ashley, N. P. Brown, 
J. D. Gloyd and William DeVilbiss. The aim of the association 
was the advancement of agricultural and horticultural interests in 
the county. Steps were taken to organize a fair association; a 
premium list was prepared, and considerable work done, but owing 
to the short time and the further fact that a presidential campaign 
was in full blast, it was deemed advisable to postpone the fair until 
the following year. But the work begun aroused an interest in 
the project, and in 1901 the Fort Wayne Commercial Club became 
interested, a stock company was organized, officers elected, the 
Fort Wayne Driving Park was leased for a term of years, and a 
successful fair was held in October of that year. Since then fairs 
have been held annually and are second only to the state fair at In- 
dianapolis. Alexander Johnson was the first president of the fair 
association and William Fleming its first secretary. The present 
board of directors are : J. C. Peters, Charles McCulloch, Dr. Wil- 
liam F. Myers, James Gillie, A. S. Bond, L. A. Centliver, E. H. 
McDonald, Henry A. Wiebke, James B. White, D. N. Foster, F. J. 
Hayden, Herman W. Tapp, George Thumm, George V. Kell and 
Ochmig Bird. 

For many years Allen county has held successful Farmers' In- 
stitutes. For some time these meetings were held in Fort Wayne, 
and consisted of a two days' program. Of recent years in connec- 
tion with the regular Fort Wayne meeting, supplemental institutes 
have been held in different parts of the county and have resulted in 
much good. The regular institute officers at the present time are: 
George V. Kell, president ; Mrs. Theodore Sorg, secretary, and W. 
H. McCarty, treasurer. 






Posts of this organization began to be formed in this section of 
the state in the summer of 1866. Terre Haute organ- 
ized the first Grand Army of the Republic post in In- 
diana, and it can not be determined from existing records 
what rank Allen county should take according to date of muster, 
but it is entitled to rank among the early organizations of this nota- 
ble order. Under the original plan of work the state was a depart- 
ment, and the county a district, and a commanding officer was ap- 
pointed by the department commander for each district, who was 
entitled to a staff of assistants. Col. George Humphrey, who had 
seen service in the Mexican war as second lieutenant of Company I, 
First Indiana Volunteers, was a captain, major and lieutenant-colo- 
nel in the Twelfth Indiana Volunteers, and colonel of the Eighty- 
eighth and later of the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Indiana Vol- 
unteer Infantry, was the first district commander for the district of 

On the first of January, 1867, ne issued general order No. 1, 
which the writer still has, and is as follows : 


Headquarters District of Allen, 
Grand Army of the Republic, Adjutant General's Office, 

Fort Wayne, Ind., January 1, 1867. 
General Orders No. 1. 

The following named officers are herewith announced on duty at these 
headquarters, and will be respected accordingly: 

Comrade R. S. Robertson, Assistant Adjutant General; Comrade C. B. 
Oakley, Aid-de-Camp and Inspector General; Comrade J. S. Gregg, Surgeon; 
Comrade William G. Robertson, Quarte master; Comrade W. W. Case, Aid-de- 
Camp; Comrade D. Briant, Aid-de-Camp; Comrade A. H. Dougall, Aid-de- 
Camp; Comrade George Stopher, Aid-de-Camp. 

George Humphrey, 
Official: Commanding District of Allen. 

R. S. Rorertson, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

At that time the rules and regulations and the ritual of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, as well as its badge, were different 
from the later ones adopted, and it is believed that very few would 
recognize the first Grand Army badge if worn now. 

The First Badge of the Grand Army op the Republic. 

To the ex-soldiers resident in the town of New Haven, and not 
to those of Fort Wayne, belongs the honor of first organizing a 
Grand Army post in Allen county, and probably in northeastern 
Indiana. Under the plan of organization then, the department of 
Indiana was divided into districts by counties, and the posts were 
numbered as No. i, District of Allen, etc., according to the 
county in which organized. Thus the post at New Haven, organ- 
ized some time prior to August 24, 1866, was known as "Post No. 
1, District of Allen, Department of Indiana, Grand Army of the 

Col. Charles A. Zollinger was the first post commander, with 


Capt. M. M. Thompson quartermaster and Allen H. Dougall adju- 
tant. Col. Joseph W. Whittaker is believed to have had part in 
the official staff, but the records of the old post being missing, the 
full list of officers and the charter members can not now be given. 

Its first observance of Memorial Day was in 1867, m Miller's 
Grove, near town. Col. R. S. Robertson was the orator of the 
day, and after the observances of the program a basket lunch was 
served to a large assemblage of the townspeople. 

It is not known how long it remained in existence, but it was a 
strong post at the time and probably met the same fate that befell 
others of that period — in fact, a very large number of Grand Army 
posts all over the country — died of politics. At any rate it was dor- 
mant, if not moribund, for many years, and when it reorganized it 
was under the new ritual and new plan of organization. Practi- 
cally it was the same comrades who reorganized the post March 12, 
1887, under the name of Jesse Adams Post, No. 493, Department 
of Indiana, Grand Army of the Republic. The first post commander 
was Henry C. Zollinger, who served as such more than one term. 
The charter members were: Louis Arion, O. D. Rogers, 
Thomas Brooks, Moses Ireland, John Troutner, Henry W. Meyers, 
William Stocks, Frederick Guebard, Barney Downhour, Henry G. 
Dawkins, James Richard, Samuel Peters, Riley J. Miller, William 
A. Hargrave, Henry C. Zollinger, Abram Lowery, Joseph W. 
Whittaker, Thomas Meads, James Dawkins, Philip Kollinger, 
Earl Adams, James A. Crippen, William Dawkins, Joseph Denzel, 
John Brooks, Theodore F. McDougall, William Hazelett and Justin 
Humbert. The post commanders succeeding Zollinger have been : 
O. D. Rogers, D. N. Foster, Joseph W. Whittaker, Thomas Meads, 
James Richard, Henry G. Dawkins, Lafayette S. Null, J. M. Gor- 
rell, William Hazelett, Robert S. Bell, William B. Stocks, J. E. Bix- 
by and J. A. Crippen. 

The post has observed Memorial Day with proper observances 
ever since its organization, the citizens as a whole taking part to 
make it a success. There are ninety-one graves to be decorated, and 
the number is increasing. The total enrollment has been eighty-six 
and the members in good standing in 1905 are eleven, with R. S. 
Bell post commander.; J. A. Crippen, adjutant; Lafayette S. Null, 
quartermaster, and J. M. Gorrell, chaplain, and with a determina- 


tion to hold their charter and place in the ranks for the few years 
yet remaining for the existence of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

The first Grand Army of the Republic post in Fort Wayne was 
organized August 24, 1866, and became Post No. 2, District of Al- 
len, Department of Indiana. 

In pursuance of a previous understanding, Col. J. O. Martin, of 
Indianapolis, the chief mustering officer of the department, met with 
a number of the ex-soldiers at his room in the Aveline House and 
there mustered into the Grand Army of the Republic the following 
named: Col. George Humphrey, a veteran of the Mexican war, 
major and lieutenant-colonel of the Thirtieth Indiana and colonel 
of the Eighty-eighth Indiana Volunteers ; Major and Surgeon James 
S. Gregg, Eighty-eighth Indiana Volunteers; Capt. Christopher 
Hettler, One Hundred and Forty-second Indiana Volunteers ; Lieu- 
tenant J. H. Ehlers, Eleventh Indiana Battery; Lieutenant James 
C. Woodworm, Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers ; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Chauncy B. Oakley, One Hundred and Forty-second 
Indiana Volunteers; Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, Eleventh Indiana 
Battery; Lieutenant Henry M. Williams, Eleventh Indiana Bat- 
tery; Lieutenant John H. Jacobs, Eleventh Indiana Battery, and 
Private Gustavus Boltz, One Hundred and Forty-second Indiana 
Volunteers. George Humphrey was elected post commander, 
Henry M. Williams, quartermaster, and John H. Jacobs, adjutant. 
The other officers of the post were appointed or detailed at each 
meeting, and were merely an officer of the day and an officer of 
the guard. When the meeting had closed, some of the party, with 
Colonel Martin, encountered, on Calhoun street, Col. Charles Case, 
adjutant of the Forty-fourth Indiana Volunteers, lieutenant-colonel 
of the Third Indiana Cavalry, colonel once of the One Hundredth 
by commission declined, and colonel of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-ninth, and Col. Robert S. Robertson, of the Ninety-third 
New York Volunteers, who was a newcomer here and had not yet 
decided to locate permanently until he had completed a trip to the 
cities on the Missouri river, but later returned and located in Fort 
Wayne. The party repaired to the law office of Colonel Case, where 
the two were mustered in also. On account of Robertson's ab- 
sence, and for some reason unknown in regard to Colonel Case, 


their names were not taken upon the roster of the post until Sep- 
tember nth and 18th respectively. 

The charter was dated September 20, 1866, and John H. Jacobs, 
Henry M. Williams, George Humphrey, George W. Durgin, Jr., 
and James S. Gregg were the only persons named as charter mem- 
bers. Gen. Robert S. Foster was the department commander and 
Major Oliver M. Wilson adjutant of the department. A hall was 
procured in Jacobson's building, on Calhoun street between Main 
and Columbia. The official terms lasted six months, and the time 
for the regular election for the fall was October 2, 1866, at which 
time Chauncy B. Oakley was chosen post commander; William W. 
Case, quartermaster, and James S. Gregg, adjutant. In Novem- 
ber the post moved to Odd Fellows Hall, on Court street. By-laws 
were adopted soon after, which changed the time of election of offi- 
cers to the time of the first regular meetings in January and July, 
and on the 4th of January, 1867, the following officers were 
chosen: Robert S. Robertson, post commander; Robert Leeper, 
assistant commander; John I. White, adjutant, and William Ed- 
munds, quartermaster. In March the new work and ritual adopted 
by the national encampment provided for a chaplain and surgeon to 
be added to the official staff. 

On the 29th of March a communication was received, through 
headquarters, from the Grand Army of the Republic of the district 
of Jefferson, asking the post to approve a petition to congress, ask- 
ing half pay for life to be given to every officer and soldier of the 
late volunteer army of the United States. It is worthy of note, and 
speaks well for the sturdy patriotism of the post, that it unanimously 
voted not to approve the measure, and voted to send a vigorous pro- 
test against it to our member in congress, which was at once done. 

At the July election the following were selected : Chauncy B. 
Oakley, post commander; E. N. Edmunds, senior vice post com- 
mander; and J. N. Broom, adjutant. There was doubtless a junior 
vice and a quartermaster, but their names were not recorded. 

January 10, 1868, the following were elected: Charles Emery, 
post commander; E. N. Edmunds, senior vice post commander; 
Warren H. Withers, Jr., junior vice post commander; Edward H. 
B. Scriven, adjutant; and Henry Tons, quartermaster. In March 
Scriven resigned, and Henry H. Robinson became adjutant. 


A general order from department headquarters, dated May I, 
1868, abolished the districts and the post was numbered 72, depart- 
ment of Indiana, and was thereafter known by that number. New 
Haven Post became No. 24 of the department. 

On the 15th day of May, 1868, Gen. John A. Logan's order 
from national headquarters, designating May 30th as a memorial 
day, and recommending the decoration of soldiers' graves with 
flowers and with appropriate services and ceremonies, was received 
and the post at once resolved to comply with it. A committee was 
appointed to arrange the program, and carry it out, of which Rev. 
Nathan S. Smith was chairman, with R. S. Robertson, J. I. 
White, George Humphrey and H. C. Hartman as the other mem- 
bers of the committee. Colonel Humphrey was appointed marshal 
of the day, with a staff of assistants. At the same meeting a com- 
mittee was formed to ascertain as far as possible the location of all 
graves of deceased soldiers in the county, and its report, far from 
being complete, was the beginning of the work afterwards com- 
pleted, so that now it is believed the Grand Army of the Republic 
has a complete roster of the "low green tent" of every soldier bur- 
ied here. 

On the first Memorial day ever observed in Fort Wayne the 
procession was formed at and marched from the Methodist Episco- 
pal church, corner of Berry and Harrison, in this order: 

Jones' Band. 

Little girls, one for each state and territory, bearing flowers. 

Grand Army of the Republic, and other ex-soldiers. 

Fire Department. 

Municipal Officers. 

Citizens on foot and in carriages. 

At Lindenwood cemetery there was prayer, music by the band, 
address, singing by children, decoration of graves by strewing 
flowers, and benediction. Strangely, the name of the orator of the 
day was not mentioned in the records. 

The next year Col. R. S. Robertson delivered the address, and 
the day has been observed annually since, with apparently increas- 
ing interest. 

At the election held July 3, 1868, the officers elect were: R. S. 
Robertson, post commander ; E. H. B. Scriven, senior vice post com- 



mander; James Humphrey, junior vice post commander; W. H. 
Worden, adjutant; Henry Tons, quartermaster; Nathan S. Smith, 
chaplain, and James S. Gregg, surgeon. 

The meeting of May 8, 1868, was an open one, at which a 
Bible was presented to the post by Amos S. Evans. A program of 
music and speeches was carried out, a feature of the occasion being 
vocal music by the daughters of the late Colonel Bass, Colonel 
Hurd and Captain Emery, dressed to represent the "Red, White 
and Blue." Miss Emery also recited "The Crutch in the Corner." 

Badge op the Grand Army of the Republic Now in Use, Adopted October 27-28, 1869. 

The entries in the post records ceased July 10, 1868, but were 
resumed March 5, 1869, anc ^ continued irregularly until May 8, 1869, 
when no further record seems to have been made, although it is 
known that Colonel Oakley and William H. Davis were command- 
ers after that date. Post No. 72 died, — not all at once, — but by 
slow degrees. It died of politics. It commenced by endorsing 
Captain Emery for a government position. It endorsed Colonel 
Humphrey for the position of pension agent, and then Comrade 
Hartman, who became a candidate for the same position, asked 
that the post give him a similar endorsement, which the post re- 



fused to do, and Hartman and his supporters withdrew from mem- 
bership, and soon the bickerings engendered by political strife bore 
fruit and resulted in dissolving the post, without any official ac- 
tion of either the post or the department to declare it moribund, 
or give it funeral rites. 

Twelve years passed before an attempt to reorganize the Grand 
Army in Fort Wayne was made. 

In the meantime, early in 1870, a new badge, the one still worn, 
was provided for the order. It is to be regretted that it was in- 
tentionally made very similar in design to the congressional Medal 
of Honor, so much so that the common observer failed to note the 
difference, and so the Medal of Honor, intended to be equal in value 
to the Victoria Cross of England, the Iron Cross of Germany, and 
the Cross of the Legion of Honor of France, was often worn un- 
noted, and was mistaken for the common badge of the Grand 
Army. The mistake has been only lately rectified, by the adop- 
tion by congress of a new design for the Medal of Honor, which is 
protected by law from being imitated. 

A new ritual had also been adopted. Heretofore the work had 
been in three degrees, that of recruit, soldier and veteran. The 
new work combined them in one, with several alterations, some im- 
provements, and some doubtful. Thus, when the time for reor- 
ganization came, it was more the formation of a new post than a 
reorganization of the old. 


A charter was applied for under the above name, that of the 
colonel of the Thirtieth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, who was killed 
at the battle of Shiloh, and was granted November 22, 1881, to the 
following ex-soldiers: Robert S. Robertson (who had kept up his 
membership by joining George H. Thomas Post of Indianapolis), 
William Rogers, William D. Page, David N. Foster, Alfred T. 
Lukens, Homer C. Hartman, Philo E. Brittingham, John W. Hay- 
den, Isaac dTsay, Ranold T. McDonald, Allen H. Dougall, George 
Humphrey, Ferdinand F. Boltz, Robert Stratton and John H. Ja- 
cobs. The temporary post commander, chosen to 1 serve until the 
December election, was J. Kelly McCracken. In the absence of post 


records, the other temporary officers of the post are unknown, but 
it is believed they are the same as those elected in December, and 
who served through the year 1882. The first officers elected for a 
full term, and served during 1882, were Homer C. Hartman, post 
commander; George Humphrey, senior vice commander; Ferdi- 
nand F. Boltz, junior vice commander; Alfred T. Lukens, officer of 
the day; Ranold T. McDonald, officer of the guard; Isaac dTsay, 
quartermaster; Allen H. Dougall, adjutant. 

There had been in Fort Wayne two warring factions among 
the ex-soldiers, who had not then, nor have they yet, lost their relish 
for a fight, and one of the factions had outstripped the other in 
organizing the post, with officers of their own choosing. This re- 
sulted in the other faction staying out, and storming the post in- 
trenchments, or if any of their number applied for membership he 
was blackballed. Appeals were made to the department commander, 
and even to the national commander for the organization of a new 
post, which proposition was vigorously opposed by the post. James 
R. Carnahan, the department commander, and Ben D. House, ad- 
jutant general, visited Fort Wayne to pour oil upon the troubled 
waters, and succeeded in obtaining the agreement of the post to ad- 
mit in a body all the outside forces who should make application, 
and a meeting was called which acted favorably, and November 
24, 1882, was set for the time for mustering the recruits. Paul 
Vandervoort, then commander in chief, and James R. Carnahan, 
department commander, were present, as the occasion was intended 
to be a memorable one, and a banquet and program had been pre- 
pared. After the muster all repaired to the Mayer House, and sat 
down to the love feast. The national commander responded to the 
toast, "The Grand Army of the United States ;" Department Com- 
mander Carnahan to "The Grand Army of ttie Republic of the De- 
partment;" Post Commander Hartman to "Sion S. Bass Post, No. 
40;" Robert S. Robertson to "The Army of the East;" David N. 
Foster, to "The Field and Staff;" and Robert Stratton to "Our 
Dead Comrades." Songs and instrumental music filled the inter- 
vals, and a general campfire followed. 

It was the beginning, and the end, of the truce, for the recruits 
soon captured the camp and, figuratively speaking, sent their erst- 
while hosts to the guard house, and the merry war raged within 


the post until the secession of many of the old members to form 
Anthony Wayne Post. 

The subsequent post commanders were David N. Foster, 1883; 
Thomas Sullivan, 1884; James E. Graham, 1885; Ferdinand F. 
Boltz, 1886; James C. Peltier, 1887-1888; Alfred Dougherty, 1889; 
William McClelland, 1890; Frank Gibson, 1891 ; Isaac N. Meds- 
ker, 1893; James Liggett, 1894; M. R. Johnson, 1895; Charles 
Ehrman, 1896; Henry C. McMaken, 1897; Jasper Edsall, 1898; 
Ambrose Kintz, 1899; A. M. Pierce, 1900; Theodore Geller, 1901 ; 
John Kress, 1902; William Kennerk, 1903; John Hess, 1904, and 
William Donnell, 1905. There have been about nine hundred and 
fifty members enrolled from date of organization. The present 
membership is one hundred and thirty. 

The department encampment Grand Army of the Republic was 
held in Fort Wayne in 1891, under the auspices of Sion S. Bass 
Post as the senior post, but with the active co-operation and assist- 
ance of the other posts, the Sons of Veterans, and other soldier or- 
ganizations. The post has always been, and is now, active in Grand 
Army work. 


Owing to dissensions in Sion S. Bass Post, a number of its 
members, together with some non-members, petitioned for a char- 
ter for a new post, under this name, which was granted, and the 
charter issued December 17, 1883. Its charter members were 
Frederick W. Keil, David S. Keil, W. L. Stevenson, Thomas Ryan, 
Jacob M. Keyser, J. M. Cook, R. Bender, A. Brown, S. W. Stirk, 
Isaac Mendenhall, George W. Link, John C. Kensil, John M. Hef- 
felfinger, James C. Gregg, James C. Woodworm, William S. Pet- 
tit, Henry C. Eastwood, Doris A. Woodworth, Alpheus P. Buch- 
man, William A. Kelsey, John Carson, John Seaton, Joseph Lum- 
bard, John W. Hayden, George R. Bickford, Alexander Sproot, 
Robert S. Robertson, Fred N. Kollock, Andrew R. McCurdy, Wil- 
liam H. Davis, Isaac dTsay and Richard M. Hayes. The officer 
chosen to serve until the regular election in January following was 
George R. Bickford, post commander. At the election in December 
following Robert S. Robertson, who was then serving as chief mus- 
tering officer of the department, was elected as post commander. 


His successors were Allen H. Dougall, 1885; Henry C. Eastwood, 
1886; John W. Hayden, 1887; John Kensill, 1888; Joseph Lum- 
bard, 1889; Philemon Dickinson, 1890; Andrew R. McCurdy, 
1891; Fred N. Kollock, 1892; Samuel W. Stirk, 1893; J onn J- 
Ogle, 1894; Claude C. Miller, 1895; George W. Aldrich, 1896; 
Fred W. Keil, 1897; Brookfield Gard, 1898; Henry H. Corey and 
Patrick Ryan, 1899; William H. Wortman, 1900; William A. Kel- 
sey, 1 90 1 ; Amos R. Walter, 1902; William E. Wood, 1903; Rich- 
ard D. Spellman, 1904; W. H. Wortman, 1905. 

In March, 1896, a consolidation was effected with George 
Humphrey Post and a new charter was granted March 18th, naming 
the eighty-five members of both posts as charter members, but un- 
der the name and number of the Anthony Wayne. The first offi- 
cers chosen under the new charter were taken from the membership 
of both posts. The post is flourishing, with seventy-one active 
members in 1905. On the 18th of August, 1905, it unanimously 
voted to consolidate with General Lawton Post, and empowered its 
committee to perfect the reorganization under the name of Lawton- 
Wayne Post, No. 271. The consolidation was successfully carried 
out, and on the evening of October 20, 1905, Junior Vice Com- 
mander A. R. Walter, of the department of Indiana, installed the 
newly elected officers of Lawton-Wayne Post, as follows : Post 
commander, Scott Swann, of Anthony Wayne Post ; senior vice 
commander, Cornelius Gearin, of Lawton Post; junior vice com- 
mander, D. Sutton, of Wayne Post; quartermaster, I. N. Meds- 
ker, of Lawton Post; surgeon, Dr. B. Gard, of Wayne Post; chap- 
lain, William Kirkham, of Lawton Post; officer of the day, Am- 
brose Kintz, of Lawton Post ; officer of the guard, A. Heckman, of 
Wayne Post; adjutant, B. W. Skelton, of Lawton Post; sergeant 
major, Charles Behm, of Lawton Post; quartermaster sergeant, F. 
W. Keil, of Wayne Post. The new charter bore the names of one 
hundred and fifty members. 


This post was organized under charter dated February 18, 1888, 
and named for Colonel George Humphrey, of the Eighty-eighth 
Indiana, with the following charter members : George D. Adams, 


Frank Alderman, Ferdinand F. Boltz, David N. Foster, William 
N. Borden, Crawford Griswold, Robert G. Renfrew, William Dev- 
lin, Matthias Cramer, Frank R. Welden, Benjamin W. Skelton, 
Robert W. Swan and Alonzo Woodworm. The first officers elected 
were Frank Alderman, post commander; Frank R. Welden, senior 
vice commander; Benjamin W. Skelton, junior vice commander; 
Ferd F. Boltz, surgeon; Crawford Griswold, chaplain; Robert G. 
Renfrew, quartermaster; William Devlin, officer of the day; Mat- 
thias Cramer, officer of the guard; George D. Adams, adjutant. The 
succeeding post commanders were Frank R. Welden, 1889; George 
D. Adams, 1890 and 1894; Crawford Griswold, 189 1-2; Robert G. 
Renfrew, 1893-4; Conrad Bricker, 1895. 

It was consolidated March 18, 1896, with Anthony Wayne Post, 
No. 271, surrendering its original charter. 


This post was organized May 12, 1900, and was named for 
Gen. Henry W. Lawton, who was lieutenant-colonel of the Thir- 
tieth Indiana Volunteers in the Civil war, became famous in the 
pursuit and capture of Geronimo, one of the closing scenes of our 
long continued and terrible Indian war, and was killed in battle 
in the Philippines. His boyhood and early manhood were spent in 
Fort Wayne, so it was peculiarly fitting that his name should be 
thus honored in his old home. 

The charter members were Christian Newcomer, Ambrose W. 
Kintz, William Kirkham, Charles Ehrman, Solomon D. Soliday, 
John R. Fox, William R. Durfee, William Bishoff, Marcus R. 
Johnson, William H. McClelland, James C. Peltier, Benjamin W. 
Skelton, Isaac N. Medsker, Jacob R. Brockerman, Theodore Bley, 
Henry C. McMaken, John T. Young, Jacob Moorman, Enos H. 
White, Eugene B. Smith, John Snowberger, David Miles, Ezra 
Rank, John Kennedy, De Lafayette Beaber, Fred Goebel, Charles 
Behn, Rufus R. Eby, James H. Bolens, Joseph Smith, Abel Bald- 
win, and William S. Gearheart. Amos R. Walter acted as mus- 
tering officer, with Allen H. Dougall assisting. The first officers 
were Theodore Bley, post commander; Benjamin W. Skelton, sen- 
ior vice commander; Eugene B. Smith, junior vice commander; 


M. R. Johnson, adjutant; Sol. D. Soliday, quartermaster; James C. 
Peltier, surgeon; Isaac N. Medsker, chaplain; Charles Behn, officer 
of the day ; William R. Durf ee, officer of the guard. The succeed- 
ing post commanders were Benjamin W. Skelton, 1901 ; Eugene 
B. Smith, 1902; Charles Behn, 1903; Enos H. White, 1904; D. L. 
Beaber, 1905. 

The post held a public memorial service in the assembly hall 
of the court house, December 9, 1900, the anniversary of General 
Lawton's death. Senior Vice Commander Skelton presided, and 
R. S. Robertson, of Anthony Wayne Post, delivered the memorial 
address, giving a sketch of the life and services of the dead hero. 
A second memorial meeting was held in the post room, December 
2J, 1 90 1, but none since. The total admissions to the post are 
ninety-one; total membership 1905, seventy-nine. 

During the summer of 1905 tentative efforts were made to unite 
by consolidation with Anthony Wayne Post, No. 271, and a com- 
mittee of each post, consisting of Henry McMaken, Con. Gearin 
and Isaac N. Medsker of General Lawton Post, met with a similar 
committee of Anthony Wayne Post, consisting of George H. Aid- 
rich, Frederick W. Keil and Amos R. Walter, R. S. Robertson 
being later substituted for Mr. Keil in his absence. This joint 
committee agreed upon a plan of consolidation under the name of 
Lawton-Wayne Post, No. 271, and upon this report being made to 
Lawton Post, it resolved unanimously to accept the report and 
plan of consolidation on the nth day of August, 1905. The plan 
was successfully carried out and the officers of the newly organ- 
ized post were installed on the evening of October 20th. 


This post was organized in the first half of October, 1866, at 
Maysville, Allen county — now changed to Harlan as postoffice 
name. Dr. Franklin K. Cosgrove, captain of Company D, Forty- 
fourth Indiana Volunteers, was the first and only post commander 
as long as it retained its organization, and Dr. Joseph H. Omo, who 
had been hospital steward of the One Hundredth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, was its first and only adjutant. It went into disuse in 
1868, like so many other posts of the early organization, and since 


the death of Dr. Omo it is not known where its records are. Dr. 
Horace E. Adams was also one of its members, and its records if 
found would probably disclose nearly the same membership as that 
of Stopher Post, which was its successor under the changed ritual 
and regulations. That the new post was the legitimate offspring 
of the old is proven by the fact that the old as well as the new 
bore the name of David K. Stopher, a first lieutenant of Company 
D, Forty-fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, who died at Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, of smallpox contracted in the line of duty. 


This post was organized at Harlan (Maysville) under the above 
name, June 12, 1882. It was mustered in by R. S. Robertson, then 
chief mustering officer of the department, with the following charter 
members : Joseph D. Stopher, Samuel Keefer, Nathan P. Eckles, 
Theodore A. Pattee, D. B. Sagar, D. N. Osyer, Noah Farner, Com- 
fort W. Starr, George Walters, Lafayette Coomer, George Holt, 
John W. Hatfield, James Kees, Joseph Sapp, and Henry Hettinger. 
Its first officers were Lafayette Coomer, post commander; Noah 
Farner, senior vice commander; Theodore A. Pattee, junior vice 
commander; Horace E. Adams, surgeon; Joseph D. Stopher, quar- 
termaster; David N. Osyer, adjutant; J. F. Kenney, chaplain; John 
W. Hatfield, officer of the day; John Farner, officer of the guard. 
Subsequent post commanders, who are remembered, are Joseph D. 
Stopher (deceased), Charles H. Higgins (deceased), John W. Hat- 
field, and Noah Farner (deceased). 

At some time the post had seventy-nine members on the roll, 
and its meetings were well attended, and its observance of Memo- 
rial day was regular. To quote the language of one of its members, 
"More than half have joined their comrades beyond the river, and 
David K. Stopher Post is but a memory (although a pleasant one) 
to the comrades who await the last roll call." The exact date of 
its closing is not known. 


This post was organized at Monroeville in the fall of 1866, or 
early in 1867. Captain Joseph Collins was its first commander. 


How long it lasted under that charter is not known, but it reorgan- 
ized under the name of Barnhart Post, with Dr. Charles A. Leister 
as commander. It is not known who were the charter members of 
either post, and both fell into abeyance without formal dissolution 
and it was several years after Barnhart Post closed before the reor- 
ganization of the order, under the name of William H. Link Post, 
in 1885. 

There was decided opposition to the organization on the part 
of some of the citizens of Monroeville, that part which had opposed 
the war and disliked the Union soldier, and it was largely owing 
to that unfriendly sentiment that it was difficult to keep the order 
alive. A better state of feeling came as the war period receded, 
and the order is now active. 


This post, named for Col. William H. Link, of the Twelfth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, killed in battle of Richmond, Ken- 
tucky, August 30, 1862, was organized under charter December 
28, 1885, Ferd F. Boltz acting as mustering officer and post com- 
mander, assisted by Allen H. Dougall, acting as senior vice ; John 
W. Vordermark, junior vice; Frank R. Weldon, chaplain; George 
O. Adams, adjutant; H. A. Crosby, quartermaster; John H. Rohan, 
officer of the day ; William Donnel, officer of the guard ; Willis D. 
Maier, C. F. Jarrett and John Goodin, guards. 

The charter members mustered were David S. Redelsheimer, 
William R. Brown, Charles H. Niel, Horatio D. Pool, Henry 
Smith, Emanuel Friedline, Samuel H. Barto, John Goodin, James 
A. Brown, William M. Eagy, John H. Brown, John E. Pillars, 
Abraham Barkley, Reson F. Mumma, Samuel L. Ball, Hugh J. 
Glancy, John W. Meeks, John H. Barkley, Daniel S. Johnson, Jo- 
seph Lewis and John H. Rose. The officers elected were David S. 
Redelsheimer, post commander; John H. Brown, senior vice com- 
mander; John E. Pillars, junior vice commander; Emanuel Fried- 
line, quartermaster; John W. Meeks, surgeon; Joseph Lewis, chap- 
lain; Henry Smith, officer of the day; Horatio D. Pool, officer of 
the guard. The officers in 1905 are Morris Rose, commander; Reu- 
ben Rosseau, senior vice commander; John Goodin, junior vice 


commander; John W. Meeks, quartermaster; John H. Brown, offi- 
cer of the day; Isaac Jones, adjutant. 

The whole number enrolled since organization is ninety-one; 
present membership (1905), thirty-three. Memorial day, 1886, was 
observed by meeting at post hall, marching to two cemeteries and 
there strewing the soldiers' graves with flowers, going from there 
to the schoolyard where a cenotaph had been erected and other 
patriotic decorations placed and addresses were delivered appropri- 
ate to the occasion by Reverends Slade, Douglass, Miller and Bick- 
nell. The post has kept up an appropriate observance of the day 
ever since, and is still active in Grand Army work. 


This encampment was organized in the latter part of 1889, 
largely through the efforts of George Turner, Dr. John Seaton and 
H. W. Dickman, and was mustered December 19, 1889, by M. M. 
Murphy, of Mount Vernon, Ohio, with the following charter mem- 
bers : Henry W. Dickman, George Turner, John Seaton, Samuel 
Anderson, William S. Bidwell, William Benedict, Diamond L. Car- 
penter, Charles Bergk, Alfred Dougherty, Samuel Foltz, Austin 
M. Darroch, Francis Goings, James Graham, Loudean P. Huntoon, 
Elias Hire, John V. Hiler, George J. Haswell, Frederick Jacoby, 
Sylvester L. Lewis, James Liggett, John V. Lonergan, William H. 
McClelland, Charles Reese, Samuel W. Stirk, James Sheridan, 
James W. Seaman, Milton M. Thompson, John H. Rohan, Phile- 
mon Dickenson, Charles Bishof and James Chamberlain. 

The national commander at that time was A. L. Pierson, of 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The plan of organization gave to the 
officers military titles, and the first officers of the camp were James 
E. Graham, colonel; Loudean P. Huntoon, lieutenant colonel; Syl- 
vester L. Lewis, major; Charles Bergk, officer of the day; Samuel 
W. Stirk, quartermaster; Alfred Dougherty, chaplain; John Seaton, 
surgeon; Milton W. Thompson, adjutant; James W. Seaman, ser- 
geant major; Francis Fessenden, color bearer; Henry W. Dick- 
man, quartermaster sergeant ; James Chamberlain, guard. The sue- 


ceeding colonels commanding were Austin M. Darroch, Milton M. 
Thompson, Samuel W. Stirk, Thomas Z. Babcock, Henry C. Zol- 
linger (two terms), John N. Hiler, Wilson S. Buck, George W. 
Aldrich, George A. Gale, John M. Henry, William H. McClelland, 
Charles J. Parr, James C. Peltier, Henry Hart, and William Don- 
nell, now serving (1905). 

About one hundred and fifty members have been mustered, and 
the membership is now seventy-seven. The requirements for mem- 
bership are that the applicant must have enlisted before July 1, 1863, 
for the term of three years, and have served two consecutive years, 
unless discharged on account of wounds or other disability incurred 
in the line of duty while in service. No drafted man nor substitute 
was eligible, no matter what his service. 

The national encampment of the Legion was held under its 
auspices in Fort Wayne at Standard Hall in 1890, and again in 
Library Hall in 1900, at which time William J. Bryan was one of 
its guests of honor. 

For markers at the graves of its dead, the Legion uses a metal 
shield, similar to the emblem of the order, with a staple attach- 
ment to hold a small flag at memorial observances, which it keeps 
annually. The Union Veteran Legion was instrumental in pro- 
curing from the war department for Lawton Park, the large naval 
carronades, and pyramid of shells, which form so striking an orna- 
ment to the entrance of that beautiful park, and also in procuring 
from the same authorities the Spanish sea coast gun (the largest in 
the state) which marks the site of old Fort Wayne, and was erected 
in memory of Gen. Anthony Wayne. It also secured the funds to 
elevate the soldiers' monument to make it accord with its surround- 
ings. It is still an active soldier organization in Fort Wayne. 


Sion S. Bass Woman's Relief Corps, No. 7, auxiliary to Sion 
S. Bass Post, No. 40, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized 
at Fort Wayne, Indiana, September 16, 1884, with thirty-nine char- 
ter members, making the requisite number to form a department, 
which was done in the same city, September 17, 1884. The post to 
which this corps is auxiliary was named for Col. Sion S. Bass, of 


the Thirtieth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and who was 
killed at the battle of Stone River. The first president of the corps 
was M. Jennie Graham, who has long since passed to the higher 
life. Of the thirty-nine charter members, but six remain, some lost 
by death, others dropping out and still others going to other places 
where they allied themselves with other corps. Those remaining 
are Amanda Edsall, Melissa J. Kickley, Sarah Chamberlain (eighty 
years of age), Sophie J. Crosby, Lucia A. Kintz and Mary Brown. 
Four of these are past presidents and active working members. 

Woman's Relief Corps No. 7 is in a flourishing condition, with 
eighty-two members in good standing and nearly five hundred dol- 
lars in money; have not much relief work to do, turning no needy 
ones away and, failing any relief work at home, cheerfully contrib- 
ute to calls from abroad. It has sent a good number of children to 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home at Knightstown, and at 
the happy Christmastide do not forget a generous donation to help 
in providing these little ones with remembrances of the day. Me- 
morial Sabbath and Decoration day are observed by a good turn- 
out and patriotism is taught in the public schools under the instruc- 
tion of the patriotic instructor, who furnishes primers for that pur- 

The comrades of '61 to '65 are fast passing away. And as 
each one answers to the last bugle and goes to join his old com- 
rades in the world beyond, the ladies of the Woman's Relief Corps 
hold flag services, and place the flag he loved so' well and for which 
he fought upon his breast, strewing sweet flowers, singing some 
sweet old song, with scripture reading and prayer, thus to honor 
and emulate the noble deeds and patriotism to country and flag of 
those who "wore the blue." 

Names of charter members : Eliza Sine, Nancy Mason, M. 
Jennie Graham, Sarah Chamberlain, Sophie Crosby, Lottie Bick- 
ford, A. N. McCafTery, Kate Chamberlain, Lida Bidwell, Matie 
Eaton, Nancy Paulus, Rebecca Band, Lucia Kintz, Amanda Ed- 
sall, Eliza Allen, Farley Mendinghall, Annie Knapp, Susan Beals, 
Nettie Barden, Mary Soliday, Bell Bernard, Era Benard, Melissa 
Kickley, Sara P. Foster, Susan Parker, Annie Weldon, Eliza Ward, 
Jennie Hurst, Emily O. Strope, Eliza Goldstone, Frank Tait, Lydia 


Brooks, Fannie Mendenhall, Ella French, Susan Williams, Rubie 
Mauk, Sarah Douings and Mary Brorer. 

Past presidents: M. Jennie Graham (two years), Annie W el- 
don, Mrs. Gorsline (two years), Mrs. Holloway (part of term), 
Mrs. Susan Beals (remainder of term), Lucia A. Kintz (two terms), 

Adams, McMaken, Amanda Edsall (two terms), 

White, Emma Hilton, Elizabeth Greenlun, Melissa Hick- 
ley, C. A. Williams, Mary Merilett, Maggie Kress, Mary Brower, 
Lucia A. Kintz, Mary M. Hoyles. 

The officers for 1905 are as follows : President, Mary M. 
Hoyles; senior vice president, Sarah King; junior vice president, 
Susanna Allen; secretary, Mattie Etts; treasurer, Amanda Edsall; 
chaplain, Mary Bower; conductor, Sadie Wise; assistant conductor, 
Catherine Pence; guard, Libbie Hutchinson; assistant guard, Ella 
Crow; color bearer No. 1, Mary Middleton; color bearer No. 2, 
Elizabeth Hermon; color bearer No. 3, Libbie Greenlun; color 
bearer No. 4, Margaret Millar; patriotic instructor, Mary Tills- 
bury; press correspondent, Emma Mennewish; musician, Elsa Sut- 

There are eighty-two members in good standing, and the order 
is doing a good work in charitable relief. It gathers up cast-off 
clothing and remodels it for the children, it gives suppers and dona- 
tion parties to further the same good end, and thus the mothers, 
wives and daughters of the soldier keep up the spirit of the war 
in doing good. 


This organization grew out of dissensions in the Woman's Re- 
lief Corps, and its designs and plans for work were much the same 
as those of the older organization, the difference consisting largely 
in the qualifications for membership. It was organized June 21, 
1897, D y Mrs. Etta Toby, of Logansport, past national president. 
The charter was issued June 28, 1897, and named as charter mem- 
bers Mary J. Corlett, Sue R. Beals, Alma Niedhammer, Maggie 
Doty, Josephine Woodruff, Fannie Gibson, Mary Thompson, E. C. 
Sawtell, Estella Coblentz, Louise J. Woods, Elizabeth Sutton, Mary 
Grund, Mary Zollinger, Mary J. Stirk and Miriam Stirk. The 


first officers were : President, Mary J. Corlett ; senior vice president, 
Alba Beals; junior vice president, Alma Niedhammer; secretary, 
Sue Beals; treasurer, Fannie Gibson; chaplain, Maggie Doty; 
guard, Mary Thompson. The subsequent presidents have been 
Sue R. Beals, E. C. Sawtell, Mary Stirk, Alice Conover, Cora Ra- 
bus, Fannie Gibson. 

It was organized as an adjunct of Anthony Wayne Post, and 
named for a deceased member of that post. Its membership con- 
sists of thirty-seven ladies and Grand Army of the Republic mem- 
bers to the number of thirty-six, all Grand Army comrades being 
entitled to honorary membership. Its duties are to assist all old 
soldiers, whether affiliated with the Grand Army or not, to assist 
the needy soldier and his family, and to see that no veteran is bur- 
ied without the flag he served under and offered his life for being 
placed over his breast. Mothers, wives, sisters and nieces of blood 
kin to a soldier or sailor of the Civil war are eligible to membership. 
In its quiet, unobtrusive way, the society has done much to carry 
out its objects, and to alleviate the distress of the deserving objects 
of its charity. 


Col. E. S. Walker Camp, Sons of Veterans, was organized in 
November, 1887, with a membership of thirty-seven. The first offi- 


cers were T. W. Blair, captain; E. H. Bookwalter, first lieutenant; 
Dora Hardendorf, second lieutenant; Ed. C. Close, first sergeant; 
W. H. Geller, chairman of council. 

This camp was merged with Capt. James B. White Camp, 


which was organized December 10, 1901. The first officers of Capt. 
James B. White Camp were: Captain, W. F. Geller; first lieuten- 
ant, H. D. Miller; second lieutenant, Charles C rouse; camp coun- 
cil, T. W. Blair, E. H. Bookwalter, George Behler; A. F. Archi- 
bald, first sergeant. The present officers are Captain, W. F. Geller ; 
first lieutenant, W. W. Allen; second lieutenant, S. J. Roberts; first 
sergeant, H. D. Miller; quartermaster sergeant, C. P. Josse; camp 
council, T. W. Blair, E. H. Bookwalter, George Behler. The camp 
has a membership of about forty members. 

The Sons of Veterans have had charge of memorial exercises 
for the past ten years and have very satisfactorily performed this 
duty to the soldier dead. 

On the 7th day of June, 1905, T. W. Blair was elected com- 
mander of the Indiana division, Sons of Veterans, and the state 
headquarters are now located in this city. 



A local organization under this name, as a branch of the na- 
tional association, was organized June 18. 1889, with headquar- 
ters at Fort Wayne. The charter members were: John A. Soli- 
day, who became its first president; Daniel Springer, Elijah Bunt- 
ing, A. Summerlott, Elias Duberry, W. E. Timbers, W. A. Feagle, 
John Barrick, Leonard Beck, Wesley Johnston, Charles Beigle, J. 
W. Lynch, J. L. Leslie, George M. Burwell, Louis Young, Edward 
Heath, William M. Crane, Fred B. Wood, Peter B. Perry, John A. 
Rosenstine, G. H. Frederick, Henry Nill, J. A. Pruiness, William 
Boone, John Traulner, John F. Reammey, W. A. Shriever, Robert 
Bell, Jacob Rheim, Stephen Chase, Thomas R. Marshall, Samuel 
Foltz, Wiiliam Errick, James A. Stacey, Amos W. Ely, J. W. Vor- 
dermark, S. L. Lewis, J. M. Ashley, Lessel Lang and Philip Noll. 

The organization held annual meetings for about ten years, but 
less interest and decreasing attendance from year to year caused it 
to discontinue. Its first reunion, held in Standard Hall, at Fort 
Wayne, Tuesday, January 7, 1890, was quite an elaborate affair 
with a program of considerable talent and interest, as follows : 



Prayer Rey. R. M. Barns 

Address of Welcome Harry C. Hanna 

Response President John A. Soliday 

Music, "In the Prison Cell I Sit." 

Brief Addresses by Comrades. 

Election of Officers. 
Music, "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean." 


Address Ge>n. A. D. Streight 

Music, "Brave Boys are They" Sons of Veterans Quartette 

Address Capt. J. B. White 

Music, "Rally Round the Flag, Boys." 

Address Comrade J. W. Vordermark 

Music, "Tribute to Ellsworth" Sons of Veterans Quartette 

Addresses Comrade Dr. F. Wood, Comrade Sec. J. W. Lynch, 

Comrade Capt. F. F. Boltz, Comrade Col. O. D. Hurd and others. 

Season of Song. 
"Sherman's March to the Sea," etc. 
Music, "Tenting To-night on the Old Camp Ground," 

Sons of Veterans Quartette 


Toasts. Response. 

Prisoners of War General Streight 

Cavalry Captain Lewis 

Infantry Captain Boltz 

Artillery Lieutenant Otto 

To the Boys We Left Behind Comrade Mason Long 

Memories of Andersonville t Comrade Gibson 

Joys of Our Home Coming Major R. C. Bell 

Closing — Social Hop. 


Shortly after the close of the war with Spain several organiza- 
tions of its survivors came into existence, all planned on lines of 
binding together the survivors into an order similar to the Grand 
Army of the Republic. The largest and strongest of these was the 
Spanish-American War Veterans and as Fort Wayne had fur- 
nished three companies for the war, naturally considerable interest 
was aroused here, and a society was formed and application made 


for a charter as a part of the United Spanish War Veterans Associ- 

February 21, 1900, Major G. W. Teasor, of South Bend, as 
special mustering officer, organized the camp in the Commercial 
Club rooms, with sixty-two members on the charter. Several more 
were added within a short time. It was then numbered 8, and 
named in honor of Gen. Henry W. Lawton, of Fort Wayne, who 
was killed in battle in the Philippines. 

Benoit J. Ellert was first camp commander, J. C. Jackson, adju- 
tant, and John H. Wort, quartermaster. Subsequent commanders 
have been Major W. W. Barnett, John J. Jackson and R. M. Sny- 

Early in 1904 the different national organizations sent dele- 
gates to a convention of all, held at New Haven, Connecticut, 
where terms of consolidation were agreed upon, under the name of 
United Spanish War Veterans, which resulted in a strong organi- 
zation with some two hundred thousand members. Fort Wayne 
was the third to receive a charter under the new organization. Its 
present membership is thirty-five and increasing. Its officers are 
William A. Carmer, commander, George W. Zollinger, quarter- 
master, and Henry C. Moriarity, adjutant. It meets the first and 
third Wednesdays of each month. 


Badge of the Society Army of the Philippines. 

Harry A. Wood Camp, a branch of the national society, was 
instituted November 16, 1903, at Fort Wayne, and was named for 
the only Fort Wayne soldier killed in battle in the Philippines. He 


was one of the members of the Ninth United States Infantry, a com- 
pany of which was so ruthlessly massacred at Balingega. Every 
officer, contract surgeon and enlisted man who served at any time 
prior to July 4, 1902, and has an honorable discharge, or an honor- 
able record if still in the service, was eligible to membership, and 
members of a local society became members of the national society. 
The charter members were Robert Weber, Dr. D. B. Taylor, Claude 
B. Harper, Winton J. Bennett, J. P. Fromuth, William E. Wilson, 
Henry Storch, Frank L. Riley, Henry Guyer, Richard H. Rank, 
Louis W. Jones, Ernest Payne, Peter Zickgraf, William Marion 
Miller, William Tombaugh, William H. Meine, Walter Poe. The 
first officers, and only ones elected, were : D. B. Taylor, president ; 
Louis W. Jones, vice-president; Robert Weber, secretary; Henry 
Guyer, treasurer; William H. Meine, sergeant major; Peter Zick- 
graf, bugler. There have been thirty-five members enrolled. 


The first organization of a military character known to have 
been formed in Fort Wayne was organized in 1835, for the sup- 
pression of a rebellion among the laborers on the Wabash and Erie 
Canal. Its roll is headed, "A correct list of persons belonging to a 
company of volunteers, raised, armed and equipped at Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, on the nth day of July, 1835, with a view to< the suppres- 
sion of difficulties said to exist between two parties of belligerent 
Irish laborers on the Wabash and Erie Canal, together, with an 
annexed statement of the actual service performed by each individ- 
ual on that expedition." Certified at "Fort Wayne, July 18th, 
1835," by "John Spencer, Captain," and attested by "Lucian P. 
Ferry, Orderly Sergeant pro tern." 

John Spencer was captain ; Adam Hull, first lieutenant ; Samuel 
Edsall, second lieutenant; Henry Rudisill, ensign; David Pickering, 
first sergeant; Lucian P. Ferry, second sergeant; Samuel Stophlet, 
third sergeant; and Thomas Tigar, fourth sergeant. The corporals 
were Alexander Porter, first; John Rhineheart, second; Martin 


Weeks, third; and Christopher Lavely, fourth. The band consisted 
of Samuel C. Flutter, drummer, and Jacob Waters, fifer. 

There were sixty-three privates, who were all well known citi- 
zens of that time, and who served from one to six days each, and 
the company was disbanded July 17th. There is no record of a col- 
lision between them and either faction of the "belligerents," and the 
route of the "expedition" is not now known. 

The "Roll," now in the possession of the writer, is a fine speci- 
men of penmanship and clerical skill. Being organized for war, 
and not for mere parade, the company had no name, as far as 


The next military company of which we have knowledge was 
formed under this name, in May, 1841. How long it lasted is not 
known. Its officers were : Samuel C. Freeman, captain ; Henry 
Rudisill, first lieutenant ; B. B. Stevens, second lieutenant ; P. Ram- 
sey, ensign; R. McNullen, P. H. Oliver, T. B. Cocanour and Fran- 
cis Archin, first to fourth sergeants respectively, and H. T. 
Dewey, R. Chute, S. M. Black and E. Stapleford first to fourth 
corporals; Peter Kiser was standard bearer and Franklin P. Ran- 
dall clerk of the company. 


The Fort Wayne Light Guard was organized in 1874 and incor- 
porated for three years. The militia law of the state was so crude 
at that time that it was impossible to either draw uniforms, arms 
or equipments from the state. The company gave bond to the city 
of Fort Wayne and the city drew the arms on its bond from the 
state. The organization was as follows : Captain, Jared D. Bond ; 
first lieutenant, George S. Fowler; second lieutenant, Alfred T. 
Lukens; first sergeant, Thomas Andrew. 

This company was composed of young men from the banks, 
offices, mercantile houses and railroad offices. During its three 
years' existence it was considered the finest drilled organization in 
the state of Indiana, if not in the entire west. J. D. Bond, captain, 


and A. T. Lukens, second lieutenant, were both veterans of the 
Civil war and were considered very proficient drillmasters. 


The Fort Wayne Methodist College, under the management 
of President Professor Yocum, organized the College Cadets about 
the year 1880. Capt. A. T. Lukens was appointed drillmaster and 
this office he filled for five years. At the beginning of the military 
instruction of the students a brass band was organized and E. W. 
Lukens, brother of Capt. A. T. Lukens, was made leader of the 
band. From the classes under the tutorage of Captain Lukens a 
great many men are today filling useful and honorable positions, 
among whom were Hon. W. J. Vesey and Owen N. Heaton, both 
having been on the superior court bench; Newton D. Doughman, 
assistant general counsel for the "Nickel Plate;" E. V. Emrick, late 
prosecuting attorney of the circuit court; Harry Scott, adjutant 
of the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Indiana Volunteers in the 
Spanish-American war; Prof. Spencer Smith, now of the North- 
western University of Chicago; Robert Burns, an Indian from the 
Cheyenne reservation, now holding a position under the United 
States government; Nicholas A. Robertson, now city attorney of 
Eureka, Utah. 


This independent militia company was formed from Irish- 
American citizens of Fort Wayne in October, 1895, with J. E. 
Ford, captain; M. J. Geary, first lieutenant; F. J. Monahan, second 
lieutenant; P. E. Bresnahan, orderly sergeant; D. J. Murphy, com- 
pany clerk, and John B. Ryan, treasurer. These officers continued 
without change until January, 1898, when James O'Ryan became 
second lieutenant, vice Monahan ; C. T. Sullivan, first sergeant, vice 
Bresnahan, and James J. Conroy, clerk, vice Murphy. 

In 1899 the following changes were made : J. O'Ryan became 
first lieutenant; C. T. Sullivan, second lieutenant; J. J. Connolly, 
first sergeant ; J. H. Logan, clerk, and S. J. Errington, treasurer. 

In 1 900- 1 C. T. Sullivan became first lieutenant; J. J. Con- 
nolly, second lieutenant ; J. J. Conroy, first sergeant, and T. J. Con- 
nolly, treasurer. 


In 1902 J. J. Conroy became first lieutenant, and in 1903, W. 
H. Connors became second lieutenant, and J. J. Finney, first ser- 
geant. Captain Ford, who had served continuously as captain to 
this time, resigned on the 10th of October, 1903; and Lieutenant 
J. J. Conroy was promoted to the captaincy, with W. H. Connors, 
first lieutenant, J. J. Finney, second lieutenant. In 1904 Captain 
Conroy resigned, and W. H. Connors was promoted to the cap- 
taincy, and the officers in 1905 are: W. H. Connors, captain; Tim. 
Moran, first lieutenant; Ed. J. O'Connors, second lieutenant; M. J. 
Shea, clerk, and T. J. Connolly, treasurer. 

The company has had a high record for efficiency in drill, has 
participated in exhibition drills at Huntington, Wabash, Elwood, 
Marion, Rushville, Lafayette and Bluffton in Indiana, and Paulding, 
Payne and Antwerp, Ohio. It paraded at the dedication of the Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Monument at Indianapolis May 15, 1902, and 
entered the exhibition drill at the World's Fair in St. Louis in July, 

It offered its services with one hundred and seven men in the 
ranks to Governor Mount April 4, 1898, for field service in the 
Spanish-American war, but the quota of the state being full, it was 
not called upon. 


This company was organized September 5, 1885, with Frank 
Wise as captain, Thomas J. Deagan as first lieutenant, and Ivers W. 
Leonard as second lieutenant. After a few months' service, Captain 
Wise resigned and Frank W. Rawles was elected captain, and 
served until 1890, when he was appointed field inspector in the 
United States pension bureau, and removed from the county and 
state. Charles J. Bulger was elected to fill the vacancy, and was in 
command of the company until its reorganization in September, 
1 89 1, when he declined the election, and John E. Miller was elected, 
and served as captain of the company until July 25, 1893, when he 
was promoted and commissioned as major in the state militia. 
Charles E. Reese succeeded him as captain, and continued in com- 
mand of the company until the outbreak of the Spanish-American 
war in 1898, when the Fort Wayne Rifles volunteered for war serv- 
ice in the United States army, was accepted, and mustered into 


the United States service as Company B, One Hundred and Ffty- 
seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with the following officers : 
Captain, Charles E. Reese; first lieutenant, John B. Fonner; second 
lieutenant, William W. Kerr. Lieutenant Kerr died in the service, 
and his body was brought home and buried in Lindenwood ceme- 
tery, with military honors, the local state militia, the Spanish War 
Veterans, the Grand Army of the Republic, the Union Veteran 
Legion and Sons of Veterans uniting in the ceremonies. Peter A. 
Thompson succeeded him as second lieutenant. 

After being mustered out of the United States volunteer serv- 
ice in 1898, the company did not reorganize as a part of the state 
militia, owing to the fact that most of its officers and men had 
joined other bodies in the United States volunteer service, going to 
the Philippines and to China, Captain Reese becoming first an offi- 
cer in the Thirtieth United States Volunteers, and later, first lieu- 
tenant Fifteenth United States Infantry (regular service). Lieu- 
tenant Fonner became lieutenant in the Thirty-first United States 
Volunteers, and was mustered out as such upon the expiration of its 
term of service. Ivers W. Leonard, the first chosen second lieu- 
tenant of the Rifles, was appointed an officer in the United States 
army at the beginning of the Spanish-American war, and is now 
(1905) captain of a company of United States infantry stationed at 
Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming. 

The company took part in the prize drills at Lafayette in July, 
1886, taking first prize in maiden class and second in state drill. 
It participated in the Inter-State Prize Drill at Washington, D. C, 
in May, 1887, standing sixteenth in a total of ninety-six companies 
competing. At the Evansville state encampment, July, 1888, it won 
first prize, and held it against all comers. It has attended all the 
state encampments from 1886 to> 1896 inclusive. 

The company was called into service for the expedition against 
the prize fighting and pooling at Roby in 1893, anc ^ a l so ^ or ^ ne 
railroad strikes soon after, but fortunately in neither case were their 
fighting qualities put to a test. 

Its officers from date of organization have been : Captains, 
Frank Wise, Frank W. Rawles, Charles J. Bulger, John 
E, Miller, Charles E. Reese; first lieutenant, Thomas G. 
Deagan, Ivers W. Leonard, Henry W. Lepper, Charles J. Bulger, 


William H. Peltier, Henry W. Hagerman, Charles L. Reese, Peter 
A. Thompson, John B. Fonner; second lieutenants, Ivers W. 
Leonard, Henry W. Lepper, Charles J. Bulger, John E. Miller, 
Charles E. Reese, Peter A. Thompson, John W. Thompson, Ernest 
D. Barr, William W. Kerr, Peter A. Thompson. 

The Rifles was composed of some of the best youths of Fort 
Wayne, and quite a number of them are now in the military service 
of the United States, while others are taking high rank in business 
and political affairs. 


This was the first militia organization of Fort Wayne to become 
identified with a regimental organization. It was organized Octo- 
ber 9, 1883, and served three years as Company L of the First 
Regiment, Indiana National Guard. Its officers were : Captains, 
James H. Rohan, Francis R. Weldon and James Harper; first lieu- 
tenants, Francis R. Weldon, James Harper and A. C. Brown; 
second lieutenants, W. M. Barnard, M. R. Gardner and Jasper 
Edsall. All of these were veterans of the Civil war, and the com- 
pany was mustered out of service at the expiration of its first term 
of three years. 


This battery is an outgrowth of, or successor to, the "Zollinger 
Gatling Gun Squad," formed some time prior to 1887, Dut which 
virtually disbanded. In November, 1887, a number of its original 
members reorganized under the name of the "Zollinger Battery," 
both organizations being named for Col. Charles A. Zollinger, of 
the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, for 
many years mayor of Fort Wayne and pension agent at Indianapo- 
lis. H. C. Eastwood was elected captain and Charles Cherry first 

The company had not funds to secure an armory, and little in- 
terest could be aroused, and few drills were had during the winter. 
In April, 1888, Colonel Zollinger secured for the battery two Gatling 
guns, and uniforms, with instructions to organize a full battery. 
This was done, and the battery accepted by the State, April 8, 


1888. J. C. Willard was added to the officers as second lieutenant. 
At the encampment held at Evansville that year the battery won 
first prize in Gatling gun drill and third prize in artillery drill. In 
September of the same year Captain Eastwood and Lieutenant 
Cherry resigned, and J. C. Willard was elected captain, William F. 
Ranke first lieutenant and W. W. Munger second lieutenant. After 
the Indianapolis encampment of 1889, Captain Willard resigned, 
and Lieutenant Mungen was elected captain, and D. S. Eckart 
second lieutenant. 

In the spring of 1891, its term of three years having expired, 
it was remustered, with the two ranking officers, and J. E. Wolf, 
second lieutenant, in place of Eckart, who did not remuster. In Au- 
gust of that year the battery drilled against infantry at the Na- 
tional German Kriegerfest, and won first prize. In June, at Omaha, 
it won third prize, with strange guns, their own failing to arrive 
in time. Soon after Lieutenant Wolf resigned, and Sergeant M. 
J. Cleary was elected to the vacant office. He resigned in 1893, and 
Sergeant C. A. Teagarden was elected to the vacancy. In the fall 
of that year the battery was in the field for the Roby prize fights, 
but had no occasion to fire a gun. 

In the spring of 1894 it was remustered on the expiration of its 
second enlistment, with William F. Ranke, captain; C. A. Tea- 
garden, first lieutenant, and Henry C. Niemeyer, second lieutenant. 
In 1896 Lieutenant Niemeyer resigned, and Sergeant Frank C. 
Kehler was promoted to that position, and the battery being en- 
titled to a junior first lieutenant, Corporal Clyde A. Snowberger 
was elected to that position. 

In 1897 it was remustered on its third enlistment, and elected as 
officers : William F. Ranke, captain ; W. Frank Alderman, senior 
first lieutenant; Will C. Cleary, junior first lieutenant, and Oliver 
S. Jones, second lieutenant. 

In expectation of the war with Spain, about one hundred addi- 
tional men were examined and conditionally enrolled as members, 
and when its services were tendered to the government and ac- 
cepted by ordering the battery to proceed to Indianapolis, one hun- 
dred and forty-two responded. On the 12th of May, 1898, it was 
mustered into the United States service as the "Twenty-eighth 


Light Battery, Indiana Volunteers." It had four officers and one 
hundred and twenty-one men when ordered to Chickamauga Park. 
In June it was ordered to increase to the number of one hundred 
and seventy-six, and Captain Ranke came home to recruit, but only 
required two days to obtain the number required. On the 3d of 
September the battery was ordered to Indianapolis, and were there 
mustered out October 31, 1898. Its only loss was by the death of 
Michael J. Motherwell from typhoid fever. 

In the summer of 1899 Captain Ranke took steps to reorganize 
the battery, but was commissioned as a captain in the Thirty- 
ninth United States Volunteers. This he resigned, however, and 
in February, 1900, he reorganized the battery, and it was mustered 
into the state service as Battery B. The officers were : William 
F. Ranke, captain ; Will C. Cleary and Fred J. Meyer, first lieuten- 
ants, and Oliver S. Jones, second lieutenant. 

In January, 1902, Captain Ranke resigned, after fifteen years' 
continuous service, and Lieut. William C. Cleary was elected to 
succeed him, and remained in command until January, 1905, when 
he resigned, and Lieut. Harry Clark was elected to the captaincy, 
and by hard and efficient work has kept it up to its former standard 
of efficiency. In the 1905 encampment at Fort Harrison it won 
first prize in mounted drill, and compelled Battery A, of Indian- 
apolis, for the first time in its history, to take second place. The 
senior first lieutenant is John C. Scheffer; junior first lieutenant, 
Henry C. Moriarity, and second lieutenant, Oscar G. Foellinger. 
The battery ranks high in the National Guard of Indiana. 


This company was organized April 8, 1888, from Germans who 
were veterans of the Franco-Prussian war, and was assigned to 
the Third Regiment, Indiana National Guard, as Company L. Its 
officers were: Herman Hohnholz, captain; Will Finke, first lieu- 
tenant; H. Krone, second lieutenant. The officers and men were 
so accustomed to the tactics and drill of the German armies that 
they found it difficult to adapt themselves to that of the United 
States army, which the state militia was required to be pro- 


ficient in, and the company was disbanded in the year following its 
organization, and the "German Military Company" passed into 


This company, with sixty-one members, was organized December 
ii, 1893, and assigned to the Third Regiment as Company G, May 
23, 1894, and served through the Spanish-American war. The 
officers have been: Captains, John B. Fonner, W. A. Spice, O. C. 
Meyer and Jesse L. Birely, who is in command now (1905); first 
lieutenants, H. C. Mains, W. A. Spice, O. C. Meyer, William S. 
McLeod, Maurice J. Archbold and Forest Arney; second lieuten- 
ants, W. J. Spice, O. C. Meyer, W. S. McLeod, John S. Jackson, 
Jesse L. Birely and Clarence Craig. 

The company was reorganized and mustered into service in the 
State National Guard, July 13, 1900, with fifty-six members, and 
with O. C. Meyer as captain, Maurice J. Archbold, first lieutenant, 
and Jesse L. Hirely, second lieutenant. Captain Meyer had en- 
listed in December, 1893, an< ^ become at once first sergeant, served 
through the strikes, and was elected second lieutenant March 28, 
1895, on the resignation of Lieutenant Mains, and Captain Spice 
being unable to go to the field, Meyer was made captain May 9, 
1898, and commanded the company during the war, and reorgan- 
ized it in July, 1900, and was again elected captain. Lieutenant 
Archbold served as private from May 10, 1894, was appointed 
quartermaster-sergeant in June of that year, and served in that 
capacity until the company was mustered into the service of the 
United States for the war with Spain, when he became first ser- 
geant, and served through the war, being elected first lieutenant 
on the reorganization. Lieutenant Birely served in the ranks from 
July 21, 1896, to February 25, 1897, when he was appointed cor- 
poral, and when the company entered the United States service he 
became a sergeant, and served as such throughout the war. When 
the company reorganized he was elected second lieutenant, and is 
now (1905) captain of the company, which has a muster roll of 



The original company was mustered into service August 29, 
1862, with ninety-eight non-commissioned officers and privates, 
and three commissioned officers. In the spring of 1864 it received 
fourteen recruits, total number one hundred and fifteen. The offi- 
cers were: v Cyrus E. Briant, captain; Isaac Bateman, first lieuten- 
ant; Joseph D. Stopher, second lieutenant. Briant resigned De- 
cember 12, 1862, to accept a commission as lieutenant, Company 
C, Eighty-eighth Indiana Volunteers. Orderly Sergeant Scott 
Swann was promoted to captain of Company D December 12, 1862, 
and First Lieutenant Bateman and Second Lieutenant Stopher re- 
signed. Isaac Slater was promoted to first lieutenant, and was 
killed in battle, and then Adam Bowers was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant and Milton M. Thompson promoted to second lieutenant. 

The organization of the company at the close of the war was : 
Scott Swann, captain ; Adam Bowers, first lieutenant, and M. M. 
Thompson, second lieutenant. Company D served in the Four- 
teenth Corps, and was in all the engagements of that famous old 
corps, from Louisville, Kentucky, to Chattanooga, and to Atlanta, 
Georgia, and the march to the sea, the Carolinas, till Johnston sur- 
rendered, and then to Washington City, D. C, and in the Grand 
Review, being discharged June 7, 1865. 

This association was organized June 7, 1865 (the date of the 
muster out at Indianapolis, Indiana). The objects of the associa- 
tion are: First, to keep alive the patriotism, the kind feeling for 
each other, and the memory of the hardships and privations from 
'6 1 to '65 ; second, to meet once a year at the home of some mem- 
ber of the company and to assist any member of the company in 
need of help; third, the date of meeting to be August 29th of each 
year, except when that date comes on Sunday, and then the follow- 
ing Tuesday to be the date; fourth, no assessments or collections 
to defray expenses were to be made; fifth, the company to be offi- 
cered the same as when in the service, and to serve until an election 
is called by a majority of the company present at any meeting; 
sixth, all members are required to visit any sick member, and at- 
tend all funerals when possible; seventh, all members are required 


to write to the captain of the company on dates of meeting, if they 
can not be present. 

It has kept up the organization and met each year. It lost the 
first member by death twenty-two years after discharge, and at 
the last meeting, August 29, 1904, it had lost eleven members, forty 
years after discharge. 

The company lost while in service, out of one hundred and fif- 
teen men, sixty-two from all causes — killed, died of wounds, sick- 
ness and in prison and discharged. The company was given the 
right of the regiment for efficiency in skirmish fighting when on 
the Atlanta campaign, three times. Volunteers were called for from 
the brigade to drive back the rebel line in its front (in rifle pits), 
and Company D volunteered and succeeded in driving them back. 
Company D fought the battle of White Oak Ridge (near Ringold) 
alone. At Chickamauga, on Sunday morning, Company D being 
on the skirmish line, was cut off from the regiment by it being 
forced back on account of the line on its right giving way. It lost 
one killed, five captured and fifteen wounded, out of forty-five men. 
Company D fought its way into the city limits of Atlanta July 24, 
1864, forty days before the army got into the city, captured one 
and killed four. The fight was at close quarters, and the company 
got out with only five slightly wounded. 




To Anthony Wayne Chapter belongs the honor of being the 
first local society of the Sons of the American Revolution organized 
in Indiana, and by reason of its location on historic ground, no more 
appropriate name could have been proposed for it than that of the 
sterling soldier and patriot, Gen. Anthony Wayne, whose matchless 


prowess and leadership paved the way for the era of civilization 
which has won for the state her present proud position among her 
sister commonwealths of the union. The objects of the chapter, as set 
forth in the third article of the constitution, are as follows : "To 
arouse and maintain an interest in our own locality ; in the history of 
the American Revolution and former events, leading to the estab- 
lishment of American independence; to inspire ourselves and our 
descendants with the patriotic spirit of our ancestors who by acts or 
counsel rendered service in the establishment of the government of 
the United States of America ; to preserve the record of such service ; 
to mark places in this city and county which have reference to the 
Revolutionary period; to increase the membership and usefulness of 
the state and national societies and to promote social intercourse and 
good feeling amongst its members." 

Pursuant to a notice which had been given considerable publicity, 
a number of descendants of Revolutionary ancestors in Fort Wayne 
met on the first day of January, 1894, and perfected an organization 
with the following charter members : Frederick A. Newton, Seneca 
B. Brown, George S. Fowler, Charles B. Fitch, Otis B. Fitch, 
Robertson J. Fisher, David C. Fisher, Charles B. Woodworth, Clark 
W. Fairbank and Charles E. Bond, of whom Seneca B. Brown was 
elected president; R. J. Fisher, vice-president; Charles B. Fitch, 
secretary, and David C. Fisher, treasurer; a board of managers be- 
ing also selected, consisting of Clark Fairbank, Frederick A. Newton 
and Charles B. Woodworth. In this connection it is proper to state 
that among the leading spirits in bringing about the organization 
and placing it upon a permanent footing, Seneca B. Brown, the first 
presiding officer, took an especially prominent part, for to him per- 
haps more than to any other member is due the credit of not only 
inspiring a lively interest in the society, but of ably and faithfully 
directing its affairs for some time after the organization went into 

In due time a constitution and by-laws were adopted, among the 
more important provisions of the latter being the third article, which 
designates the times of meeting in the following language: "The 
annual meeting of this chapter shall be held on the first day of 
January of each year, that date being the anniversary of the birth 


of the illustrious Gen. Anthony Wayne, in whose honor this chapter 
is named." It further provides for regular meetings to be held on 
April 19th, in memory of the Lexington alarm; June 17th, the anni- 
versary of the battle of Bunker Hill and on the 19th of October, in 
memory of the surrender of Yorktown, which event terminated the 
Revolutionary struggle. 

The chapter has maintained an abiding interest in the above and 
other noted anniversaries in our national history, the meetings being 
largely devoted to the Revolutionary period and to the leading 
political questions growing out of the same. The membership at 
this time numbers thirty-three, which includes the majority of the 
descendants of Revolutionary ancestors residing in the city of Fort 
Wayne. The officers for the year 1905 are: President, Dr. B. Von 
Sweringen; vice-president, Charles McCulloch; secretary, Charles 
S. Swann; treasurer, Charles B. Woodworth. 




The objects of this organization are clearly and succinctly set 
forth in the second article of the constitution, which reads as fol- 
lows : "First, to foster a spirit of true patriotism ; second, to en- 
courage historical research in relation to the Revolution; third, to 
cherish, maintain and extend the institutions of America ; to advo- 
cate appropriate celebrations of all patriotic anniversaries; fourth, 
to preserve the memory of the noble women who bore their share in 
the dangers and privations of the war of the Revolution." 

Section one of the third article presents the prerequisites for mem- 
bership in the following language: "Any woman of Indiana, not a 
member of any other chapter, may be eligible for membership, who 
is of the age of eighteen and who is descended from an ancestor who, 


with unfailing loyalty, rendered material aid to the cause of inde- 
pendence, as a recognized patriot, as a soldier, as a sailor or as a 
civil officer in one of the several colonies or states of the united 
colonies or states; provided, that the applicant shall be acceptable to 
the national and local societies." 

Mary Penrose Wayne Chapter, so called in honor of the maiden 
name of Mrs. Gen. Anthony Wayne, was organized on April 21, 
1 90 1, the following being the names of the charter members: Mrs. 
Minnie Graves Brown, Mrs. Marian Anna Barrett, Miss Florence 
Ewing Barrett, Mrs. Minnie Keel Bash, Mrs. Sarah Elizabeth Fitch, 
Mrs. Carolyn Randall Fairbank, Mrs. Clara M. Green, Mrs. Laura 
Woodworth Granger, Miss Frances Marian Habberley, Mrs. Flora 
Merritt, Mrs. Frances M. Robertson, Mrs. Winifred Randall, Mrs. 
Amy Randall Seavey, Mrs. Mabel Walker Sturgeon, Mrs. Bessie 
Loring Thieme, Mrs. Minnie Thompson White, Dr. Mary Whery, 
Miss Lulu Elizabeth Woodworth, Mrs. Evelyn Bond Watt, Mrs. 
Alida Taylor Woodworth, Miss Gertrude Lill Williams and Miss 
Blanche A. Williams. The following is the list of officers who first 
served the chapter: Frances M. Robertson, regent; Marian Anna 
Barrett, vice-regent; Minnie Graves Brown, recording secretary; 
Mabel Walker Sturgeon, corresponding secretary; Sarah Elizabeth 
Fitch, treasurer; Laura Woodworth Granger, registrar; Lulu Eliza- 
beth Woodworth, historian. 

The members of this chapter have displayed commendable zeal 
in fostering and keeping alive an interest in the objects of the organi- 
zation, and to this end have been regular in their attendance at its 
various sessions and prompt in their response to every duty. A list 
of subjects discussed before the society from time to time displays 
a wide and varied range or research in the domain of American 
history, including not only the Revolutionary struggle, and the 
formative period of the government, but also the leading political, 
industrial, social and ethical questions relating thereto, together with 
full and complete biographies of soldiers, statesmen, publicists and 
others who distinguished themselves during the different eras of our 
national existence. Not a few of these papers display profundity of 
thought and a high order of literary merit, and it is hoped that some 



time, if it has not already been done, they will be put in permanent 
form for the benefit of the reading public. 

This chapter had the honor of entertaining the second state 
convention of the Daughters of the American Revolution, which 
held its sessions here in the year 1903. It proved the occasion of a 
brilliant gathering of the leading members of the order throughout 
Indiana, with many representatives from sister states, also a number 
of officials of national renown, the meetings being interesting and 
enthusiastic to a marked degree, and the assemblage did more to 
afford the people of Fort Wayne a true conception of the character, 
scope, object and growth of the organization than they could have 
obtained from any other source. 

At this time the Mary Penrose Wayne Chapter numbers about 
forty members and the official roster for the years 1905-6 is made up 
of the following well-known ladies : Mrs. P. A. Randall, regent ; 
Mrs. Amy R. Seavey, vice-regent; Mrs. Emma Heaton, correspond- 
ing secretary; Mrs. L. C. Hunter, recording secretary; Dr. Mary 
Whery, registrar; Dr. Carrie B. Banning, historian, and Mrs. Sarah 
Vesey, chaplain. 





Perhaps no profession is more intimately and vitally associated 
with the development of a community than the medical profession, 
and yet the names of medical men and the medical profession as a 
body occupy a very small space in recorded history. Doctors like 
Benjamin Rush and James Collins Warren, who find a place in his- 
tory, usually do so through extra-professional rather than profes- 
sional activity. The reason for this is to be found in the fact that 
the relationship between the doctors and the community is, in a large 
degree, personal in character. 

Practically all improvements along lines of public health and 
public hygiene have their origin in the medical profession, but the 
origin of these improvements can not always be traced to the 
originator. Often they may be traced to the medical society 
through which they came into existence, but frequently they can not 
be traced this far. Thus it is that a councilman, a mayor, or a com- 
missioner often is credited with originating medical reforms, when 
in fact the reform originated in the medical profession and was placed 
in the hands of the public functionary that it might through him 
achieve the necessary public or legislative indorsement. 

So far as the public is concerned, the doctor is not a widely known 
specimen of the genus homo. The medical profession is known very 
largely through the hospitals, societies, health boards and other in- 



stitutions which it has established, and through which in large meas- 
ure its work is done. Hence it is that the medical history of a com- 
munity resolves itself in great part into a history of its medical in- 
stitutions. Some communities are fortunate enough, however, to 
have one or more doctors who deserve a place in history because of 
unusual distinction they have achieved through original medical 
work or discovery. Allen county is fortunate in that she has on the 
list of her doctor citizens several who deserve such a place. Dr. Ben- 
jamin Studley Woodworth was graduated in medicine in the twenty- 
first year of his age, at the Berkshire Medical College in Massachu- 
setts, in 1837, and nine years thereafter became a citizen of Fort 
Wayne, where he spent the remainder of his life. Dr. Woodworth 
died in 1891, at the age of seventy-five years, having spent almost 
fifty-four years in the active practice of his profession. The writer 
had the pleasure of attending the fiftieth anniversary of the Doctor's 
graduation. Prior to coming to Fort Wayne Dr. Woodworth re- 
sided near the Grand Rapids, in the Maumee valley. Malaria was 
rife, and the treatment in vogue worse than inefficient, consisting in 
the administration of drastic cathartics, blood letting, emetics and 
small, almost infinitesimal, doses of quinine. To Dr. Woodworth 
belongs the credit of being the first in this section of the country, 
and one of the first in the profession, to advocate and practice the ra- 
tional and scientific method of treating this disease now in general 
use. Had Dr. Woodworth done nothing else in life, what he did 
in the accomplishment of this reform in therapeutics would warrant 
the placing of his name not only in the medical history of this local- 
ity, but in the medical history of the world. 

Another physician who must be mentioned here is Dr. William 
H. Myers, of Fort Wayne, who is still practicing. He was the first 
surgeon in this section of the country to successfully remove the 
spleen, and the first, and only one to date, to remove a living child 
through the abdomen of the mother, following this delivery of the 
child by the removal of the womb. Both child and mother recovered. 
The former operation was done for a large suppurating spleen on 
October 2, 1886, at St. Joseph's Hospital in this city, and the latter 
was performed upon a dwarf because of an extremely small pelvis, 
in the patient's home at New Haven, Indiana, on August 27, 1892. 


To Dr. Christian B. Stemen, of Fort Wayne, belongs the credit 
of priority in the so-called "open method" of treating dislocations of 
the shoulder joint complicated by fractures of the arm in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the joint. This method, which Dr. Stemen was the 
first to put in practice, consists in cutting open the joint, seizing the 
dislocated bone and putting it in place, reducing or "setting" the 
fracture, and finally closing the wound. Prior to the adoption of this 
method of treatment most of the unfortunate victims of this accident 
remained cripples the rest of their lives, but by this method the arm 
may be restored both as to usefulness and appearance. This first op- 
ertion was made in a farm house in December, 1873. 

The first medical periodical was published in Allen county in 
1879. It was a quarterly, edited by Drs. G. W. McCaskey and W. 
H. Gobrecht. But one number was issued, when Dr. C. B. Stemen 
assumed the chief editorship, and with the collaboration of others 
carried on the publication as a quarterly for four years, when it was 
changed to a monthly and issued in that way under the title of the 
"Fort Wayne Journal of the Medical Sciences" until 1897, when it 
was merged with the "Fort Wayne Medical Magazine," under the 
name of the "Fort Wayne Journal-Magazine." The "Medical Mag- 
azine" was founded in 1893, with Dr. A. E. Bulson, Jr., as managing 
editor. This publication! was issued monthly until the merger above 
noted. The "Medical Journal-Magazine" is still published under the 
same management, the department of medicine and therapeutics be- 
ing in charge of G. W. McCaskey, M. D., that of surgery in charge 
of Miles F. Porter, M. D., that of materia medica, therapeutics and 
pediatrics in charge of B. V. Sweringen, M. D., and that of opthal- 
mology, otology and rhinology in charge of A. E. Bulson, Jr., M. D. 

The first medical organization in the county was known as the 
Allen County Medical Society, which was organized in affiliation 
with the state society in i860, with Dr. I. M. Rosenthal as president. 
This society still lives under the name of the Fort Wayne Medical 
Society (the Medical Society of Allen County), which name was 
adopted March 15, 1904. This society, on June 23, 1903, adopted 
the constitution recommended by the American Medical Association 
with a view to bringing the county and state societies in closer affil- 
iation with one another and with the national society, thus increas- 


ing the effectiveness of all. The membership now numbers seventy- 
eight and meetings are held every two weeks during the year, barring 
August and September. As a result of a movement originating in 
this society in the shape of a resolution offered by Dr. Miles F. Por- 
ter, November 13, 1894, the office of city bacteriologist was created 
by the council early in 1895. Dr. L. P. Drayer was the first incum- 
bent, being appointed prior to his graduation. In this society also 
originated, on a motion offered by Dr. B. Von Sweringen, following 
recommendations presented in a paper by Dr. G. W. McCaskey, a 
crusade against consumption, in which crusade the public was asked 
to take, and is taking, an active part. The public good which lies 
within the power of the committee appointed under this motion can 
scarcely be overestimated. It was this organization too that put on 
foot the movement still in progress to secure for the city of Fort 
Wayne an adequate supply of pure water. 

The Fort Wayne Academy of Medicine was organized in 1901, 
by the younger members of the profession, most if not all of whom 
are members also of the Fort Wayne Medical Society, as a sort of 
training school wherein the younger doctors would feel more free to 
express themselves than in the older society. This society meets 
every two weeks, its meetings are well attended and, all in all, the 
work that it is doing is in the highest degree commendable. This 
society has sixteen members. 

On the death of Dr. Woodworth, in 189 1, the profession came 
into the possession of his library as a nucleus of a public medical 
library. This nucleus was placed in the public library in 1895, and 
a number of volumes have since been added. There are now several 
hundred volumes in this library, which is soon to be conveniently 
housed in the new library building, and there is every reason to be- 
lieve that it will then take on a vigorous and continuous growth. 
Prior to 1896 the State Medical Society held all of its meetings in 
Indianapolis, As a result of a movement originating in the Allen 
County Society, it is now migratory. The first meeting after the 
change was held in Fort Wayne in 1896. That the change was wise, 
is shown by the fact that the membership of the state society was in- 
creased by two hundred and twenty-four at the Fort Wayne meet- 


ing, and has been increasing* yearly ever since, until now the mem- 
bership numbers over twenty-two hundred. 

On the 9th of May, 1869, at tne corner of Main street and Broad- 
way, in a house built for a hotel and known as the "Rockhill House," 
was opened the first hospital in Allen county by representatives of a 
Catholic order known as Poor Handmaids of Christ, which origi- 
nated in Europe. The hospital was named Saint Joseph's. The first 
year twenty patients were treated ; now eight hundred are treated an- 
nually. The buildings now occupy half a square, and the hospital 
building proper is four stories high, and will accommodate one hun- 
dred and fifty beds. Obstetric patients and those with contagious 
diseases are not admitted to this institution. With these exceptions, 
all sick or injured who apply are admitted without regard to creed, or 
color, and if need be, without money. By the same order there was 
opened at the John Orff homestead on March 24, 1900, a hospital for 
the treatment of consumptives, under the name of Saint Rochus' 
Hospital. This hospital will accommodate twelve patients. The lo- 
cation is beautiful and healthful, and the grounds capacious and at- 
tractive. As at Saint Joseph's, so at this hospital, the doors are open 
to all, rich or poor, without regard to race or religion. 

The City Hospital, now known as Hope Hospital, had its origin 
in a movement started by Dr. William H. Myers, the idea being a 
"non-sectarian" institution. The exact date of the opening of the 
hospital can not be ascertained, but it was probably in 1877 or 1878. 
It was at first located at the corner of Main and Webster streets, 
from which place the institution was forced to move because of an 
injunction secured through the efforts of residents of the neighbor- 
hood. The present association was incorporated in August, 1878, 
under the name of the City Hospital, which was a misnomer, inas- 
much as the hospital has never received any aid from the city. The 
first home of the regularly incorporated hospital was at the south- 
east corner of Hanna and Lewis streets. The name was changed to 
Hope Hospital, in accordance with the wish of the members of the 
family of Jesse L. Williams, in acknowledgment of what he and 
his heirs had done for the institution. This change was legally made 
in December, 1900. In 1893, the hospital was moved to its present 
location, at the corner of Washington and Barr streets. In 1897 


there was established in connection with this hospital a training 
school for nurses. At first a two-years course was required, but 
this requirement was increased to three years in 1902. The alumnae 
of this school originated the State Nurses' Association, the first meet- 
ing of which was held in Fort Wayne in 1903. The law now govern- 
ing the practice of nursing in Indiana was drafted by this association 
and went into effect in 1905. There are at present twenty-seven 
nurses, including probationers, in the hospital. The capacity for pa- 
tients is seventy-five. During 1904 there were treated in Hope Hos- 
pital six hundred and ninety-five patients. 

The German Lutherans of Fort Wayne and vicinity opened a 
hospital in the homestead of Judge L. M. Ninde, on Fairfield avenue, 
in December, 1904, with a capacity for twenty-three patients. This 
capacity proved entirely inadequate, and a new building is now in 
process of construction which will add two operating rooms and room 
for fifty-two more beds to the present capacity. It is expected that 
this building will be ready for occupancy by November 1, 1905. A 
training school for nurses is run in connection with this hospital, ac- 
commodating eight pupils. The first room built especially for an 
operating room was built in Hope Hospital. At present all of the 
hospitals have operating rooms equipped to meet the exacting require- 
ments of present-day surgery. 

The first medical college was organized in Fort Wayne March 
10, 1876, in the parlors of the Aveline House. The principal mov- 
ers in this organization were Drs. C. B. Stemen and H. A. Clark, 
who were up to that time teaching in the Medical College of Ohio at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and Drs. B. S. Woodsworth, I. M. Rosenthal and 
W. H. Myers, of Fort Wayne. The building now occupied by Mr. 
Geller on the southwest corner of Broadway and Washington streets 
was fitted up and two well attended sessions were held, when, on ac- 
count of internal dissensions, the school was abandoned, and a reor- 
ganization was effected which lasted one year. Then followed simul- 
taneously the organization of the Fort Wayne College of Medicine 
and the Fort Wayne Medical College. The latter existed for three 
years, while the former, having practically absorbed the latter, still 
lives and is prosperous. It owns its own building on Superior street, 
and has a corps of teachers numbering over thirty-three. This was 


the second college in the Association of American Medical Colleges 
to require a four-years course of all its graduates. 

Although a state institution, the Indiana School for Feeble- 
Minded Youth, which was located in Allen county in 1890, should 
here receive mention in that it offers to the medical student admir- 
able opportunities for clinical study. Especially abundant in this in- 
stitution is the material for the study of diseases of the nervous sys- 
tem, of the chest and deformities. At present the inmates num- 
ber 1,031. 

Allen county physicians did their full duty to their country in her 
time of need. Amandas J. Laubach enlisted as a private in the One 
Hundred and Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, served until after 
Lee's surrender, then took up the study of medicine, graduating from 
the Long Island Hospital Medical College in 1866. After practic- 
ing his profession in Allentown, Pennsylvania, for nine years, he was 
appointed acting assistant surgeon in the United States Army, in 
which capacity he served until July, 1878, when he established him- 
self in Fort Wayne, where he soon built up a large practice, which 
he enjoyed until his death, which occurred March 6, 1892. John 
M. Josse, for years a prominent figure in things medical in Allen 
county, was an assistant surgeon in the Seventy-fourth Indiana, and 
surgeon of the Thirty-second Indiana. James S. Gregg, who during 
his life was one of the prominent surgeons of the state, was surgeon 
of the Eighty-eighth Indiana. William H. Myers, who is still prac- 
ticing in Fort Wayne, was surgeon of the Thirtieth Indiana. Doc- 
tor A. P. Buchman, who is still engaged in an active practice in Fort 
Wayne, where he has been located for more than twenty-five years, 
enlisted when a boy as a musician in Company I, One Hundred and 
Seventh Ohio Volunteers, and served three years. After being mus- 
tered out he resumed his studies, and after graduating in medicine 
located in Fort Wayne. Dr. J. O. G. Gorrell was also a volun- 
teer who served throughout the Civil war. When the yellow fever 
epidemic broke out in 1878 he volunteered to go south on the urgent 
call for help, and fell a victim to the scourge. He died nineteen days 
after his departure from Fort Wayne in Memphis, Tennessee, to 
which point he had been assigned. Dr. John J. Ogle, who 
for a number of years has been practicing his profession in Fort 


Wayne, served one year, 1864- 1865, in the Third Pennsylvania 
Heavy Artillery. Doctors Lafayette S. Null and W. J. Bilderback, 
of New Haven; Joseph H. Omo and F. K. Cosgrove, of Maysville, 
and Brookfield Gard, H. W. Neiswonger, Jacob Hetrick, Carl Proeg- 
ler, Charles Bergk and E. P. Banning, of Fort Wayne, also saw 
service in the Civil war, but the writer has been unable to acquaint 
himself with the details of their service. In the Spanish- American 
war also Allen county physicians did their full duty. Doctor C. H. 
English served as brigade surgeon of the First Brigade, First Divi- 
sion, Third Army Corps, from the 16th of June to the close of the 
war, October 1, 1898. Emmett L. Siver and W. W. Barnett were 
surgeons in the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Indiana. 

Since this article was finished and ready for the printer, there 
has been consummated the union of the three medical colleges in In- 
diana as the medical department of Purdue University. This union 
marks an epoch in the medical history of Indiana, and will prove a 
mighty stimulus to the cause of higher medical education through- 
out the United States. Fort Wayne physicians did not take the ini- 
tiative in the movement which culminated in this union, this credit 
belonging to the members of the faculty of the Indiana Medical Col- 
lege of Indianapolis, but without the hearty support of the Fort 
Wayne profession a harmonious union would have been impossible. 
The profession in Indianapolis deserves great credit for their share 
in bringing about this union, for it required no small sacrifice on their 
part, but greater credit is due the members of the faculty of the 
Fort Wayne College of Medicine, for their sacrifice was greater, in- 
asmuch as the union results in the loss of their institution, while the 
Indianapolis profession will have in their midst a medical school 
which may, and we believe will, soon be made second to none in the 
country. The Indiana profession has always occupied a proud posi- 
tion in the ranks of medicine, and the Allen county contingent has al- 
ways been well to the front in that position. That both the profes- 
sion of the state and the Allen county contingent thereof are well 
worthy of their positions, is well proven by their broad-mindedness 
and unselfishness made manifest in this union, and as commemorat- 
ing these men and their work the good people of Hoosierdom today 
point with pride to the medical department of Purdue University. 





Until 1863 Fort Wayne was without a regularly organized po- 
lice force, the only protection against disorder, violence or infraction 
of the law, prior to that time, having been afforded by the sheriff and 
his deputies, the city marshal and assistants and a few constables. 
Realizing the need of more adequate protection than these officials 
could render, the council, in May, 1863, established a force of police 
consisting of a lieutenant and two patrolmen for each ward, their 
hours of duty being from twilight to daybreak. Conrad Pens, to 
whom belongs the honor of serving as first chief of the newly organ- 
ized force, was a German sailor, in whom were combined the requi- 
site qualifications for a successful conservator of the peace, being in- 
telligent, cool-headed and brave, besides possessing executive abil- 
ity, which made him a natural leader of men. The other chiefs in 
order of their service have been William Ward, Fred Limecooley, 
Patrick McGee, Diedrich Meyer, Michael Singleton, Hugh M. Diehl, 
Eugene B. Smith, Hugh M. Diehl, who served a second term and re- 
signed in 1889, the vacancy being filled by Frank Wilkinson, who 
was appointed! by the council in June of that year. 

With the adoption of the new city charter in 1894, the depart- 
ment was reorganized and placed in charge of a superintendent, the 
night force being under the direction of a captain, who received his 
instructions from the former official. The title of superintendent 
was continued until 1905, when, under an act of the general assem- 


bly in April of that year, it was changed back to chief, under which 
designation the head of the department has since been known. 

When the reorganization of the force took place James Ligget 
was appointed superintendent, and served as such for a period of two 
years, discharging the duties of the position with marked ability, and 
in various ways doing much to promote the general efficiency of the 
men under his control. Homer A. Gorsline, the successor of Mr. 
Ligget, was elected superintendent in May, 1896, since which time be 
has brought the department to a state of efficiency far exceeding that 
of any other period of its history, proving under all circumstances 
an intelligent, popular and thoroughly capable official, daring in all 
the term implies, keenly alive to every duty coming within his sphere 
and possessing the abounding confidence of his subordinates and of 
the public at large. In Mr. Gorsline are combined the qualities of 
the strict disciplinarian, successful executive and broad-minded man 
of affairs. To perceive a duty is to him equivalent to performing it, 
and what he does himself he expects his subordinates to do after they 
have been properly instructed. 

Although considerably handicapped by an inadequate force of 
patrolmen, the number being no greater than twenty-five years ago, 
when the city was much smaller and more easily controlled, he has 
his force well disciplined and thoroughly in hand and with the addi- 
tional aid of skillful detective service, he is able to exercise such close 
surveillance over his jurisdiction as to make his name a terror to law- 
breakers and evil-doers, besides earning for Fort Wayne the reputa- 
tion of being one of the best policed cities in the state of Indiana. 

Since the adoption of the charter of 1894 the night force, as al- 
ready indicated, has been in charge of a captain, the first to hold the 
position being William F. Borgman, who served from the spring of 
that year until his resignation, on the 2d day of February, 1898. 
Frederick Daseler was appointed to fill the vacancy, but served only 
to the 29th of the following June, when he too resigned, after which 
Mr. Borgman again accepted the place and continued to discharge 
the duties of the same until May 16th of the following year, when he 
was succeeded by Frank H. Whitney. After filling the office very 
acceptably until October 6, 1903, Mr. Whitney handed in his resig- 
nation, and for a third time Mr. Borgman became captain, which po- 


sition he has since filled with credit to himself and to the entire sat- 
isfaction of the department and the public. 

The first police station was established in a small brick building 
that stood opposite the court house on Court street. An office occu- 
pied the front room, communicating with a cell in the rear, which 
was fitted up with three iron cages for the use of male prisoners, the 
upper floor, containing two rooms, being set aside for the incarcera- 
tion of such females as broke the law and laid themselves liable to ar- 
rest and detention. This building continued to be used until about 
the year 1877, when larger and more convenient quarters were se- 
cured on Barr street, where the business of the department was con- 
ducted until the completion of the new city building in 1893, since 
which time the commodious and well-appointed offices in the latter 
have been occupied. 

Fort Wayne being centrally located, easily accessible and about 
equally distant from a number of the larger cities of the Union, 
makes it a favorite rendezvous for criminals, especially of the more 
genteel class, or, as they are termed in police parlance, "The Num- 
ber Ones," in consequence of which the city of late years has gained 
somewhat of an unenviable repute. Cognizant of this fact, the po- 
lice, under the superintendent's alert management, have redoubled 
their diligence in ferreting out and running down these violators of 
the law, quite a number of whom have been brought to justice from 
time to time and given short shift to Jeff ersonvi lie or Michigan 
City, where at the state's expense they are now doing service and 
learning by better experience that the way of the transgressor is truly 
hard. Less skill is required in handling the common and more nu- 
merous criminal class, which, for the reason already stated, has long 
had a large representation in Fort Wayne, the different railways fur- 
nishing them easy access to the city. 

The adoption some years ago of a special police and detective sys- 
tem by the Pennsylvania Railroad has been of material benefit to the 
local force in eliminating the tramp evil, no one being allowed to steal 
rides on any of the trains of this line, under penalty of arrest and im- 
prisonment, the result being an almost effectual check to the influx 
of an objectionable class over what was formerly one of its chief 
avenues of travel. When the other railways adopt similar stringent 


measures, which is hoped they will soon do, the labors of the Fort 
Wayne police will be reduced by one-half, with a corresponding in- 
crease in the peace and quietude of the city. 

Since its reorganization the following officials have rendered 
service to the department at intervals in capacities indicated : Cap- 
tains of police : D. Meyer, M. Singleton, H. M. Diehl, who at one 
time was chief of the force ; E. B. Smith, Frank Wilkinson, William 
Borgman, Frank Whitney, who, as before stated, was succeeded by 
Mr. Borgman, the present incumbent. Among the captains of po- 
lice under the old regime were F. R. Limecooley, P. McGee, D. 
Meyer, M. Singleton, H. M. Diehl and E. B. Smith; sergeants — Wil- 
liam Borgman, Fred Daseler, Frank Jewell, H. Harkrider and John 
K. Stevens; detectives — George Coling, Fred Daseler and Charles 
J. Rulo; marshals — Patrick McGee, Charles Uplegger, Christo- 
pher Kelly, Frank Falker, Diedrich Meyer and Henry Franke. (For 
complete list of marshals see list of city officers.) The personnel of 
the department at this time is as follows: Chief, Homer A. Gors- 
line; captain, William F. Borgman; lieutenant, Henry Lapp; detec- 
tives, George Coling and Henry Rulo ; sergeants, Henry J. Harken- 
rider and William F. Pappert ; station clerks, Emil Smith and Fred- 
erick Graffe; patrol drivers, Henry Reichard and David Blum; sta- 
tion master, John Terry; city court bailiff 1 , George Strodel; humane 
officer, Louis Schlaudroff ; electrician, John Schroeder; patrolmen, 
Benjamin Bowers, Michael Brennan, Frank Cheviron, Robert Dick- 
son, Benjamin Elliott, John Greer, Abram Goeglein, Joseph Golden, 
George Heller, Glenn Johnston, Peter Junk, Richard Kelly, John 
Keintz, William Knock, August Kroekeberg, Louis Linker, Reg- 
inald Major, Charles McKendry, Patrick Murphy, Charles Nave, 
Ernest Paul, Nicholas Petgen, James Richardson, William Rohrer, 
Charles Spillner, James M. Smith, John K. Stevens and Robert 





The history of the fire department of Fort Wayne, as a regular 
organization, dates from the year 1856, prior to which time there 
had been two volunteer companies, the "Anthony Wayne," organized 
in 1841, and the "Hermans," in 1848. The apparatus of the former 
consisted of a Jeffreys gallery engine, a two-wheel hose-cart, with 
about five hundred feet of hose, the entire outfit costing the sum of 
five hundred and eighty-seven dollars. The headquarters of this 
company were on the east side of Clinton street, north of Main, and 
later in an old market house which stood on the north end of the 
present market place on Barr street. It is a matter of record that 
the general assembly in the session of 1842, by a special act, exempted 
the members of this company from working the roads or 
serving on juries. After maintaining an existence for several years 
and answering fairly well the purposes which it was intended to sub- 
serve, the company was disbanded and the name is now but a mem- 

The "Hermans" maintained an engine house on the west side of 
Clinton street, north of Berry, in the original plat of the city, and 
owned an apparatus consisting of a side-brake Button engine, a 
two-wheel hose cart and about one thousand feet of leather hose, all 
of which arrived in the same year that the organization went into 
effect. This company proved a tolerable protection against fire, but, 


like the "Anthony Wayne," finally outlived its usefulness as an ef- 
fective agency and in due time ceased to exist. 

The immediate successor of the "Hermans" was the "Alert 
Engine and Hose Company," which was organized August 10, 1856. 
It took charge of the apparatus of the former organization and con- 
tinued to use the same until January, 1868, when the machinery and 
other equipment was returned to the city and a reorganization ef- 
fected as the "Independent Hook and Ladder Company." On 
August 7, 1856, a third company was organized under the name of 
the "Mechanics' Engine and Hose Company," concerning which little 
is known beyond the fact that it fulfilled in a measure the expecta- 
tions of its founders, and disbanded after a career of seventeen years' 

On December 3, 1848, the council established the fire limits by 
the following boundaries : Barr street on the east, Harrison on the 
west, Main street on the south and the canal on the north, quite a 
circumscribed area for the present day, but at the time designated it 
included the main portion of the rapidly growing town. 

In January, 1861, the city closed a contract with the Silsby Manu- 
facturing Company for a steam fire engine at a cost of four thou- 
sand eight hundred dollars. In due time it arrived, was tried and 
accepted, and for a number of years proved a very effective means of 
checking fires. This was the first steam fire engine brought to the 
city and in compliment to the mayor, Hon. Franklin P. Randall, it 
was given his name. Still later there was purchased from the Clapp 
& Jones factory another engine, a companion to the first, which was 
called the Charley Zollinger, after the mayor who held office at the 
time it was bought. In the summer of 1867 the council purchased 
from a firm in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, a second-hand fire engine of 
the Amoskeag type, and a hose-reel, paying for the outfit the sum 
of three thousand dollars. In September following a company 
called the "Vigilant Engine and Hose Company" was organized to 
operate the apparatus, which was found in good condition and quite 
serviceable, notwithstanding the evidence of previous use. The 
next year two additional hand engines were purchased, but, proving 
unsatisfactory in every respect, they were subsequently disposed of 
at a considerable less than the cost price, which was three hundred 


dollars each. A hook and ladder truck was purchased in the spring 
of 1872, for the sum of two thousand three hundred dollars, and in 
the fall of the same year a notable addition was made to the apparatus 
of the company by the purchase of a fine rotary steam engine from 
the Silsby works, at a cost of four thousand eight hundred dollars. 
This engine, which was called the "Anthony Wayne," met every re- 
quirement expected of it and its long period of service bears witness 
to the good judgment displayed on the part of those who made the 
contract. In January, 1874, the chief of the fire department pur- 
chased the first hose for use on reels and carts. In May, 1874, 
Thomas Mannix having been elected chief of the fire department, 
the "Vigilants" and "Torrents" withdrew from the department and 
resolved themselves into a union to be known as the U. V. & T. — 
United Vigilants and Torrents; this organization, however, did not 
do service for the city. It was about this time that 
the "Mechanics" were organized and reinstated and they became 
very active in carrying out the objects of the company, proving in 
many respects a valuable auxiliary of the department. 

The second ward engine house, at the northeast corner of Court 
and Berry streets, was erected in the summer of i860, and the old 
engine house which stood immediately in the rear was afterwards 
torn away and a portion of the ground used for an additional struc- 
ture, or rather an extension of the new building, thus greatly en- 
larging the capacity of the latter and providing ample accommoda- 
tion for the increasing apparatus of the department. 

On the 15th of August, 1875, the National Fire Alarm Tele- 
graph service was introduced, with fifteen boxes, about eight miles 
of wire and other necessary apparatus, the total cost of which 
amounted to five thousand dollars. This was in use for a period 
of nine years, at the expiration of which time the Gamewell system 
was substituted, the latter proving vastly superior and in every re- 
spect more satisfactory to the department. The system of hitching 
horses by electricity and the suspension of swinging harness in front 
of the apparatus was introduced in 1875, and with some additional 
changes and improvements they are still in use. Both horses and 
men are so thoroughly drilled and such is the rigid discipline which 
has prevailed in the department, that little is to be desired in the 


way of adding to its efficiency and skill in combating one of nature's 
most subtle, powerful and dangerous agencies. 

For a number of years water was supplied to the department by 
laying long lines of hose to the canal, but this being found unhandy 
and inadequate, a series of fire cisterns were subsequently constructed 
at the intersection of the principal streets of the city, the number 
being increased from time to time until there were thirty-four in use. 
These answered the purpose for which intended until the completion 
of the water works system, when they were abandoned and filled up. 

Among the principal volunteer companies which rendered service 
to the city at different times, the following are deserving of mention, 
namely : the Alert Engine Company, Torrent Engine and Hose Com- 
pany, Eagle Engine and Hose Company, Vigilant Engine and Hose 
Company, Mechanics' Engine and Hose Company, Wide-Awake 
Engine and Hose Company, Protection Engine and Hose Company 
and the Hope Hose Company, all of which were very useful in 
their day and highly prized by the public. 

The following is a list of chief engineers from the organization 
of the department to the present time, with their respective periods 
of service, namely: L. T. Bourie, 1856 to 1858; George Humphrey, 
1858 to i860; O. D. Hurd, i860 to 1861; Joseph Stellwagon, 1861 
to 1862; L. T. Bourie, 1862 to 1863; Munson Van Gieson, 1863 to 
1866; Henry Fry, 1866 to 1867; Hiram Poyser, 1867 to 1868; 
Thomas Mannix, 1868 to 1873; Frank B. Vogel, 1873 to 1874; 
Thomas Mannix, 1874 to 1875; Frank B. Vogel, 1875 to 1879, the 
last named completing the list that served under the old volunteer 
system. From 1840 to 1856 the following men served as chief 
engineers of the fire department : Samuel Edsall, William L. Moon, 
John Cochrane, Thomas Pritchard, John B. Cocanour, Benjamin 
H. Tower, Samuel L. Freeman and George Humphrey. 

In May, 188 1, the department was reorganized for more effec- 
tive service and a force of men employed at regular salaries, Henry 
Hillbrecht being appointed chief of the new system. So able and 
satisfactory did his administration prove that he has been retained 
in the position to the present time, his record during his long period 
of service presenting a series of successes such as few fire chiefs 
have achieved. John McGowan was appointed first assistant and 

j US' 

..... 3 


Fred Becker second assistant: There were at that time two steam 
engines, three hose carriages, one hook and ladder truck, with two 
men at full pay to each apparatus and six minute men on half pay 
to each of the three hose carriages. 

The growth of the city, with the corresponding increase in dan- 
ger of fire, made it apparent that the department could not handle 
to advantage such a large area from a single station; accordingly, 
after repeated recommendations by the chief, the city in 1885 erected, 
at a cost of three thousand dollars, a handsome engine house in the 
seventh ward, from which the residences and manufacturing estab- 
lishments in that part of the city can easily be reached. The erection 
of other buildings from time to time and the increase in the force 
and efficiency of the department have kept pace with the growth of 
the city, there being at this time eight fine brick structures, fully 
equipped with the latest and most approved apparatus and numbered 
in the order of their respective locations. 

No. 1, a two-story building, fifty-seven by one hundred and 
twelve feet in dimensions, standing on Main between Barr and La- 
fayette, was erected in 1893, a * a cost °f twelve thousand dollars, 
the lot being purchased the previous year for the sum of five thou- 
sand dollars. The ground floor is occupied by a large room for ap- 
paratus, in the rear of which are six stalls for horses, with doors 
that open and close automatically. To the front and side are the sitting 
and telephone rooms for department men, while back of these are 
apartments for the chiefs conveyance and hose and for the elec- 
trician, also a large and commodious repair shop. The second floor 
consists of a dormitory, library, chief's private office, together with 
rooms for fire alarm instruments and bath room, the building being 
substantially constructed with a liberal amount of cut stone trim- 
mings and on the whole presenting a very beautiful and imposing 

No. 2, located on Wallace street and to which reference has al- 
ready been made as the seventh ward engine house, was remodeled 
in 1889, by an addition costing the sum of two thousand dollars. It 
has a frontage of fifty feet, a sixty-foot depth, contains on the ground 
floor apparatus room for steamer, hose-wagon, hook and ladder truck 
and stalls for seven horses; the second floor being occupied by a 


dormitory, reading room, bath and hay loft. The lot on which the 
building stands was purchased in 1870 for one thousand fifty dollars, 
making a total cost to the city of six thousand fifty dollars, although 
the property at this time represents a value greatly in excess of that 

No. 3 stands on Washington boulevard, between Harrison and 
Webster streets, is a handsome two-story brick structure with cut 
stone trimmings and cost the city the sum of five thousand three hun- 
dred dollars. It was erected in 1893 an< ^ occupies part of lot 465 of 
Hanna's addition, which was purchased the previous year for four 
thousand five hundred dollars, making a total cost of nine thousand 
eight hundred dollars. In most respects the arrangements of No. 3 
are similar to those already described, being a model of convenience 
and well adapted to the purposes for which constructed. 

The lot on which house No. 4 stands, No. 85 of Chute's Home- 
stead addition, is fifty by one hundred and forty-three feet in area 
and was bought for twelve hundred dollars in the year 1891. The 
building, which was erected two years later, is located on Maumee 
road, between Ohio and Chute streets, and, like the others, is an 
imposing brick edifice handsomely finished and fully equipped with 
the necessary apparatus, and represents a cost of five thousand two 
hundred twenty dollars. 

-No. 5 is located on Broadway, between Hendricks and Lavinia 
streets, the lot being No. 32 of the G. W.Ewing addition, and costing" 
the sum of one thousand six hundred fifty dollars. It was purchased 
in 1890, and in 1893 the building was erected at an outlay to the city 
of five thousand one hundred eighty-three dollars; neither pains nor 
expense were spared to make this house complete in all of its parts 
and it stands an enduring monument to the progressive spirit of the 
people, who by every means at their command have endeavored to 
promote the efficiency of a department upon which in no small degree 
the safety of their property depends. 

No. 6, located on the northeast corner of Wells and Third 
streets, was also built in the year 1893 and cost the sum of five thou- 
sand one hundred ninety dollars. The lot, which is part of No. 29 
of Farmer's addition, came into the city's possession in 1890 and 
represents a value of one thousand four hundred fifty dollars. No. 


6 is similar in design with Nos. 3, 4 and 5, except a little larger, 
having a frontage of thirty-four feet, a depth of seventy-seven feet, 
the interior arrangements on the first floor providing for steamer, 
hose wagon, sitting room and stalls for four horses. The second 
floor contains a commodious dormitory, bath room, captain's office 
and hay loft, the exterior in most respects being like the buildings 
already described. 

No. 7 building is on lot No. 33 of Wilson's addition and was 
purchased at a cost of seven hundred seventy-five dollars in the year 
1890. The building, which cost the sum of four thousand six hun- 
dred fifty dollars, was erected in 1898, stands on Main street, south- 
west of St. Mary's river, and affords fire protection for the western 
part of the city. It is conveniently arranged and an ornament to 
the locality in which it stands; one steamer, one hose wagon, four 
horses and six men are housed in No. 7. 

No. 8 was built in 1898 also and cost the city four thousand 
seven hundred dollars. It is located in Tyler's addition in the south- 
western part of the city, standing on Fairfield avenue, and in size, 
design and interior arrangements is similar in nearly every respect 
to Nos. 3, 4, 6 and 7. The lot was bought in 1898 for one thousand 
two hundred fifty dollars, making the total cost of the property five 
thousand nine hundred fifty dollars. A force of six men is stationed 
here and the apparatus consists of one steamer, one hose wagon and 
six horses. 

The last independent fire organization to disband was the Alert 
Hook and Ladder Company, which ceased to exist in the year 1890, 
since which time the department, as a compact body, has continued as 
it is today. Since 1892 all members of the department have received 
full pay for their services and it is needless to state that in point of 
efficiency they will compare favorably with any similar force in 
Indiana, or any other state. The oldest fireman in the city is Michael 
Connors, who joined the department in 1863 an d has been continu- 
ously on duty since that time, a period of forty-two years of faithful, 
conscientious service. He is now captain of engine house No. 2 
and one of the ablest and most judicious officials on the force. 

The following are the names of the captains of the different 
buildings, with the number of men under their command: No. 1, 


Captain Ferdinand Schroeder, fifteen men; No. 2, Capt. Michael 
Connors, who has six men in charge; No. 3 has a force of seven 
men, commanded by Capt. George W. Jasper ; No. 4, John Stahlhut, 
captain, and six men constitute his force; at No. 5 there are six men 
under Capt. George Troutman; No. 6 also houses six men, whose 
leader is Capt. Christ. Rohans ; Nos, 7 and 8 have six men each, their 
respective captains being A. J. Baker and John Huber. John 
Schroeder is superintendent of the fire alarm and police of the de- 

The Firemen's Pension Fund of Fort Wayne was inaugurated 
several years ago and is a safe and sure means of protection in case 
of accident or death, having at this time an available fund of nearly 
twenty thousand dollars, all of which is judiciously invested. The 
fund is maintained by voluntary donations from friends of the de- 
partment and other well-to-do people benevolently disposed, by as- 
sessments paid at regular intervals by the members, and by the pro- 
ceeds from improvement bonds. The fund is carefully and judi- 
ciously managed by wise and conservative business men, and is 
greatly appreciated by those whom it is intended to benefit, provid- 
ing, as it does, a certain indemnity in case of accident or disability 
while on duty, and in case of death a specific sum to be paid to the 
family of the deceased. Any fireman being permanently disabled 
is allowed the sum of fifty dollars per month during life, a most 
commendable feature, and certainly encouraging to those who fol- 
low a vocation where every call to duty may prove a call to dan- 
gers involving broken limbs, maimed or bruised bodies, or perhaps 
death itself in its most horrible and aggravated form. There is 
also a fund for the retirement of the members of the department at 
the expiration of a certain period of continuous service, this being 
one of the especially commendable provisions of the organization. 





The necessity of supplying Fort Wayne with an adequate supply 
of water early became apparent, but it was not until about 1875 that 
the matter was taken up in earnest and thoroughly canvassed and a 
movement inaugurated to install a plant which should meet all of 
the growing demands of the city for a number of years to come. 
After considerable agitation on the part of the public, the common 
council, in the spring of 1876, took definite action by engaging a 
hydraulic engineer to prepare plans and specifications, which in due 
time were submitted and referred to the proper committee. Some 
time prior to the report on Mr. Lane's plans the owners of the canal 
submitted a proposition in the form of a contract to construct a 
system of water works on the same general plan as the one under con- 
sideration, the canal feeder to be used as the source of supply. The 
estimate under this proposition was for 21.18 miles of piping and 
the erection of a large stand pipe two hundred feet high and five 
feet in diameter, the plant to be finished and turned over to the city 
in satisfactory order for the sum of three hundred and eighty thou- 
sand dollars. The proposition appearing not only plausible, as far 
as the general features of the plan were concerned, but reasonable as 
to cost of construction, the majority of the council voted in favor 
of its adoption. While satisfactory to the city fathers, the proposi- 


tion was far from meeting the approval of a number of public spirited 
citizens, certain of whom obtained a temporary restraining order, 
thus putting an effective check to the work until the court could 
pass upon the matter. Before the final adjudication, however, an 
election was held, with the Lane plan as an issue, thus bringing the 
question of its adoption or rejection before the people of the several 
wards for their decision. The contest proved quite animated and 
gave rise to no little warm feeling and excitement, but the canvass- 
ing of the vote revealed the fact that not a single individual favor- 
ing the proposition had been elected. With this agitation ended all 
action on the subject of water works for a little more than three 
years, but the growth of the city and the corresponding increase of 
danger from fire could not long close the eyes of the people to the 
necessity of providing a better defense against this destructive 
agency than the inadequate fire department as then equipped ; accord- 
ingly, on the 15th day of May, 1879, the council authorized the 
water works trustees to employ any competent hydraulic engineer 
whom they should see fit to select, and have him to prepare the neces- 
sary plans, and report the same at his earliest convenience. 

J. D. Cook, of Toledo, was the engineer selected, and on July 
5th of the above year he submitted his plans and specifications, which 
failed to meet the approval of the water works board and a majority 
of the council, for the reason that they contemplated the construction 
of a reservoir. The question of the adoption of the Cook proposition 
was also submitted to a popular vote, and in order that the matter 
might be intelligently considered by the people, the plan was printed 
in pamphlet form in both English and German, and a copy provided 
for every voter in the different wards. So powerfully did the neces- 
sity of a water works plant appeal to the people that the proposition 
was carried by a very decided majority, twenty-five hundred and 
thirty-three out of a total of three thousand and ninety-four votes 
being in favor of the plan, and five hundred and ninety-one against it. 

After the common council had ratified the decision of the people 
the water works were ordered constructed, and as soon as possible 
work was begun and pushed forward as rapidly as the magnitude 
and importance of the undertaking would admit. Mr. Cook's sal- 
ary, as manager, was fixed at twenty-five hundred dollars per year, 


and the trustees were each to receive one hundred and fifty dollars 
a year for their services. On October 21, 1879, contracts were let as 
follows: Two engines and four boilers from Holly & Company, 
Lockport, New York, $30,500.00; pipe and laying of the same, R. D. 
Wood & Company, Philadelphia, $126,380.17; valves, Ludlow Valve 
Company, Troy, New York, $3,377.30; hydrants, Matthews Hy- 
drant Company, Philadelphia, $8,490.00; construction of reservoir, 
building, etc., John Langhor and M. Baltes, $59,627.36; engine 
house, Moellering & Paul, $8,490.00; the total amounting to $236,- 
865.36, which was $33,134.36 less than Mr. Cook's estimate of 
$270,000.00, the difference being devoted to contingencies. 

Ground was broken in the fall of 1880, and the construction of 
the works as originally planned was completed within the time speci- 
fied, with the exception of the reservoir in the seventh ward, which 
was finished later at an additional expenditure of about twenty thou- 
sand dollars. 

One of the subjects of the liveliest contention in the council, by 
the water works commissions and through the columns of the local 
press, was the source of an adequate supply of pure, fresh, whole- 
some water for the use of the city. Quite a number were in favor of 
pumping the water from the St. Joseph river, others advocated the 
feeder canal, and the owners of that property sought by every means 
at their command to sell it to the city, urging that the canal, being 
nearly twenty-five feet higher than the river, would not only furnish 
the requisite amount of water, but suppfy sufficient power to force it 
through the mains. The third considered, and the one finally adopt- 
ed, was Spy Run, a beautiful stream which enters the city from the 
north and flows into the St. Mary's river a short distance east of the 
Clinton street bridge. Of the superiority of the water of this stream 
over that of the other sources under consideration there was no ques- 
tion, but as to whether or not the supply would prove adequate for 
all purposes became a matter of serious doubt. Despite this misgiv- 
ing, however, the city erected its pumping house on Spy Run at a 
point east of Clinton street and equipped it with a valuable low pres- 
sure engine capable of pumping three million ga 1 lons daily, in addi- 
tion to which there was also installed a fine high pressure engine, a 
battery of boilers, and all other machinery and appliances essential 


to the complete equipment of the first-class plant which the city or- 
dered constructed. 

To increase the water supply a large basin was scooped from the 
gravel between the pumping" station and Spy Run, in the bottoms of 
which a number of strong* flowing springs were struck, thus very ma- 
terially adding to the amount obtained from the creek, the water be- 
ing run through influent pipes fitted with rock filters. Originally 
about twenty miles of piping was put doAvn, through which the 
water was supposed to be forced with such tremendous power from 
the elevated reservoir that it could easily surmount the tops of the 
highest buildings in the city by making a mere hose connection, and 
thus furnish an abundant supply for all general purposes, besides af- 
fording adequate protection in case of fire. The first summer's 
drought that followed the completion of the plant demonstrated fully 
the inadequacy of the supply; accordingly recourse was had to the 
canal owners, who, in response to the request of the department for 
assistance, tapped the aqueduct over Spy Run, thus furnishing a suf- 
ficiency of water not only for all practical purposes, but insure the 
city against the danger of conflagration also. While never posi- 
tively refused, this additional supply was for a considerable time the 
cause of strained relations between the municipal government and 
the owners of the canal, in consequence of which various means were 
sought to reinforce the volume of Spy Run so as to relieve the city 
from the necessity of soliciting assistance, which should have been 
voluntarily and freely granted. To this end a large pipe was finally 
laid from the basin to the St. Joseph river, and a large rotary pump 
installed for forcing the water into the pumping basin from what 
was known as the Rudisill pool, but the plan did not fully answer 
the purpose for which intended and at best afforded only temporary 
relief. As already indicated, efforts had been made from time to time 
to sell the canal feeder to the city, but, failing in this, the owners of 
the property, who also controlled the Rudisill dam, cut the latter in 
the early part of the summer, yhen danger from a water famine was 
the greatest, thus bringing the people of the city, as well as the board 
of commissioners, face to face with a serious and perplexing problem 
exceedingly difficult of solution. To meet this discouraging condi- 
tion of affairs various expedients were resorted to, the one finally 


adopted being the boring* of a series of wells along Spy Run, below 
the pumping basin, and connecting them as soon as completed with 
the pumping station, the water in the basin having fallen so rapidly 
under the steady consumption of the parched city that but a few 
inches remained above the top of the big suction pipe when the first 
of the wells was connected. The steady flow of a strong stream of 
pure, wholesome water adding its volume to the basin was hailed with 
delight by the people, furnishing as it did an ample supply for all 
domestic and public purposes, besides guaranteeing protection should 
the fire fiend at any time break forth to menace the safety of the city. 

These wells, of which there were thirty in number, each eight 
inches in diameter, and driven to an average depth of fifty-two feet, 
were connected with a large suction pipe which led directly to the 
engines in the pumping station, and at their normal capacity could 
furnish an average of forty million gallons every twenty-four hours, 
and if necessary a still greater amount. So fully satisfied were the 
water works commissioners with the adequacy of the supply that in 
1889 they considered the advisability of dispensing with the water 
from Spy Run and using only that from the wells. In due time the 
proposition, which appears to have been received with general favor 
by the public, was carried into effect, since which time the city's sup- 
ply of water has come from a source far below the surface of the 
earth, which fact accounts for its purity, wholesomeness and excel- 
lence for all purposes, being superior in these respects to that used 
by the majority of cities. 

The rapid growth of the city, with a corresponding increase in 
the demands upon the plant, soon taxed its capacity to the utmost and 
rendered necessary an enlargement of its facilities; accordingly, 
about the year 1889, an addition was made to the pump house at a 
cost of sixteen thousand dollars, in which was placed a fine triple 
expansion low pressure Gaskill engine, capable of forcing through 
the mains an average of six million gallons of water daily, the price 
paid for the equipment amounting to thirty thousand five hundred 

The original plan of pipe distribution unfortunately was not on 
a scale commensurate with all demands; consequently many of the 
mains had to be taken out from time to time and replaced by others 


of greater capacity. The erection of manufacturing establishments 
in outlying wards also demanded a general increase of the pipe serv- 
ice, to meet which the mains have been greatly extended until every 
part of the city had either been reached or made easily accessible, there 
being at this time between ninety-five and a hundred miles of piping, 
tapped by seven hundred and thirty-four hydrants of the latest and 
most approved type. The vast extension of piping, which ramifies 
the city in a perfect network of iron, is the result of still later im- 
provements in the water works system than those already indicated. 

So rapid had been the growth in population of recent years, and 
so great the number of industries established, that the plant, with 
the several additions noted, was found inadequate to furnish the 
service demanded ; accordingly, about 1899, a second station, costing 
about one hundred thousand dollars, was established on Van Buren 
street, the average capacity of which is eight million gallons per day. 
Later the Holly Manufacturing Company, of Lockport, New York, 
installed at this station a six-million-gallon pumping engine, which, 
with the former equipment, is capable of supplying the entire city at 
certain seasons, without any assistance from the original station on 
the North Side. 

About the time of this addition, perhaps a little later, a com- 
pressed plant, capable of delivering four million gallons daily, was 
installed at station No. 1 by the Bass Foundry and Machine Com- 
pany, bringing the average capacity of the works as they are now 
constituted up to considerable in excess of fourteen million gallons 
every twenty- four hours. To supply the vast volume of water, twelve 
additional wells have been put down, which, with the number pre- 
viously in use, it is believed will furnish the city with an unfailing 
source of pure, wholesome water for many years to come. 

From the beginning to the present time the affairs of the water 
works have been wisely and economically administered, a number of 
the city's most capable business men having served as members of 
the board of trustees, while none but engineers of skill and experi- 
ence have been intrusted to operate and superintend the plant. As 
already indicated, there are over ninety-five miles of pipes, supplying 
considerably in excess of ten thousand consumers, seven hundred and 
thirty-four hydrants and twelve private hydrants, while two thou- 


sand six hundred consumers are served by meter. Although supply- 
ing water at a heavy cost for the wells producing it and the neces- 
sary machinery and equipment, the works are so conducted as to 
make the cost of operation less perhaps than that of any other city of 
the same size in the country, the yearly expense, including repairs 
and maintenance, amounting to about fifty-five or sixty thousand dol- 
lars, while the receipts from all sources are something like eighty 
thousand dollars, certainly a magnificent showing when brought into 
comparison with that of other places where the same system is used. 
The management of the works at this time is in capable hands, 
the board being composed of enterprising, public-spirited men, who, 
mindful of the trust reposed in them, exercise sound judgment and 
wise discretion in looking after one of the people's most important 
interests. Edward White is president of the board, H. T. Hogan 
and Julius Tonne completing its personnel. F. W. Urbahns is the 
genial and efficient secretary, Joseph A. Biemer, assistant secretary, 
and F. S. Dontonwill, engineer. 





During the summer of 1869 Sydney C. Lumbard erected the 
necessary lines of wire and, connecting them with a central station 
in the third story of Foellinger's block, on the west side of Calhoun 
street, north of Main, established the first telephone in the city of 
Fort Wayne. At the various terminals the Bell patent telephones 
and transmitters were attached and the entire apparatus put in opera- 
tion. For a while the apparatus proved reasonably successful and, 
under the management of Mr. Lumbard, over one hundred subscrib- 
ers were secured, but in the course of a few years the patronage was 
gradually withdrawn and the concern went out of business. 

In July following the establishment of the Lumbard, or Fort 
Wayne Exchange, the Western Union Telegraph Company began 
the erection of a series of lines throughout the city, establishing an 
office on the second floor of the Nill building, west side of Calhoun, 
north of Wayne. To this central station the various lines converged, 
and at the different terminals throughout the city they were connected 
with phones and transmitters invented by Thomas A. Edison. Quite 
a number of parties subscribed and for a while success appeared to 
attend the enterprise, but the patronage not being sufficiently liberal 
to justify the company to prosecute it further, the business was 
finally discontinued, or succeeded rather, by the Bell Telephone 


Company, which still maintains an exchange in the city. The latter 
enterprise at one time had a monopoly of the telephone business in 
Fort Wayne and for a number of years commanded a large and 
lucrative patronage, but the absence of competition enabling the 
management to charge rates which the public deemed somewhat ex- 
cessive, a movement looking to the organization of an independent 
company was finally inaugurated, among the leaders of the same 
being the following well known citizens : Charles S. Bash, W. J. 
Vesey, Charles McCulloch, Samuel M. Foster, George W. Beers 
and Capt. C. Hettler. In 1896 these gentlemen, with several others 
as public spirited as themselves, established what is known as the 
Home Telephone and Telegraph Company, organizing under the 
laws of Indiana and furnishing the requisite capital with which to 
finance the enterprise and put it upon a sound working basis. 
Backed by men of solid financial standing and wide business ex- 
perience, the new company grew rapidly in favor, and within a com- 
paratively brief period its instruments were installed in nearly every 
business house and manufacturing establishment of the city and 
many private residences, the people responding liberally to its sup- 
port by becoming patrons, the charter of the management being such 
as to inspire confidence on the part of the public and the assurance 
of fair and honorable treatment. By always pursuing a safe and 
straightforward policy, and maintaining between itself and the 
public a reciprocity of interests, the company has been enabled not 
only to make almost unprecedented progress in the extension of its 
business and influence, but to reach a high standing in the confidence 
of its patrons and friends and in business circles such as few enter- 
prises of the kind attain. 

During the first eleven years the company maintained its ex- 
change and offices in rented quarters, but in 190 1 erected a building 
of its own on the southeast corner of Main and Clinton streets, a 
splendid three-story brick edifice, handsomely finished and furnished 
with ample facilities to meet the requirements of the rapidly growing 
business, and costing the sum of sixteen thousand five hundred dol- 
lars. The exchange and offices of the company, with the office of 
the National Telephone and Telegraph Company, occupy the third 
floor of this building, the first and second stories being devoted to 


general office purposes and rented to a number of the leading busi- 
ness and professional men of the city. Subsequently, in 1902, a 
second building was erected at the southeast corner of Calhoun and 
Masterson streets, on the South Side, in which a thoroughly 
equipped exchange was installed in order to facilitate the business in 
that part of the city, this being a fine one-story brick edifice with no 
feature of a first-class exchange omitted, the cost of its construction 
amounting to six thousand dollars. In addition to these two splendid 
properties, the company owns other valuable real estate in Fort 
Wayne and elsewhere, the whole representing investments to the 
amount of forty thousand dollars, which figure furnishes a tolerably 
correct idea of the proportions to which the business has grown, as 
well as indication of the future prosperity of the enterprise. 

The years in which the buildings were erected witnessed the com- 
plete reconstruction of the plant, including the discarding of all the 
instruments and apparatus outside and then in use, and the installing 
of an entirely new and greatly improved equipment at an expense of 
eighty thousand dollars, since which time the plant has ranked with 
the most thorough and complete in the country, being second to none 
in the matters of improvement and efficiency of service. In addition 
to the city exchange, the company has rural lines, or connections with 
every town and village in Allen county, and also maintains a long 
distance service by means of the National Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, over whose lines alone the latter branch of the business is 
conducted. At this time there are sixty operators at the main and 
branch exchanges, and thirty-five hundred instruments in use, the 
service, as already indicated, being confined to Fort Wayne and 
Allen county. The company was organized by Fort Wayne parties 
and has ever been maintained by Fort Wayne capital, being altogether 
a local enterprise in which many of the leading business men of the 
city are interested, the stockholders at the present time numbering 
about one hundred and forty. The following are the officials of the 
company last elected: Charles S. Bash, president; John B. Reuss, 
vice-president; W. L. Moellering, secretary, and Max B. Fisher, 

The National Telephone and Telegraph Company, to which 
reference is made in preceding paragraphs, and which is also a local 


enterprise of considerable magnitude and far-reaching influence, 
was organized in 1897, being chartered as a corporation on July 1st, 
of that year. This company, which represents something like one 
hundred and forty stockholders, owns valuable exchanges in the 
cities of Auburn, Kendallville and New Haven, Indiana, and Sturgis, 
Michigan, and in addition thereto maintains a long-distance service, 
besides doing associated press work by means of its telegraphic de- 
partment. The company is well financed and conducted upon a solid 
business basis, and by reason of efficient service it has grown rapidly 
in public favor, being at this time one of the most popular enterprises 
in a city noted for the number and high standing of its corporate 
institutions. The officers are : President, H. C. Paul ; vice-president, 
Charles S. Bash; secretary, William L. Moellering; assistant secre- 
tary, E. M. Bopp; treasurer, W. A. Bohn. 

As indicated in a preceding paragraph, the Central Union (Bell) 
Telephone Company has long maintained an exchange in Fort 
Wayne, and at one time enjoyed a large and lucrative patronage, 
with no competitor in the field. Since the organization of the home 
company, however, it has gradually discontinued its local business, 
devoting especial attention to the long distance service, in which it 
excels the lines of the Central Union, permeating the entire country 
like a network of wire, connecting nearly every city and town in 
the United States, and proving of unestimable value to all lines of 
business and a priceless boon to civilization. For the purpose of 
communicating with remote points, quite a number of the business 
houses and manufacturing establishments of Fort Wayne retain 
Central Union instruments, and they are still to be found in not a 
few private residences, although the company cares little for the 
latter class of business, indeed preferring to do without the patronage 
altogether. The exchange in this city is in the Tri-State Building. 





The history of this splendid institution dates from the year 1879, 
at which time provisions were made by the legislature for an asylum 
for feeble minded children, the same to be an adjunct of the Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Orphans' Home at Knightstown. Means were thus 
provided for caring for a class of defectives who up to the time 
designated had either become burdens to their families or public 
charges, in either of which case they were greatly neglected, few 
provisions being made for their comfort, and none whatever for 
their training. The first year's report shows that no feeble minded 
children had been received at the institution so generously prepared 
for them, but the year following quite a number arrived and were 
cared for in such a way as to give the institution wide publicity and 
recommend it to the favorable consideration of such parents as had 
mentally defective offspring. 

The popularity of the asylum continued to grow from year to 
year, until by the end of 1886 one hundred and eighteen feeble 
minded children had been received, of whom one hundred and seven- 
teen were withdrawn, some of them permanently, the rest being sent 
to other institutions to be cared for. 

Various disasters overtook the asylum while it was connected 
with the Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, in consequence of 


which the legislature, in 1887, decided to give the institution an 
independent existence under the name of the School for Feeble 
Minded Youth, and appropriated a sufficient sum of money to pur- 
chase grounds and erect the necessary buildings, ten thousand dol- 
lars being set aside for the former purpose and forty thousand for 
the latter. The initial action being taken, there was an animated 
struggle in the general assembly as to where the institution should 
be located, quite a number of cities and towns throughout the state 
presenting their respective advantages as the most eligible and desir- 
able site for the proposed buildings. Among the number, Fort 
Wayne was ably represented and never were the energy and deter- 
mination of her citizens better illustrated, or more strikingly dis- 
played, than in the contest, nothing being left undone in the way of 
pressing the city's claims or extolling its many advantages. The 
struggle, which as already indicated was long and lively, finally 
ended in victory for the Summit City, immediately after which a 
board of trustees was appointed, E. A. K. Hackett, of Fort Wayne, 
being chosen president. On the 19th of May, 1887, the board pur- 
chased as a site for the institution a tract of fifty-four and one-half 
acres of land one and a half miles northeast of the city, on which 
was begun in the spring of the following year the erection of a 
building, after plans and specifications prepared by Architects Wing 
& Mahurin, of Fort Wayne. For the site and building the first ap- 
propriation of fifty thousand dollars was used. 

In planning the structure the board and architects had in mind 
the comfort and convenience of the poor unfortunates whom it was 
designed to benefit, hence great care was exercised to make it ade- 
quately meet their wants and prove a home in which, as nearly as 
possible, they should feel satisfied. 

The contract for the main building, which was all that the first 
appropriation covered, was let to William Moellering, of Fort 
Wayne, who completed it according to agreement in the fall of 1888, 
but was obliged to wait until the state's financial condition improved 
before receiving his pay. Subsequently the Brooks Brothers entered 
into a contract to build the wings of the main structure, also a 
hospital, cold storage building, boiler house and laundry, all of which 
were finished and ready for use in the month of June, 1890. The 


appropriation by the legislature of 1888 amounted to the sum of one 
hundred and eighty-seven thousand dollars, which was expended in 
the improvements above noted, in addition to which there was an ap- 
propriation in 1 89 1 of thirty-four thousand dollars for a school and 
industrial building, both being completed and ready for occupancy 
within a reasonable period. Other improvements were added from 
time to time to meet the needs of the inmates, whose numbers from 
the opening of the institution continued to increase at an un- 
precedented rate, an appropriation of thirty thousand dollars being 
made in 1895 for the purpose of purchasing a farm and the erection 
of the necessary buildings thereon. The farm, which consists of two 
hundred and thirty-four acres, has become one of the prominent 
features of the institution, affording a means of labor and healthful 
recreation for the larger boys, the majority of whom take kindly to 
agriculture and gardening, in the pursuit of which they display no 
little efficiency and success. Later the necessity of custodial cot- 
tages for both boys and girls became apparent; accordingly, in the 
year 1897 the general assembly appropriated the sum of forty-two 
thousand five hundred dollars for this purpose, and as soon as con- 
ditions would permit the buildings were pushed to completion and 
found to meet every object for which intended. 

Another much needed improvement was a building for females 
of child-bearing age, which was provided in 1899 at a cost of forty 
thousand dollars, and in 1901 an additional appropriation of two 
thousand five hundred dollars was made to complete the buildings 
on the colony farms referred to in the preceding paragraph. Specific 
appropriations have been made at intervals for various improvements, 
including among others, a dairy house, slaughter house, store house, 
and coal house, the last two of which were finished in the year 1903. 
Briefly summarized, the buildings of the institution consist of the 
main structure and wings, detached cottages for low-grade girls 
and one for committed adult females, a detached hospital, school 
house, industrial building and the usual parts of a large plant, in- 
cluding boiler house, laundry, farm wagon sheds, fruit kitchen, ice 
house, coal house, dairy and slaughter houses, store house, etc., all 
on the original plat of fifty-five acres, more than half of which is 
occupied by buildings, lawns and play grounds. 


The legislature has been liberal in its appropriations for the 
comfort and convenience of the inmates of the home, sparing no 
reasonable expense in providing for their mental development, in- 
dustrial training and moral advancement, as will be seen by reference 
to other parts of this article. Briefly described, the main building 
of the home has a frontage of four hundred feet, with large wings 
at each end, is a three-story brick edifice, with tile floored halls, 
and as nearly fire proof as a building can be made. The central 
portion, or administration building, contains the offices of the super- 
intendent, clerk and board of directors; also a public floor, these 
several apartments occupying the second story, the floor below being 
devoted to living rooms, sitting and dining rooms and kitchen for 
the use of teachers and subordinate officials, all of which are finely 
finished, amply furnished, leaving nothing to be desired in the way 
of a substantial, well kept home, pervaded throughout by the spirit 
of harmony and content. 

The third floor contains the living apartment of the superintend- 
ent's family, and rooms for certain teachers, while the eastern 
dormitory is devoted to the use of the boys, the one on the west to 
the girls, both being spacious, well lighted and ventilated and af- 
fording accommodations for several hundred inmates. The hospital 
is a substantial building, constructed on scientific principles and 
equipped with all the necessary appliances for the successful treat- 
ment of such patients as come under the attending physician's care. 
The other buildings are in keeping with those described, being well 
constructed of the best material obtainable and admirable in their 
adaptation to the uses for which designed. 

Ample means have been provided to insure not only the comfort 
but the safety of the inmates, the main building and dormitories 
being heated by steam, supplied with a complete system of water 
works and fire escapes, and lighted throughout by electricity, the 
institution maintaining its own electric light plant. The sanitary 
arrangements are complete in every detail, the health of the children 
being of all things the first and most important consideration on the 
part of teachers and officials. 

The first superintendent of the school was John G. Blake, of 
Richmond, Indiana, who entered upon his official duties in 1888, 


and served until 1893, during which time he brought the institu- 
tion to a state of efficiency that met the expectations of its friends 
and justified the wisdom of the state in its establishment and main- 
tenance. In Mr. Blake were combined many of the elements of the 
judicious, executive and successful leader, being by nature and train- 
ing well qualified to have charge of such an institution during its 
formative period and by his wisdom and sagacity to make it in- 
finitely more than an experiment. Popular with subordinate of- 
ficials, teachers and inmates, he was also highly esteemed by the 
board and the general public and his departure from the school in 
1893 was greatly regretted by all concerned. 

The successor of Mr. Blake was James H. Leonard, who con- 
sented to act as superintendent until a fit man could be secured ; ac- 
cordingly, his term was a brief one, of less than two months, taking 
charge of the position on May 5, 1893, and resigning on the 30th 
day of June following. 

In July of the above year Alexander Johnson, formerly secre- 
tary of the state board of charities, and a gentleman of wide and 
varied experience in charitable and benevolent work, accepted the 
superintendency and at once inaugurated an administration which 
made for the good of the institution, as well as reflected great credit 
upon himself. He too possessed fine executive ability, which with 
tact and strong individuality made him a judicious manager whose 
will was law to his subordinates, but whose kindly genial nature 
won the confidence and esteem of all with whom he came in contact. 

The resignation of Mr. Johnson was accepted by the board on the 
31st of August, 1903, and one day later Albert E. Carroll became 
acting superintendent and as such continued until May 5th of the 
following year, when he was appointed superintendent, the duties of 
which position he has since discharged in a very able and satisfactory 
manner, proving the right man in the right place and a worthy suc- 
cessor to the capable and popular gentleman who preceded him in 
the office. Although a young man, Mr. Carroll possesses sound 
judgment and wise discretion, and since becoming the executive head 
of the school he has introduced a number of valuable reforms, added 
many needed improvements, and with rare tact and forethought has 


so administered affairs as to gain for the institution wide popularity 
and make it a model of its kind. 

The aim of the school is not only to furnish a comfortable home 
and provide mental training for the class of unfortunates which it 
is designed to benefit, but if possible to make the more intelligent ca- 
pable of self-support when they leave the institution, to which end 
especial attention is devoted to industrial training. Among the 
various trades and occupations in which the boys receive instructions 
are shoemaking, tailoring, mattress-making, carpentry, brick-mak- 
ing, cabinet-making, agriculture, horticulture and gardening; the 
girls being taught cooking, laundrying, plain sewing and other 
things pertaining to domestic economy so as to make them good 
housekeepers and as near as possible self-supporting. The school 
course includes work from the kindergarten up to the seventh grade, 
some advancing as far as the eighth grade and the first year in the 
high school, but the majority seem incapable of making much 
progress beyond the mere rudimentary branches. In the matter of 
manual training, which is made a specialty in all grades and depart- 
ments, the inmates of the institution keep pace with the students of 
the best schools in the country, and excel the majority, the skill ac- 
quired by many of the children being truly remarkable. Music, 
drawing, clay modeling, all kinds of fancy needle work, lace-mak- 
ing and many other kinds of skilled handiwork receive particular 
attention, the instructors in these and other lines of study and work 
being selected with reference to efficiency alone, neither favoritism 
nor political prestige having any influence whatever in the manage- 
ment of the school or the selection of its teachers and subordinate 

The number of inmates at this time is one thousand and thirty- 
five, of whom four hundred and fifty are students, the remainder 
being engaged in different capacities in the various shops and brick 
yards and on the farms. Strict discipline is everywhere maintained, 
though recourse to harsh or severe means is never resorted to to 
enforce it, gentleness, kindness and untiring patience constituting 
the dominant power in the management of the large and peculiar 
class of unfortunates to whom the great state of Indiana sustains 
the relations of a kind and indulgent parent. 


The schools are under the efficient superintendency of Prof. 
Cyrus D. Mead, who is assisted by the following corps of teachers, 
namely: Mesdames Alice Summerbell, Fannie Pace, Blanche Mc- 
Kelvey, Martha Kimball, Maria Louise Slack, and Misses Grace 
Thompson, Rosetta Scheble, Mary Wintermote, Charlotte Voris, 
Emma Jackley, Ethel Vernon and Nan J. Patterson. 

A fine band of sixteen instruments is maintained, all the mem- 
bers of which are inmates of the institution except Prof. Henry 
Grodzik, who for twelve consecutive years has been leader and in- 
structor. This band has been thoroughly drilled and plays with ease 
the most difficult music, one of the most pleasing features of the 
institution being the rendition of popular patriotic airs each evening 
as the large flag is lowered from the lofty staff in front of the main 
building. The inmates also have a well organized orchestra which 
furnishes music for the entertainments and theatricals that are given 
by the students from time 'to time in the large public hall, besides 
playing for the religious services held in the institution. It con- 
sists of ten pieces and is composed entirely of females who receive 
instruction from Prof. Frederick Reineke, one of the most accom- 
plished and experienced musicians of Fort Wayne. 

Not the least among the influential agencies for the moral and 
religious training of the inmates is the Sunday school, which is held 
every Sunday afternoon and is largely attended, one of the special 
features being the singing, in which all the children unite, making 
the walls of the hall fairly vibrate with melody. Other religious 
services are also held from time to time, to all of which careful at- 
tention is given, and it is needless to state that from such exercises 
great and permanent good is derived. 

The health of the inmates is carefully looked after by a physi- 
cian appointed for the purpose and who resides at the institution, 
the present incumbent being Dr. Charles R. Dancer, whose services 
have proven very satisfactory. 





The founders of the commonwealth of Indiana fully appreciated 
the usefulness of public libraries. So early as 1806-7 the territorial 
legislature had incorporated a public library in Parke county and 
one in Vincennes; the last named is still, in its hundredth year, do- 
ing good work. The constitution of 18 16 provided that "The gen- 
eral assembly, at the time they lay off a new county, shall cause at 
least ten per cent, to be reserved out of the proceeds of the sale of 
town lots in the seat of justice of such county for the use of a pub- 
lic library for such county, and at the same session they shall incor- 
porate a library company under such rules and regulations as will 
best secure its permanence and extend its benefits." 

When Allen county was "laid off" in 1824, the owners of the 
site of Fort Wayne, Messrs, Barr and McCorkle, as a consideration 
for the location of the seat of justice at that place, gave to the 
county five hundred dollars in money, the land now occupied by the 
court house and fifteen lots — Nos. 104 to 118, inclusive, old plat. 
As the money was collected from Barr and McCorkle and from the 
purchasers of the lots, the successive county agents, John Tipton, 
Charles Ewing, Francis Comparet and Louis Armstrong, set aside 
ten per cent, of it for the Allen County Public Library. Approxi- 
mated there were received from this source about seventeen hun- 


dred dollars. This sum, however, was not reached until March, 
1842, at which time the commissioners "paid over to the library 
trustees two hundred and twenty-five dollars, being the balance due 
on the ten per cent, fund of all lots sold." It does not appear 
from the commissioners' records, which are incomplete and frag- 
mentary, just when the library was established; but in 1835 R. J. 
Dawson and William Means were appointed trustees to succeed 
J. H. Kincade and S. V. B. Noel, who had removed from the 
county, and in 1834, at the request of Henry Rudisill, the com- 
missioners appointed John Spencer, Robert Brackenridge and 
Thomas J. Smith trustees to fill vacancies caused by the resigna- 
tion of Allen Hamilton, the death of Benjamin Archer and the re- 
moval from the county of Joseph Holman. Under the act of 1824 
the trustees were elected by popular vote, but subsequently were 
appointed by the county commissioners to serve one year and with- 
out pay. An amendment to this act in 1831 provides that not more 
than five hundred dollars shall be invested in land or other prop- 
erty excepting books. Among those who served as trustees, in ad- 
dition to the above named, were Osborn Thomas, Madison Sweet- 
ser, William G. Ewing, Philip G. Jones, M. D., F. P. Randall, G. 
W. Wood, I. D. G. Nelson and Robert Fleming. In 1844 the office 
of library trustee was abolished and the duties thereof transferred 
to the county commissioners. The inventory of the library's books 
and other assets ordered to be taken at this time does not ap- 
pear on the record, but the librarian's report shows on hand in notes 
and county orders three hundred and eighty-three dollars. F. P. 
Randall was appointed treasurer of the library and Henry R. Cole- 
rick librarian. 

In 1850 Messrs. Hugh McCulloch, Joseph K. Edgerton and 
Henry R. Colerick were appointed to select books for the library. 
Their selection was approved by the commissioners, who ordered 
the books to be purchased. In December, 185 1, the treasurer re- 
ported that the books, costing one hundred and fifty dollars and 
ninety-eight cents, had been bought and turned over to the libra- 
rian, Mr. Colerick. As compensation for his services Mr. Randall 
was granted the free use of any books which he might wish to read, 
subject to the ordinary rules and regulations of the library. Evi- 


dently the library was not free to all. While the number of books 
which the library contained is not recorded, it must have been con- 
siderable; the late E. F. Colerick, Esq., wrote that within his recol- 
lection it was five hundred. 

At the December term, 1855, the county commissioners divided 
the county into library districts, Wayne township, including Fort 
Wayne, being one district. The others were composed of two or 
more townships. The record ends here abruptly. A gentleman 
writes from recollection, "In each library district, however, the 
books were distributed among several librarians, who were in- 
structed to exchange one with another after each district had had 
the use of the books a sufficient time." "It was the careless gather- 
ing of a -sack full, carrying to the center to exchange, that sepa- 
rated the volumes, and the confusion was never fully restored to 
order." One of these sub-librarians was asked if the people read 
the books. He replied, "They don't take them out. They ain't much 
account. Plutarch's 'Lives' and a lot more old novels. They were 
getting yellow and I boxed them up." Of course, this arrangement 
resulted in the loss of a very large part of the books ; the rest passed 
into the hands of the township trustees and were practically dealt 
with as part of the township libraries, 


sprang from the benevolence and enthusiasm of William Maclure, 
a native of Ayr, Scotland. Mr. Maclure was a gentleman of great 
wealth, of varied scientific attainments, profoundly interested in 
popular education, of wide sympathies and genuine public spirit. 
He came to the United States in 1793 for the purpose of making a 
geological survey of the country, a purpose which he prosecuted 
with indefatigable energy for sixteen years, publishing the results 
of his labors in 1809. He was one of the founders and chief bene- 
factors of the Philadelphia Academy of Science and president there- 
of from its organization until his death. 

Although not in harmony with the communistic schemes of 
Robert Owen, his opinions concerning popular education were so 
accordant with those held by Mr. Owen that he joined in the New 


Harmony enterprise as the most practicable means of furthering 
his own philanthropic plans. He was an enthusiastic advocate of 
education for the whole people and especially for those "who 
earned their living by the labor of their hands." He was largely 
instrumental in introducing the Pestalozzian system of education 
into the United States and had great faith in the elevating power 
of "institutes." 

Impaired health constrained him to leave his work unfinished 
and seek a home in Mexico, where he died in 1840, in his seventy- 
seventh year. The executors of his will, who were his brother and 
sister, were instructed to give books to the value of five hundred 
dollars to any society of working men having a corporate organi- 
zation and a collection of not less than one hundred volumes. The 
executors, however, entertained opinions different from the testa- 
tor's, and, pleading that the trust was void as being for bodies not 
in existence, took possession of the estate of which they were the 
natural heirs. The late Governor Hovey, then a young lawyer of 
Posey county, instituted proceedings to dispossess them; he was 
ultimately successful, was himself appointed administrator of the 
estate, and, with as little delay as practicable, proceeded to carry out 
Mr. Maclure's wishes. August 30, 1855, at the request of D. B. 
Canfield, agent of the Maclure fund, a meeting of working men 
was held in the court house in Fort Wayne to consider the practi- 
cability of forming a library association. W. S. Smith was chosen 
chairman and Thomas Tigar secretary. After addresses by Mr. 
Canfield, agent of the Maclure fund, a meeting of working men 
tion under the name of The Allen County Working Men's Insti- 
tute at Fort Wayne. A constitution and by-laws were adopted. 
The library was not free. An entrance fee of fifty cents and one 
dollar a year dues, payable quarterly, were required. Officers were 
chosen as follows : President, Thomas Tigar, an Englishman by 
birth and training, editor and proprietor of the Fort Wayne Senti- 
nel, a paper characterized not more by its enthusiastic advocacy of 
Democratic principles than by its freedom from all contaminating 
influences; vice-president, John Cochrane, a Scotchman, builder of 
many a comely and durable edifice, but none so attractive and last- 
ing as his own manly, uncompromising Christian character; librar- 


ian, William Fleming, of Irish birth, with meager educational op- 
portunities, but great capacity of growth, he soon developed real 
intellectual force and became an influential factor in politics and 
business; secretary, John M. Miller, of American birth, cabinet- 
maker, whose name was synonymous with honest workmanship and 
fair dealing, and whose life was permeated by the warmth of old- 
time Methodism; treasurer, George Humphrey, of Scotch birth 
and Fort Wayne training, a carpenter and builder long associated 
with John Cochrane in business, with hosts of friends, in whose 
memory he still lives. All were representative men, whose birth- 
places indicate the cosmopolitan character of the population of Fort 
Wayne fifty years ago, a characteristic which is yet strongly 
marked. John Drake, W. H. Bryant, W. S. Smith, D. W. Maples 
and John Arnold were appointed a committee to solicit contribu- 
tions of books for the library. These gentlemen were so diligent in 
their work that in a few months all the books immediately needed and 
fifty dollars in money were obtained. Henry Chamberlain, Volney 
Parks and A. Gamble secured for the use of" the association a room 
over the dry goods store of Evans & Company on West Columbia 
street, which continued to be its home for the next twelve years. 
The books from the Maclure estate, about five hundred volumes, 
were promptly received and were on the whole well adapted to the 
end in view. There were some books of fiction of the best class, — 
all the Waverly novels, — but they formed a very small portion of 
the whole number, perhaps too small. Works of history, biog- 
raphy, travels and agricultural and mechanical arts predominated, 
and they were largely read. The constitutional restrictions of mem- 
bership to those "who earn their living by the labor of their hands" 
was a hindrance and, after a time, was practically ignored. 

In September or October, 1855, the Young Men's Literary So- 
ciety was, at its own request, merged into the Institute, its library 
was added to the Institute's and the members received without pay- 
ment of the usual entrance fee. They were Henry J. Rudisill, H. 
C. Gray, S. A. Freeman, M. D., M. H. Taylor, Henry W. Bond, 
A. G. Meyer and D. N. Bash. This literary society had, by means 
of lectures, offered to the citizens of Fort Wayne opportunities for 
instruction and enjoyment of a very high order. And the oppor- 


tunities were not neglected. Hon. Hugh McCulloch's subject was 
"The Crusades," which he dealt with very instructively, showing 
their broad and far-reaching social and economical effects. Rev. 
Dr. Jonathan Edwards' address on "The Aspects of Society" was a 
profoundly thoughtful and comprehensive presentation of the social 
and, incidentally, political condition of the nation. Notwithstand- 
ing the existence of many dangerous elements, the lecture was full 
of hope and encouragement. It touched lightly on the ameliorating 
influence of slavery, which, however, brought out a very caustic 
criticism on this part of the address from Dr. B. S. Woodworth, 
published in the succeeding number of D. W. Bur rough's Anti- 
Slavery Standard, a paper whose opinions on the slavery question 
could not possibly be misunderstood. Hon. Joseph K. Edgerton's 
address on "Socrates" was a scholarly and appreciative study of 
the greatest man of non-Christian antiquity, delivered in a style of 
great clearness and power. Of the lecturers from abroad, the most 
distinguished were B. F. Taylor, of Chicago, poet and editor; 
George D. Prentice, the witty editor of the Louisville Journal, 
whose uncompromising devotion to the Union was a powerful in- 
fluence in keeping Kentucky up to her duty in the gloomy days of 
1 86 1. It is no disparagement to the other lecturers to 1 say that Hor- 
ace Mann's "Thoughts for Young Men" surpassed them all. It 
abounded in lofty thoughts, stimulating to noble effort, clothed in 
beautiful words, and was delivered with much feeling, none the 
less apt and eloquent now than over fifty years ago. By request of 
many citizens, the lecturer was invited to deliver an address, 
"Thoughts for Young Women." He subsequently did so. Com- 
ing from Horace Mann, the "Thoughts" could not be other than 
beautiful and good and eloquently expressed, but they failed to come 
home to the hearts and lives of his hearers as the former had done. 
Colerick's Hall, then the largest in the city, was always crowded to 
hear these lectures and surely from them no one went away empty. 
The library was well supplied with magazines. Harper's 
Monthly, The Atlantic, The Eclectic, North American Review, 
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Edinburgh, Westminster and 
London Quarterly Reviews offered the members an opportunity to 
keep themselves informed on all the important subjects- of the day 


at home and abroad. The interest of the weekly meetings was in- 
creased by debates, in which a considerable number of the members 
took part. It may be useful to mention some of the topics discussed 
as showing what in part occupied men's thoughts at that time. 
"Should the building of the Pacific railroad be undertaken by the 
national government?" To this four sessions were devoted. "Has 
the use of paper money been beneficial to the world?" Mr. Sully 
contended very earnestly for a purely metallic currency; the 
coins should not, however, have a fixed price, but the government 
stamp should indicate the quantity and fineness of the metal in 
each, which should then circulate like any other commodity — wheat 
or iron — for whatever it was worth. "The annexation of Cuba to 
the United States;" "the constitutionality of the fugitive slave 
law;" "ought the rate of interest to be regulated by law?;" "would 
the shortening of hours of labor and business tend to the improve- 
ment of society?"; "suffrage for women;" "the annexation of Mex- 
ico and the independence of Canada." As the shadows of the com- 
ing war grew darker, "Would it be politic for the national govern- 
ment to maintain the union of the states by force?" DecemDer, 
1 86 1, "Should the negroes be armed to aid in putting down the re- 
bellion?" These discussions were kept up as long as the society 
existed. At a later date the junior members of the association 
formed a debating society for themselves. The principal members 
were Henry Colerick, John Mohr, Jr., E. L. Craw and Charles 
Brenton, which continued until the Institute ceased to exist. 

Under the auspices of the Institute, lectures were delivered from 
time to time by Hon. Andrew H. Hamilton, Rev. John M. Lowry, 
Drs. B. S. Woodsworth and H. P. Ayres and Hon. Isaac Jenkin- 
son, which were open to the public. In the winter of 1859-60 lec- 
tures were delivered by Professor Youmans, Mrs. L. K. Lippincott 
(Grace Greenwood), Horace Greeley and Bayard Taylor. Although 
some of these were losing ventures, they were on the whole profit- 
able. The price paid the lecturers was fifty dollars and in several 
instances a small sum in addition for expenses. This price seems, 
when compared with the sums paid a few years later, small indeed, 
but it was deemed a satisfactory compensation. For Mr. Greeley's 
lecture about seven hundred tickets were sold and for Mrs. Lippin- 


cott's about five hundred at twenty-five cents each. The lectures 
were delivered in Colerick's Hall and the expenses, including rent, 
advertising, etc., were about fifteen dollars for each. 

Of the two hundred and more who* at some time were enrolled 
as members, above eighty per cent, have died. Of these some lived 
notable lives. It may be permissible to name Lindley M. Ninde, 
John Morris, Rev. John M. Lowry, Dr. B. S. Woodworth, Dr. H. 
P. Ayres, Isaac Knapp, Kerr Murray, Neil McLachlan, James B. 
White, Richard Sully, Rev. George A. Irvin, the first superintend- 
ent of Fort Wayne public schools; Sion S. Bass, colonel of the 
Thirtieth Indiana Volunteers, mortally wounded in the battle of 
Shiloh; W. H. Link, colonel of the Twelfth Indiana Volunteers, 
died of wounds received in the battle of Richmond, Kentucky. Of 
those still living several have attained distinction in professional or 
business pursuits. The membership, all in all, averaged high intel- 
lectually and morally. 

The society had, however, begun to decay. There were no 
means by which worn-out or lost books could be replaced or new 
books purchased; the number of members decreased, and the excit- 
ing events of the Civil war so monopolized the thoughts of the 
community that interest in the society gradually died out. A few 
members continued to meet, but the number became so small that 
it was no longer practicable to pay the necessary expenses and in 
1867 the library was transferred to an upper room in the then new 
court house. Meetings were held here and books issued as for- 
merly, but it seemed impossible to revive interest in the institution 
and in the fall of 1869 the library was placed in the high school 
building for the use jointly of the pupils and members of the Insti- 
tute. Practically, however, the Working Men's Institute ceased to 
exist from that date. When the Fort Wayne Public Library was 
established the school trustees transferred to it a part of the books ; 
the remainder still form part of the High School Library. 


In 1852 the legislature of Indiana enacted a law imposing a 
tax of one-fourth of a mill on all the taxable property in the state 
and also twenty-five cents on each poll for the purpose of establish- 


ing a free library in each township. This law expired in two years 
by limitation. It was re-enacted in 1854 and again in 1855. The 
books were to be selected and purchased by the superintendent of 
public instruction, under the direction of the state board of educa- 
tion, and to be distributed among the townships in proportion to 
population. The township trustees were to be the custodians of 
the books. The purpose of the law was unquestionably a wise one — 
to furnish a means of self-education to all the people of the state. 
The books selected were well adapted to that purpose. Among them 
were some of the best works of fiction, but that class of books was 
not present in such prodigious numbers as it is in the popular libra- 
ries of today. Books of history, biography,, the useful and mechan- 
ical arts and travel predominated, biographies being in the ascend- 
ant. Nearly all of that excellent collection known as "Harper's 
Family Library" were in each of these libraries. The history of 
one of these is substantially the history of all. The Wayne town- 
ship library was open for the delivery and return of books Wednes- 
day evening and Saturday afternoon; the first issue was April 7, 
1854; the borrowers were John Cochrane, W. W. Dodge, Dr. B. 
S. Woodworm, Dr. Isaac Knapp, James Humphrey, W. G. Sheaf- 
er, O. D. Hurd and George Humphrey. The number of readers 
grew apace and so did the number of books. In 1861, when Mr. 
Bernard Beckers was librarian, there were over one thousand vol- 
umes in the catalogue. During the trusteeship of Mr. John G. 
Maier there were twelve hundred, and the numbers on the books 
indicate that from first to last two thousand volumes were put into 
the library. The books were much used. Many days a hundred 
volumes were taken out, sometimes more, and by readers of all 
ages and both sexes. The system of administration, however, was 
defective. Many books were lost and when the supply from the 
state ceased the number dwindled away very rapidly. The last 
issue of books was recorded in December, 1893. The experience, 
of other townships was substantially the same with that of Wayne 
township. A shifting and sometimes an unsuitable home for the 
books, trustees sometimes uninterested in library work and careless 
about having the borrowed books returned, inconvenience of access 
for a large part of the people, because of distance and poor roads, 


and the loss of interest by the state, sufficiently account for the de- 
cay of the township libraries. But the work was not in vain; the 
money was not wasted. "Only those who know very little of the 
busy world of men or of the silent world of books, in which lie at 
once the records of past human activities and the seed plots of hu- 
man activities to come" can doubt that out of the means of self- 
education furnished by the township libraries, and their predeces- 
sors, many men and women derived thoughts and impressions 
which made their lives better and so promoted the general good. 
The fragments of these libraries were in most, perhaps all, cases 
distributed among the schools of the respective townships and be- 
came the nucleus of new district school libraries or an addition to 
such libraries as had been previously formed. For in many dis- 
tricts the teachers and pupils, feeling the need of books when the 
township libraries failed, had by their own personal efforts estab- 
lished little ■ libraries for themselves, using for this purpose the 
money raised by entertainments of various kinds. Their efforts in 
this direction usually have been supplemented by the township trus- 
tee. These local libraries contain the seed of a beneficent growth. 
The teachers and pupils should not be called on to do this work 
alone nor for themselves only. If the people of each district would 
act together with earnestness and intelligence these district libraries 
would furnish to all an opportunity of self-education all the more 
valuable because the result of their own efforts. The eight common 
schools in Wayne township have together about seven hundred vol- 
umes, including the fragments of the old township library; the re- 
mainder have been obtained partly by the teachers and pupils and 
partly have been purchased by the late trustee, Louis Schirmeyer, at 
whose request the teachers of the respective schools prepared lists 
of such books as they thought best suited to their community and 
schools. The lists so prepared are very creditable to the judgment 
of the teachers. 


was established in 1895. The necessary funds were derived from 
entertainments given by pupils and their friends, and in part were 
furnished by the township trustee. The library now contains about 



one thousand volumes of history, biography, fiction and text books, 
which are distributed equally among the eight school districts of the 


located in the Monroeville high school building, was established in 
1885. It contains five hundred volumes, principally of history, 
general literature, fiction, political economy, scientific subjects and 
some text books. The books have been donated by citizens of Mon- 
roeville and The Twentieth Century Club, and in part have been 
purchased by funds raised by entertainments. In 1905 the Monroe- 
ville school board turned the library over to The Twentieth Century 
Club, composed of prominent ladies of Monroeville, who have cata- 
logued the books and have appointed as librarians Miss Marguerite 
Niezer and Miss Alta Lewis. The library is open every day except 


There was no public library in Fort Wayne except the township 
library, then hastening to decay, when, in 1887, the late Mrs. E. J. 
Hamilton, together with her daughters, Mrs. Mary Hamilton Wil- 
liams, Mrs. Ellen Hamilton Wagenhals and Miss Margaret Hamil- 
ton, established a Free Reading Room for Women. After the death 
of Mrs. Hamilton the title was changed to The Emerine J. Hamil- 
ton Library. The library was comfortably and conveniently lo- 
cated at No. 19 W T est Wayne street. Mrs. S. C. Hoffman, Mrs. 
Laura Detzer, Miss Nannie McLachlin and Miss Tracv Guild sue- 
cessively served as librarian, with Miss Emma Eckles as assistant. 
As the title indicated, it was originally intended to be only a read- 
ing room. It was opened to the public, amply furnished with the 
best magazines and newspapers and books of reference, with about 
four hundred volumes on the shelves of carefully selected books, in 
which those relating to general literature and art and the best fic- 
tion, both past and present, predominated. From the beginning the 
attendance was very gratifying and the use made of the institution 
was proof of the correctness of the judgment of the founders as to 
the literary tastes and needs of the women of Fort Wayne. In 1889 


the reading room was, without losing any of its distinctive qualities, 
enlarged into a circulating library. Many historical and biograph- 
ical works were added, and a fine lot of books for children. This 
step added very much to its usefulness, especially to the members 
of the many literary and art clubs then rapidly growing in num- 
bers and influence, who for the most part had no other means by 
which their wants could be met. No pains were spared to make the 
library adequate to the growing demands upon it, and it continued 
to grow in usefulness as well as in size until the establishment of 
the Fort Wayne Public Library seemed to make its continuance no 
longer necessary. Then, as the best way in which to continue so 
good a work, the library, numbering upwards of four thousand 
volumes, was given to the Young Woman's Christian Association, 
June 24, 1896. 

To Mrs. Hamilton not only those who used the reading room 
but the whole city of Fort Wayne owe a lasting debt of gratitude. 
For it is no extravagance to say that its success stimulated into ef- 
fective activity the desire for a library that would be adequate to 
the needs of the entire community, and was a main factor in bring- 
ing about the establishment of the Fort Wayne Free Public Li- 


The Allen County Public Library and the township libraries 
had fallen into decay because the laws under which they were or- 
ganized provided no adequate and permanent means of support and 
growth, nor any efficient control. To remedy these defects a move- 
ment, in which Colonel D. N. Foster and Colonel R. S. Robertson 
were the active spirits, was begun in 1878. A bill drafted by 
Colonel Robertson was presented by himself and Colonel Foster to 
the legislature of 1879, but in spite of all their efforts it was not 
passed. Undiscouraged, however, by this failure, these gentlemen 
presented the same bill to the next legislature and had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing their labors successful. The bill became a law March 
7, 1881. In July of the same year the school trustees, at the re- 
quest of the above named and other citizens, asked that a library 
tax be levied. The city council, however, refused to grant the re- 


quest, and was subsequently advised by the city attorney that "there 
was already in existence a public library," and that therefore the 
council had no authority to make the levy asked for. The library 
to which the city attorney's opinion alluded must have been the 
township library, in which the state had ceased to take any interest 
and for which it had made no appropriation for many years, and 
which was then well-nigh defunct and could hardly have been 
deemed such a library as was contemplated by the statute. How- 
ever, that opinion, sound or not, was accepted as final. This unex- 
pected result so discouraged the friends of the proposed library that 
the whole project was permitted to become dormant and remained 
in that state until the Woman's Club League, contemporaneously 
with its organization in the beginning of 1893, entered upon the 
work of establishing a library that would be adequate to the wants 
of the rapidly growing city and free to all the people. The ladies 
labored with such earnestness, persistency and intelligence in the 
prosecution of this work that it was practically accomplished in a 
few months. They decided, under the advice of W. H. Shambaugh, 
Esq., the city attorney, to proceed under the act of 1881, which 
would make the library a part of the public school system, vesting 
the title to the property and the sole management thereof in the 
board of school trustees. They secured the hearty co-operation of 
the trustees — Messrs. O. P. Morgan, A. E. Hoffman and John 
Moritz. They circulated petitions asking that a tax for library pur- 
poses be levied, which petitions were signed by many citizens, and 
in July were presented to the city council by a committee of the 
Club League, with the recommendation of the school trustees. The 
council promptly granted the request and ordered the tax to be 

As no part of the money to be raised by taxation could be made 
available under a year, the Club League formed a library for the 
use of its own members and obtained from the mayor permission to 
use rooms in the City Hall. As soon as the first installment of 
money had been paid in the trustees elected Mrs. S. C. Hoffman to 
be librarian, with Miss Jennie Evans assistant. A permanent com- 
mittee for the selection of books was appointed, composed of four 
ladies — Mrs. C. R. Dryer, Mrs. A. S. Lauferty, Miss Margaret 


Hamilton and Miss Merica Hoagland — nominated by the Woman's 
Club League, and four gentlemen — Rev. W. S. Wagenhals, Colo- 
nel R. S. Robertson, C. T. Lane and J. H. Jacobs — chosen by the 
trustees. Subsequently the librarian was added to this committee 
as a member ex officio. 

In cataloguing the books and otherwise preparing them for the 
shelves, Miss Hoagland gave her services without compensation. 
Miss Dye, of the Indianapolis Public Library, was employed as an 
expert. Her services were very helpful and highly esteemed. The 
Dewey system of classification was adopted and has been continu- 
ously in use. The card catalogue was begun at that time and is 
kept up to date, a great convenience to those who are willing to de- 
vote the very little time needed to become acquainted with it. 

Everything being in readiness, January 28, 1895, a public meet- 
ing was held in the city council hall in honor of the completion of 
the work. Mayor Oakley presided. Brief addresses were made by 
several citizens and the members of the Club League received a 
modest portion of the praise to which their very successful labors 
entitled them. The next morning the library began its work in the 
rooms which had been granted to the Woman's Club League, with 
three thousand six hundred and six volumes on the shelves ; of these 
one hundred and seventeen had been presented by the league; eight 
hundred by the Allen County Teachers' Association, ten hundred 
and twenty-eight by the school board from the library of the high 
school (in these were included a number of books which had formed 
part of the library of the Working Men's Institute), two hundred 
and forty-seven were public documents from private parties, and 
fourteen hundred and fourteen had been purchased. The demand 
for books was good from the beginning; by July the number of 
card-holders was fourteen hundred and seventy-seven, and forty- 
four hundred and sixty-one had used the little reading room. 

The necessity for more room was so evident that the trustees 
secured the premises at the southwest corner of Clinton and Wayne 
streets, to which the books were transferred in September, 1895. 
The number of card-holders nearly doubled the following year and 
the number using the reading room nearly tripled. 

After two vears of faithful and efficient service, Mrs. S. C. 


Hoffman resigned her office and was succeeded by Miss Clara M. 
Fowler, a lady of culture, who held the office until her death in 
July, 1898, when her chief assistant, Miss Margaret M. Colerick, 
the present librarian, was chosen in her stead. 

The growth of the library was so rapid, its success and useful- 
ness so unquestionable, that a permanent home for it and one espe- 
cially adapted to its needs became a subject of much consideration 
by the trustees. In the summer of 1898 the board, consisting of 
George F. Felts, A. J. Boswell and W. P. Cooper, purchased for 
fourteen thousand dollars the present site at the corner of West 
Wayne and Webster streets. There was on the property a com- 
modious dwelling, which, with some alterations, it was thought 
would meet the needs of the library until the trustees should feel 
themselves able to erect a more suitable building. Early in 1901, 
however, the Woman's Club League, whose interest in the work so 
successfully carried on had not abated, solicited from Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie a grant of money for the purpose of erecting a home that 
would be an architectural ornament and adequate to the wants of 
the city for many years to come. Although this request was not 
granted, a subsequent one from the same source, endorsed by May- 
or Berghoff and a number of prominent citizens, brought from Mr. 
Carnegie an offer of seventy-five thousand dollars for the purpose 
above named, on condition that the city would furnish a site and 
guarantee to raise annually seven thousand five hundred dollars for 
the maintenance of the library. The city referred this offer to the 
school trustees, consisting of Allen Hamilton, W. W. Rockhill and 
Eugene B. Smith, in whom the title to the library property resided. 
The board agreed to furnish the site and to provide the yearly in- 
come. Mr. Carnegie's offer having thus been accepted, the school 
board, with as little delay as practicable, began preparations to 
build on the site already owned, finding a temporary and very suit- 
able home for the library in "The Elektron." Alfred Grindle was 
selected to be architect and the contract was awarded to William 
Geake. About two years were occupied in the work of construc- 

It is not necessary to say anything about the building ; it speaks 
for itself. It is commodious, massive and of very imposing ap- 


pearance, and the interior is sumptuously decorated. The library 
was formally opened in its new and, it is to be hoped, permanent 
home, January 7, 1904. In the presence of a large number of citi- 
zens assembled in the rotunda, Mayor Berghoff, on behalf of the 
city, turned the building over to the school board and Mrs. C. S. 
Bash, president of the board, received it. Judge Taylor delivered 
an address and Rev. Drs. Wagenhals and Moffat offered prayers. 
A report of the opening exercises was sent to Mr. Carnegie, from 
which he learned that his original gift had been insufficient to per- 
mit the architect's plans to be fully carried out ; he at once sent his 
check for fifteen thousand dollars. With this sum the trustees have 
been able to carry out practically the original designs and also to 
add considerably to the fire-proof qualities of the building. The 
cost of the library building, exclusive of the site, is approximately 
one hundred and ten thousand dollars ; of the site, including inter- 
est on deferred payments, fourteen thousand seven hundred and 
twenty-five dollars, making the total cost of the real estate one hun- 
dred and twenty-four thousand seven hundred and twenty-five dol- 
lars. By taxation has been realized as follows: 1894, $3,261.11; 
1895, $5,271.80; 1896, $5,732.85; 1897, $4,099.48; 1898, 
$6,768.59; 1899, $7,661.89; 1900, $7,813,84; 1901, $7,95 73; 
1902, $8,790.59; 1903, $11,046.91; 1904, $12,841.06; total, $81,- 
238.85. Moreover, the interest received for the use of the school 
money during their respective terms of office was turned over to the 
library fund by the treasurers of the school board as follows : Sam- 
uel M. Foster, $4,181.60; A. J. Boswell, estimated, $1,683.33; W. 
W. Rockhill, $4,282.26; Eugene B. Smith, $1,018.71; total, $11,- 
165.90. These gentlemen were under no legal obligation to pay this 
money into the library fund; their act was liberal, and, in the best 
sense, public spirited and worthy of high commendation. If to the 
foregoing sums be added the ninety thousand dollars given by Mr. 
Carnegie, the total amount of money spent for the library, for all 
purposes, from its inception to August 1, 1904, about ten years, 
appears to be one hundred and eighty-two thousand four hundred 
and four dollars and seventy-six cents. The current expenses of 
the library, exclusive of the cost of books, binding and repairs, for 
the year ending August 1, 1904, were about five thousand dollars. 


The amount expended for books and magazines up to July, 1904, is 
twelve thousand eight hundred and thirty-three dollars and eighty- 
six cents. The total number of volumes now in the library is up- 
wards of twenty thousand. Of these two thousand five hundred and 
thirty-nine are United States government publications. As the library 
has been made a depository for all works which the national gov- 
ernment publishes for distribution, this number will increase rap- 
idly. These documents contain an immense amount of informa- 
tion valuable to students of the political and economic history of 
the country, and also many scientific reports and maps not to be had 
elsewhere. To make this mass of knowledge available, minute and 
very accurate, catalogues are indispensable, the making of which 
would require an amount of labor far beyond the power of the 
present limited administrative body. However, the Congressional 
Library offers relief speedily and very cheap. In the reference room 
is a large collection of the best magazine literature in the English 
language. The sets of some are complete and the librarian, with 
commendable zeal, embraces every opportunity to make the broken 
sets more complete. Some of the magazines, as Harper's and The 
Century, besides furnishing excellent contemporary literature and 
comment on current events, also admirably exhibit the progress of 
the art of book illustrations from the wood cuts of the earlier days 
to the photographic engravings of today. Some valuable gifts have 
been received; bound volumes of Fort Wayne newspapers of an 
early date; of Niles' Register; a large part of the library of the 
late Hon. Joseph K. Edgerton has been given by his heirs; the 
Hebrew Young Men's Society has furnished a copy of the new 
Jewish Encyclopedia, now nearing completion, a veritable The- 
sauros of everything relating to the history and literature of that 
ancient people. Mr. S. M. Foster has also presented to the library 
a fine portrait of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, which besides being an 
excellent likeness of the library's benefactor, is also admirable as a 
work of art. 

A beginning has been made in the collection of material relat- 
ing to the history of Indiana and, in particular, of Allen county, 
which it is hoped will be continued until it shall be as complete as 
can be made. Mr. George Reiter also has presented his collection 


of curiosities, relics and antiquities, which may be the earnest of 
great things to come. Including the last purchase of books, which 
will be placed on the shelves in a few days, the circulatory library 
numbers about sixteen thousand five hundred volumes, embracing 
eleven thousand five hundred and thirty-six titles; of these thirty- 
four per cent., 3,876, are works of fiction; twelve per cent., 1,342, 
of biography ; seven per cent., 781, of travel; 8 per cent., 921, of 
history; eight per cent., 930, of literature; three per cent., 375, of 
fine arts; four per cent., 449, of useful arts; four per cent.; 495, of 
natural science; five per cent., 560, of sociology; three per cent, 
301, of religion; one per cent., 152, of philosophy; 47 of philology. 
The classes of books and the number of each class, which have 
been issued are shown by the following figures, which are also in- 
dicative of the progress that has been rnade from the first to the last 
full year of the library : 

1895. 1903. 

39,251 . . . . Total Circulation 54,062 

34,553 Fiction .45,167 

599 Biography . 1,096 

1,951 History and Travel 3,881 

968 Literature x ,759 

154 Fine Arts 650 

130 Useful Arts 567 

249 Natural Science 732 

310 Sociology 470 

231 Religion 370 

99 Philosophy . 339 

9 Philology 31 

The number of works other than fiction circulated in 1895 was 
eleven and four-tenths per cent, of the whole number; the number 
of such works circulated in 1903 was sixteen and four-tenths per 
cent, of the whole, showing a real, if not large, progress in the pub- 
lic taste. There was at the same time a relative diminution of five 
per cent, in the number of works of fiction sent out. The increase 
in the number of card-holders and of frequenters of the reading 



room is gratifying. At the end of the first full year, July 31, 1896, 
there were two thousand six hundred forty-nine card-holders; the 
increase was considerable each year, but the greatest in 1904; that 
year one thousand one hundred fourteen new cards were taken out. 
January 1, 1905, the card-holders were nine thousand and fifty-five, 
considerably more than one-sixth of the total population of the city. 
During the year ending July 31, 1896, twelve thousand one hundred 
and thirty-one persons used the reading room; in the year 1903 
twenty-four thousand and fifteen. The various literary and art 
clubs in the city make free use of the library. The 
hunting up of authorities and verifying of references, 
while it adds considerably to the labor of administration, 
adds still more to the interest and usefulness of club work. A most 
interesting part of the work and one that promises great results is 
that in connection with the public schools. Often on Saturdays 
every seat in the children's room is occupied and not a few read 
their books while standing. In order to make the relation of the 
library to the schools more effective, Mrs. Detzer and Mrs. Porter, 
of the library committee, were appointed to confer weekly with such 
teachers as might desire it on this subject. This very interesting 
work, if wisely managed, must raise up a great many children ac- 
customed to the intelligent use of good books and to the investiga- 
tion of subjects which will go far toward enabling them to carry on 
self-education when their school days shall have passed away. From 
time to time it has been necessary to increase the number of assist- 
ants to the librarian. The present staff consists of Miss Margaret 
M. Colerick, librarian; Miss Jane L. Evans, who has been a member 
ever since the first opening of the library; Miss Sarah L. Sturgis, 
in 1900, Miss Lillian M. Briggs, in 1905, Mrs. Ella Wilding. The 
library committee is at present as follows : Miss Katharine Hamil- 
ton, secretary; Miss Margaret M. Colerick, Mrs. A. J. Detzer, Mrs. 
M. F. Porter, Mrs. A. Griffiths, Colonel R. S. Robertson, W. P. 
Breen, Esq., J. H. Jacobs, Prof. August Crull and J. B. Harper. 
Mrs. D. N. Foster, Mrs. C. B. Woodworm and Mrs. S. C. Hoffman 
have also been members of this committee. The present useful find- 
ing list was prepared in 1897 by Miss Tracy M. Guild; the additions 
to it by Miss Evans, first assistant librarian. 


The Fort Wayne Free Public Library has now fully entered 
on a career of usefulness whose results cannot be limited by county 
or state lines. It is a lasting monument to the intelligence, fore- 
sight and earnestness of the members of The Woman's Club League 
and of the gentlemen who drafted and procured the enactment of 
the library law of 1881. 


Concordia College, one of the most influential and healthful of 
Fort Wayne's institutions, possesses two libraries. They contain 
little, perhaps no>, useless matter and are well adapted to the needs 
of the college. The Students' Library contains one thousand six 
hundred and twenty-eight volumes, classified as follows : Works 
of fiction, in English, 368, in German, 300; works of history, in 
English, 102, in German, 112; works of literature, in English, 168, 
in German, 181; works of biography, in English, 120; works of 
travels, in English, 50; works of mythology, in English, 41 ; works 
of art and culture, in English, 84; works of philology, in English, 
35 ; miscellaneous, in English, 84. 

The Teachers' Library contains approximately six thousand vol- 
umes, of which 1,000 are devoted to theology, 700 to German lan- 
guage and literature, 500 to English language and literature, 500 
to Latin language and literature, 500 to Greek language and litera- 
ture, 750 to history and geography, 350 to education, 500 to math- 
ematics and natural science, and 1,200 to miscellaneous subjects. 

The Missouri synod appropriates yearly one hundred dollars to 
the Teachers' Library and a like sum from the general funds of the 
college is appropriated to the students' collection. The small num- 
ber of volumes is not an indication of the A^alue of the libraries. The 
books have been selected by gentlemen every way competent, who 
have used the limited resources at their disposal so wisely that the 
result is an excellent working library. It might be advantageously 
enlarged and it may be hoped that the Missouri synod, now grown 
to be one of the most prosperous ecclesiastical societies in the coun- 
try, will increase the library revenues of a college which is such a 
healthful social influence and which has done and is yet doing so 


much for the advancement of sound learning and of a sober and ra- 
tional piety. Through the kindness of Professor Dieterich, a 
former member of its faculty, but now United States consul at 
Bremen, the college is the fortunate possessor of a copy of the splen- 
did edition of Tischendorf s "Codex Sinaiticus," published at the 
cost of Czar Alexander II of Russia. The manuscript, which con- 
tains the oldest and best text of the Greek Bible, was given to the 
convent probably by the Emperor Justinian about the middle of the 
sixth century and remained there for thirteen hundred years. The 
copy owned by the college is unbound. Some lover of beautiful 
books who also has money to spare could hardly put a little of it to 
better use than by giving to this almost unique work a binding that 
would be in harmony with its intrinsic worth. 





I desire to express my thanks to the friends whose kind offices 
I have profited by in the preparation of the following sketches and 
notes, especially to F. B. Shoaff, Esq., who examined for me the 
records of the county commissioners, and to Miss Margaret M. 
Colerick, librarian of the Fort Wayne Public Library, and her 
assistants. Miss Colerick has furnished nearly all the statistical 
and other matter touching the working of the public library. I am 
also under many obligations to the owners of the private libraries 
for their kindness in showing me their literary treasures. There 
are other libraries in Fort Wayne which, not from any fault of 
their owners, it has been impracticable for me to visit. Some of 
these are large. The high-school library numbers about four thou- 
sand volumes, carefully selected to meet the wants of the school; 
it is now being transferred to the new building. Dr. W. H. Myers 
has, besides his professional library, an extensive collection of liter- 
ary and scientific works of unusual merit. There are also many 
valuable smaller collections of books and engravings which add 
much to the literary and artistic treasures of our city. 

Of the library of the late Hon. F. P. Randall, but few books re- 
main; these, however, are very interesting. A Latin Bible, written 


on parchment, dates from the twelfth century. The letters at the 
beginning of each chapter are brightly colored, and the borders are 
ornamented by foliage. It is a splendid specimen of mediaeval chi- 
rography. In size, it is a thick small quarto, well bound in parch- 
ment. A Psalter, bound up with a collection of prayers and the lit- 
any of the saints, all written in Latin on vellum, dates from 1321. 
Many of the capital letters are rubricated. An Old Testament in 
Latin, written on vellum in 14 10. The capitals and many smaller 
letters are rubricated. To each book is annexed a summary of its 
contents, and at the end of the whole work the scribe notes, in bright 
red letters, the completeness of his task. It is a thick small folio, 
bound in heavy leather-covered boards. The leather is much worn, 
but the manuscript is in perfect condition, apparently as clear and 
bright as when it left the hand of the patient scribe nearly five hun- 
dred years ago. A Latin Bible in small quarto. At the close is im- 
printed MCCCCL. If this date be correct, the Bible is one of the 
very first printed. "The Holy Bible," in English, "Printed for Chris- 
topher Barker at London, 1599." This edition is the one known as 
the Genevan Bible, sometimes as "The Breeches Bible," because of 
the translation of Genesis, 3 :y, "and they made for themselves 
breeches." The New Testament in twelve languages on each page, 
viz : Syriac, Hebrew, Greek, Italian, Spanish, French, English, Dan- 
ish, Polish, German and Bohemian. In two volumes, large folio ; E. 
Hutteri, 1599. The letters of Aeneas Silvius, in Latin, a folio of 
1460. A folio edition, in one volume, of Thomas Aquinas, printed 
for Octavianus Scotus by Boneto Locatello, 1494. Epistle of St. 
Jerome, in Latin, printed in 1497. "Lives of the Fathers," in Latin, 
with a preface by "Dr. Martin Luther," printed at Wittenberg in 
1544. It is a small but thick i2mo volume, well printed and bound, 
and easily legible even for old eyes. An Enclycopedia of Scholastic 
Theology, printed at Ruettingen in 1482. A description, in Latin, 
of Ancient Temples, Statuary and Ruins, with illustrations on each 
page, printed at Rome, 1540. A very large folio volume of which 
the title page has been lost, printed for J. Nut, London, 1710. It is 
a collection of treatises on the subjects which, it was thought, an Eng- 
lish country gentleman of that time should be well informed about. 
It begins with grammar and ends with the laws relating to forests, 


taking by the way, logic, artithmetic, algebra, geometry, natural phi- 
losophy, the Cartesian philosophy, astrology, horsemanship, hawk- 
ing, fowling, hunting, heraldry, agriculture and various other sub- 
jects. All the dissertations are extensive and those on horsemanship 
and sportsmanship in all departments are very elaborately illustrated 
by many excellent full-page engravings. These two subjects are 
treated in great detail, and give a very lively view of country sports 
in England two hundred years ago. In the book also is the very fine 
book plate of Augustus Schultzius, Magdeburg. Le Brun's Travels 
in The Levant, published in Paris in 1700, two very large folios, il- 
lustrated by two hundred full-page engravings and several large pan- 
oramic views of cities. That of Constantinople is three feet or more 
long. The book plate is "Ex Bibliotheca Scobolewiskiana." On the 
outside of the cover is stamped in gold a coronet. In this interesting 
collection, also, are autograph letters in excellent condition from 
Winfield Scott, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, De Witt Clinton and 
others in reply to an invitation to be present at the celebration held 
in Fort Wayne in 1833 in honor of the completion to that point of 
the Wabash and Erie Canal. In some of these letters, most of which 
are quite elaborate, the writers set forth their views on "Internal 
Improvements" in general. Here, too, in prime order, is the original 
manuscript of the act to incorporate the city of Fort Wayne in 1839. 
In a volume without name or date — on the plan of a scrap-book — 
are many seals and coats of arms in red wax, of German dignitaries, 
with the name of the owner in German script, written in the margin. 
Other features of interest must be omitted. 

The private library of Rev. S. and Mrs. Wagenhals comprises 
over forty-two hundred volumes. More than one-half of these per- 
tain to the several branches of theology — exegetical, historical, sys- 
tematic and practical, in English, German and the ancient languages. 

The sections of profane history, biography and travel embrace 
the standard authors, with many recent monographs. Literature 
and fiction are represented by sets of the great essayists and novelists, 
while the collection of current books is unusually full. 

The philosophical section covers the entire field, the critical phi- 
losophy of Kant being most fully represented in the standard edi- 


tions of the master, the encyclopedic lexicons and the best of the 
monographs published in Germany and England since the Kantian 
centenary in 1881. There is a good working section on the several 
departments of sociology. 

Rev. Wagenhals has always taken a deep interest in the progress 
of the medical sciences, and continues to add some of the best recent 
publications to a stock purchased at intervals and containing enough 
obsolete works to exhibit the striking developments in this science 
within the last half century. Works on bacteriology and microscopy, 
with a good instrument and lenses, indicate an interest outside the 
domain of professional studies. 

Here are some rare books, both theological and secular, the most 
noteworthy being a well preserved copy of the Enchiridion Militis 
Christiani of Erasmus, printed in 1522; and a copy in folio of Plu- 
tarchs' Lives, reprinted in 1631 from the folio of Sir Thomas 
North's translation of the French of James Amiot, and published in 
1579. It is a rich mine of the stately English of that remarkable 

Although not strictly a part of a library, we may notice a large 
collection of prints and photographs pertaining to art in the classical 
periods of Egypt, Greece and Rome. There are a number of the 
publications of the Arundel Society and a complete set of the Boisser- 
ische Sammlung of portraits by the Dutch masters, of which there 
are but a few unbroken sets in existence. 

Miss Margaret Hamilton's library, which comprises about two 
thousand volumes, is a good working library on those subjects which 
have at various times engaged the attention of the owner. The sec- 
tion of Italian literature and history includes many books of biog- 
raphy and description in Italian and English ; a very interesting and 
instructive part of these are written by English ladies long resident 
in Italy who have learned to know and appreciate the people and to 
esteem them highly. There is a full set of the works of Professor 
Villari, a voluminous writer on some of the most interesting charac- 
ters and events of his country. The great history of Rome during 
the Middle Ages, by F. Gregorovius, to which the learned author 
devoted the labor of a lifetime, is not a history of the government of 


the empire, but of the city in its relations with the empire, the papacy 
and the exterior world. Competent critics value the work very high- 
ly. Professor Adams says of it, "Whether considered as an histor- 
ical authority or as a work of literary art, it is one of the most val- 
uable productions of modern German scholarship." It embraces the 
period from the fifth to the sixteenth century and ends with a descrip- 
tion of the sack of Rome by the imperialist troops under the Prince of 
Orange; at the hands of these troops, the city suffered for nine 
months more than it had done from the Goths and Vandals centuries 

Sismondi's History of the Italian Republic, in sixteen volumes, 
tells the story of the rise, progress and fall of Italian freedom from 
the fifth to the eighteenth century. It is one of the great histories of 
modern times. Sismondi was distinguished for industry and con- 
scientious accuracy. In the prosecution of his work, he visited every 
place in Italy that had been the scene of any great historical event. 
He was remarkably free from prejudice and self-conceit. "On re- 
ligious questions, his feelings were especially intense. Once having 
heard in an English church a sermon on eternal punishment, he 
vowed never again to enter another church holding the same creed, 
and never to contribute to spread what the English call their Refor- 
mation, for, by its side, Romanism is a religion of mercy and peace." 

Another section of the library contains many of the most valuable 
books relative to the history and literature of England in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, the diaries of Evelyn and Pepys, the 
journals of Dean Swift, Walpole's correspondence, the letters of the 
poet Gray in which he made known to the English world the beau- 
ties of the "Lake Region," of which beauties he is said to have been 
the discoverer. Miss Burney's and Mrs. Delaney's journals and cor- 
respondence, which give such delightful views of the private life of 
their time. A fine edition of Boswell's Johnson, said, no doubt cor- 
rectly, to be the best biography ever written ; the works, too, of Ol- 
iver Goldsmith, that never grow old or dull. All these give but an 
imperfect representation of the wit and wisdom gathered on these 
book shelves. Works of art, too, have a by no means inconspicuous 
place in this collection. Here is a fine set of Mrs. Jameson, whose 
fine fancy and delicate perceptions of the beautiful and real poetic en- 


thusiasm make her words such a source of delight and profit. Rus- 
kin, doubtless the most original and eloquent of all writers on art, 
was also both in spirit and purpose revolutionary and so aroused 
among the more conservative artists and critics a strong opposition 
leading to very painful controversies. But the splendor of Ruskin's 
style gave hinrat once a place in literature, and, in spite of all oppo- 
sition, he has had a very great influence on the course and character 
of subsequent art. Ruskin's most admirable and most influential 
quality, however, is his uncompromising love of truth and undis- 
guised hatred of all shams and hypocrisies in every department of 
life as well as in art. As a stylist, a word painter and a moralist, 
John Ruskin can not fail to remain for centuries an English classic. 
Months instead of hours might be profitably spent in browsing 
in this pleasant land of literature, but I am admonished to forbear. 

The library of Montgomery Hamilton, Esq., contains about one 
thousand volumes. It is mainly a reference library. Besides dic- 
tionaries and encyclopedias, it contains many bound volumes of mag- 
azines ; the Edinburgh and London Quarterly Reviews, the Saturday 
Review, and a set of "Punch" complete from its beginning in 1841 
to 1870. There are no "incunabula" nor any books technically called 
rare. There are several illustrated works that are not common in 
any sense. The Bible translated into French by M. de Sacy, pro- 
fusely illustrated by steel engravings very realistic and curious. The 
account, published by the United States, of Commodore Perry's ex- 
pedition to Japan in 1852 — so fruitful of results beyond anticipa- 
tion — is lavishly illustrated by wood cuts and full-page lithographs. 
The steel engravings which illustrate the two volumes of Bartlett's 
American Scenery, 1840, of which the descriptive part was written 
by N. P. Willis, are very early impressions. They are very clearly 
defined and have all the softness and delicacy which are characteris- 
tic of the best engravings of that sort. A German copper-plate re- 
production of Hogarth's works in large folio is considered by con- 
noisseurs to be very fine work. There are also many books on the- 
ology and ethnology, subjects in which the owner has taken much 
interest. In very good order are the volumes of one of Harper & 
Brother's earliest republications, "The Boys and Girls' Library," 



originally published in London by John Murray. They were pur- 
chased many years ago by the late Hon. Allen Hamilton for the use 
of his children. 

The library of the late Hon. Andrew H. Hamilton,' still in the 
possession of his family, consists of, approximately, six thousand 
volumes and evidences the good taste and sound judgment of its col- 
lector. Mr. Hamilton was a diligent student of folklore and col- 
lected above six hundred volumes on that subject and a considerable 
number which deal with it incidentally. These volumes include prac- 
tically all the publications of the English Folklore Society, — of which 
Mr. Hamilton was a member, — many stories and legends of Ireland, 
including those collected by Croker, Samuel Lover and others. Dal- 
yell's "Darker Superstitions of Highlands of Scotland" ; Campbell's 
"Witchcraft and Second Sight in The Highlands" and the same au-' 
thor's "Superstitions of the Scotch Highlands ;" "St Patrick's Purg- 
atory," by Thomas Wright, and an interesting essay by a most ac- 
complished antiquarian on the legends of purgatory, hell and para- 
dise current during the Middle Ages ; "The Superstitions of Witch- 
craft," by Howard Williams; Upham's "History of Witchcraft in 
Salem Village." Although the delusion of witchcraft was sufficiently 
well known to the ancient world, yet in its full development and 
frightful results it was modern rather than ancient or mediaeval; it 
was Christian rather than pagan, Protestant and Puritan as well as 
Catholic. Mr. Upham's book has been long out of print, and is not 
often met with. It can not be read without a feeling of painful hu- 
miliation that the civilized, the Christian world, was once dominated 
by a delusion which, it has been estimated, caused nine millions of 
people to be burned to death for a crime that had never been commit- 
ted. The foregoing titles just touch the fringe of this large collec- 
tion of popular legends and superstitions in which are represented 
nearly every nation and tribe. 

Of books notable for their antiquity comes first the "Mis- 
sale Lincolniensis," with the offices of St. Hugh of Lincoln, a manu- 
script on vellum of the year 1350. The capital letters at the begin- 
ning of each chapter and many of the smaller ones are rubricated. 
A portion of the service is set to music. Prefixed to the missal is a 


calendar, the lines printed alternately in red and black. The volume 
is about fourteen inches long, nine inches wide and three inches 
thick; its heavy board sides are covered with stout leather, almost 
black, originally tooled in handsome designs now become dim; at 
each corner and at the center of each cover is a heavy metallic boss. 
The book has been well cared for and, apart from the damage done 
to the binding by natural gas, seems likely to endure another five 
hundred and fifty-five years, 

"Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis cum Calendario," a manuscript 
on vellum in Gothic letters with illuminated initial letters and bor- 
ders of an arabesque design intermingled with flowers and foliage 
brilliant in color and heightened with gold. There are thirteen large 
and fourteen small miniatures illustrative of the seasons, events of 
the life of Christ, the Evangelists and later saints. The text is in 
Latin, with some prayers in French added by an apparently later 
hand. It is a i2mo, bound in old olive morocco, elaborately orna- 
mented by tooling and by gold coloring of the time of Henry III of 
France. The manuscript probably is of an earlier date. A copy of a 
similar work is priced in the late catalogue of a London bookseller at 
thirty-five pounds. 

Books remarkable for beauty of typography are : A "Codex," 
printed in red and black and bound in the original stamped calf, Ven- 
ice, i486; St. Francis de Sales' "Introduction to a Devout Life," in 
French, Paris, 1651; The Holy Bible, with annotations, printed at 
Birmingham, 17 19, by John Barkerville. It is a folio* in the original 
calf binding, and is a fine specimen of that great printer's work. 
Barkerville was an artist in his profession and his work is held in 
high esteem. 

There are two unusually perfect copies of the "Genevan" or 
"Breeches Bible," in quarto, printed in London by Robert Barker; 
one in Old English letters, with the book of Common Prayer, dated 
1 6 10; the other, dated 1634, contains Sternhold and Hopkins' metri- 
cal version of the Psalms, with "Apt notes to sing them withal." 

Of the many illustrated works, those that will attract most at- 
tention are : "Religious Ceremonies and Customs of all Nations." 
It is a very large folio, text in French, published at Amsterdam, 
1732. Hoet, Houbraken and Picart's engravings to illustrate the 


principal events recorded in the Bible, also in large folio, published 
at La Haye, 1728. The engavings in the three preceding works 
are of a quality and size not often met with, and to be appreciated 
must be seen. To any one fond of reading about adventures and 
dangers by flood and field in distant lands and among strange peo- 
ple and in circumstances far different from those of our own day, 
Pinkerton's Collections of Voyages is an inexhaustible treasury. It 
is in sixteen thick quarto volumes, published 1808- 18 13. 

Few books have been so popular as Lord Anson's "Voyage 
Around the World" in the years 1740- 1744. It was translated into 
every civilized language, and is still, after the lapse of one hundred 
and fifty years, a very readable and instructive book. An incident re- 
corded in it suggested that most pathetic poem "The Castaway," 
written by Cowper just before his reason passed away never fully 
to return 

A few old novels may be noted as curiously illustrative of the 
light literature of the seventeenth century. "The Rogue, or Guz- 
man d'Alfranche," from the Spanish of Mater Aleman, London, 
1623, in small folio, is a tale of very low life indeed. One can hardly 
find in any other books characters so entirely bad. It was, however, 
so popular that it ran through twenty-five editions in Spanish, and 
was translated, Roscoe says, into every European language. Le 
Sage translated it into French, and some critics think he found in it 
a model for Gil Bias. 

"Clelie," translated from the French of Mile. Scudery by John 
Davies, London, 1678, in folio, is prolix and tiresome beyond expres- 
sion, yet it once enjoyed considerable reputation. The action of the 
romance is placed in the early age of Roman history and the heroine 
is that Clelia who escaped from the power of Porsenna by swimming 
across the Tiber. There is, however, not much about Roman life in 
the book, but in the guise of that distant age there is a g*ood deal told 
concerning the manners and characters of the time of Mile. Scudery. 
There are three hundred and seventy characters in the novel, and 
there seems little doubt that nearly all were portraits readily recog- 
nizable by contemporaries. There is a key to these characters in the 
National Library in Paris. Some French writers still deem the 
book worthy of study as "dealing with all the questions concerning 


the condition of women in the world, the rank allotted them by mod- 
ern civilization and the preservation of that rank entailed on them." 
Voltaire writes, "Clelie gives us portraits of all the people who made 
a noise in the world at the date its author lived." "The Countess of 
Pembroke's Arcadia," by Sir Philip Sidney, London, 1674, is said 
to show marks of real genius. It, however, is hardly less wearisome 
than the preceding and abounds in the affectations so prevalent in 
the author's time. Sidney's noble life and heroic death probably en- 
hanced the popularity of his book. Hone's "Every Day Book," 
"Year Book" and "Table Book" are most handsomely bound in full 
calf. Southey's "Common Place Book" is bound in a style appropri- 
ate to that thesaurus of out-of-the-way learning. The first edition 
of Cruikshank's "Comic Almanack" might be profitably compared 
with the colored illustrations of a Sunday newspaper of today. 

Of the many works of standard authors and valuable reference 
books, it is not practicable to speak in detail. Allusion may be made 
to Richardson's Dictionary, in two large quarto Volumes. It is es- 
pecially valuable for its etymology, although now to some extent 
superseded. "It exhibits the biography of each word, its birth, par- 
entage and education, the company it has kept and the connections it 
has formed, by a rich series of quotations, all in chronological order." 
Bishop Trench recommends it in his "Study of Words." It has a 
quality not common to dictionaries of being really a readable book. 
Murray's "New English Dictionary," so far as completed, of course 
supersedes everything else, but it is so costly as to be beyond the 
reach of most students, and generations are likely to pass away be- 
fore its completion. Bayle's "Historical and Critical Dictionary," 
with additions by Birch Lockman and others, in ten folio volumes, is 
certainly up to the date of its publication the most valuable com- 
pend in the English language. It is especially valuable in biogra- 
phies, and it was for this that Dr. Johnson liked it best. Gibbon eu- 
logized it as he did very few books. Dibdin calls it a cornucopia of 
flowers, bright, blooming and unfading. Bayle was one of the most 
independent thinkers of the seventeenth century, and stands at the 
head of modern skeptics and logicians. His dictionary everywhere 
gives evidence of the high intelligence, honest principle and well- 
nigh universal knowledge of its author. It has exercised an im- 


mense influence over literature and philosophy, and may be historically 
regarded as the protest of the enlightened human intellect against 
the irrational dogmatisms of the church. Rees' "New Encyclope- 
dia/' 1 803- 1 8 19, in forty-five quarto volumes, represents with great 
fulness and detail the state of human knowledge in the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. Its biographical articles are very numerous 
and of lasting value. They were mostly written by Dr. Rees himself, 
who was an exceedingly painstaking and accurate writer. Rees was 
a Welsh dissenting clergyman, distinguished no less for his piety and 
devotion to his clerical duties than for his learning. To a friend 
who had congratulated him on the completion of his great work, he 
replied, "I thank you ; but I am still more thankful that I have been 
able to publish four volumes of my sermons." To all students of 
English literature "Literary Anecdotes of Eighteenth Century," in 
nine volumes, 8vo, and "Illustrations of Literary History of Eight- 
eenth Century," in eight volumes, 8vo, are of the highest value. The 
more one reads of them, the keener will be his appetite. Dibdin says 
they are the most instructive books of literary anecdote and history 
in the world. "In these books, Mr. Nichols poured forth such a 
flood of literary and biographical anecdote as is not to be equalled 
for variety and interest by any other work in the English language." 
The foregoing notes can give only a most inadequate idea of this 
notable library, worthy the attention of an accomplished bibli- 

The library at the Hanna homestead is composed of the books 
collected by Hon. F. J. Hayden, together with those collected by Mr. 
Hugh T. Hanna. It numbers probably two thousand volumes; 
amongst these are no incunabula nor curios, but many standard works 
in the best editions and unusually well bound in half calf or morocco. 
Full sets in such bindings of the works of Washington Irving, J. 
Fenimore Cooper, Prescott, Parkman, Webster, together with his 
life by George T. Curtiss, show that American literature has not 
been overlooked. The copy of Cooper's novels contains all the illus- 
trations by F. O. C. Darley; these books have been translated into 
various languages and have delighted thousands of readers. It has 
been charged that the Indian character as portrayed by Cooper is a 


gross exaggeration, or rather pure fiction. There is, however, reason 
to believe otherwise. Many writers who had personal knowledge of 
the Indians before intercourse with whites had degraded them, speak 
highly of their virtues and thoughtfulness. Heckewelder, the Mora- 
vian missionary, who lived long among them, on this point is very 
emphatic, and gives in support instances of which he had personal 
experience. The brilliant writings of Prescott and Parkman deserve 
to be kept in memory, not only because of their intrinsic merits, but 
because of the very great difficulties amidst which they were begun 
and carried on to completion ; both writers were almost blind even be- 
fore their literary careers had really begun, and their works are a 
worthy monument to their resolution and patience, as well as to their 
intellectual skill. Webster's Orations it seems unlikely will ever 
cease to be regarded as the masterpieces of American oratory; in 
style, in substance and in delivery they have not been approached. 
Webster was of grave and severe aspect ; Carlyle saw in him more of 
the silent Bersekir-rage than in any other, but he was also of deep 
sensibilities. In London some gentlemen took him to Westminster 
Abbey ; he walked in, looked around, and burst into tears. 

An American book of real worth, but long out of print, is "The 
Literature and Literary Men of Great Britain and Ireland," by 
Abraham Mills. The scope of the book is indicated by the title; the 
biographical sketches are sufficiently full, and the critical judgments 
sound. A full and well-bound set of the "Modern British Essayists" 
invites an examination of the literary prophecies of some of those 
able scholars ; such an examination would be a useful lesson in the 
fallibility of human judgment. Hallam's historical works, in ten 
8vo volumes, although in respect of mediaeval times now to a con- 
siderable extent superseded, are otherwise of the highest value. Hal- 
lam was industrious, his learning was extensive and profound, and 
his impartiality and truthfulness such as very few historical writers 
can pretend to. Carlyle's works are in full force, the "Frederick the 
Great" in the large-type English edition. In spite of all that has 
been written of him, Carlyle remains inexplicable ; nevertheless was 
he one of the greatest moral forces of the time. The morning after 
his death, the London Times wrote of him, "We have had no such 
individuality since Johnson. Whether men agreed or not, he was a 


touchstone to which truth and falsehood were brought to be tried. A 
preacher of Doric thought always in his pulpit and audible, he de- 
nounced wealth without sympathy, equality without respect, mobs 
without leaders and life without an aim." 

Dickens, with all the illustrations by Cruikshank, Darley and 
others, and Thackeray, in twenty-two volumes, with the author's 
own illustrations, together with Cooper, noticed above, represent 
more than favorably the world of fiction. The "Encyclopedia Met- 
ropolitana," completed in twenty-nine volumes in 1845, was planned 
by Coleridge in 18 18. It was arranged not alphabetically as other 
such works are, but in four divisions : First, pure sciences ; second, 
mixed and applied sciences; third, biography and history; fourth, 
miscellaneous and lexicographic articles. The contributors were 
among the ablest men of the day and very many of the contributions 
have been published separately. Another encyclopedia from the li- 
brary of the late Judge Hanna is "The New American Encyclopedia 
of Universal Knowledge," in seven volumes, compiled from the "En- 
cyclopedia Perthensis," and published by John Low, New York, 
1805. This antedates the "Encyclopedia Americana," edited by Dr. 
Francis Lieber, published in 1829. A work valuable now only for 
its associations is An Abridgement of Ainsworth's Latin and English 
Dictionary. It is a thick i2vo volume, published in London, 1758, 
and used by the father of Mr. Hay den during his university course 
at Oxford. Three other works in the possession of which the owner 
must feel an honest pride are Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" and Dry- 
den's "Poems," both bound in full red morocco; on the cover is 
stamped the seal of Victoria College ; presented to Mr. F. J. Hayden 
as a prize for the best English essay of the year, in 1864; the other 
is a comely copy of Hazlitt's edition of Shakespeare in five volumes, 
full calf, as a prize for the best essay on the benefits to be derived 
from the study of metaphysical philosophy. Fine editions of Froude, 
Grote and Gibbon also are on the shelves. Of these and indeed of 
most other modern historians, Gibbon seems likely to live the longest, 
both because of his accuracy and literary skill. In nearly a century 
of faultfinding miscroscopic German criticism very few errors of im- 
portance have been found. Here are half a dozen books by Hugh 
Miller, which for the most part have not lost their interest. Es- 


pecially are two, "First Impressions of England and Its People" and 
"My Schools and School Masters," worthy to be continually re- 
printed, for they are his autobiography. Hugh Miller's name finds 
place in the long roll of worthies who, from Joseph, the Hebrew lad 
that was sold into slavery, down, with the scantiest of opportunities, 
have by making good use of what they had, become benefactors to 
the human race and an honor to it. Of the many profusely illus- 
trated and expensively bound books may be noted: "North Amer- 
ican Forest Trees," from the French of Michaux, in nine volumes, 
decorated full calf binding, with one hundred and fifty-six engrav- 
ings in color; Stanton's edition of Shakespeare, in three octavo 
volumes, illustrated by Guilbert, and bound in one-half red morocco; 
"Portrait Gallery of Eminent Men and Women," with biographical 
notices by E. A. Duyckink; Moore's edition of "Byron's Poems," in 
one volume quarto, full brown morocco, with a profusion of steel 
plates ; "Gems of English Art," forty- four steel engravings with de- 
scriptive letterpress by S. C. Hall; Gustave Dore's work is well rep- 
resented by his illustrations to "Don Quixote," in one volume quarto, 
in full brown morocco, and by his full-page illustrations to Milton's 
"Paradise Lost," in folio, sumptuously bound in full brown morocco ; 
one hundred and fifty steel engravings of Hogarth's works are suit- 
ably preserved in one volume quarto, full black morocco. In this 
edition the plates, though much reduced from the original, are so 
distinct and clear that one may not only look at them but read them ; 
another unusually beautiful book is Guizot's "History of France," in 
four large i2mo volumes, with hundreds of wood engravings, and 
bound in full wine-colored morocco. In this work Guizot narrated, 
in the first instance to his grandchildren, the story of France from 
the earliest times to the convocation of the states-general in 1789; 
it is, however, very far from being what is called a "child's book." 
The important facts and great personages of French history are very 
carefully studied and made to appear what they really are, the cen- 
ters of all subordinate affairs. Professor Adams says it is not only 
the best popular history of France, but that probably no other coun- 
try has a history so well adapted to the needs of intelligent young 
men and women; "American Ornithology," by Alexander Wilson 
and Charles J. Bonaparte, in three volumes, abounds in illustrative 


prints; Audubon's "Birds of America," the text in four large 
volumes, bound in half red calf; the "Atlas of Illustrations' ' is ele- 
phant folio in size, forty inches long by twenty-seven wide, the 
figures all life size, drawn and colored from nature. (It was pub- 
lished by subscription by Roe, Lockwood & Company in New York, 
i860, and it is believed there are only four other copies in this 
country.) The beauty of these pictures can not be described, but it 
may be said the wild turkey of this atlas is the real wild turkey of 
the woods, any hunter would swear to it. Valuable especially for 
its associations is "The New Testament," square i2mo size, pub- 
lished in 1884 by Houghton, Mifflin & Company, Boston, a bequest 
from Mr. Hayden's sister. It is printed in double columns and il- 
lustrated by superior wood engravings after pictures by Fra 
Angelico, Pietro Perugino, Francis Francia and others, of events in 
the life of Christ and the Apostles; the margins are ornamented by 
vines and foliage copied from ancient manuscripts. The fine lot of 
agricultural works may be fairly termed the owner's professional 
library. The school and college text books on the top shelves, dating 
back forty or fifty years, are not much used, doubtless, but a glance 
at them from time to time will not fail to recall to their owner the 
pleasant days of youth so full of hope and joy. "Not spent in toys 
or lust or wine, but search of deep philosophy, wit, eloquence, and 

The library of Mrs. Helen F. Fleming, largely formed by her 
husband, the late William Fleming, is very characteristic. "Scenes 
and Legends of Ireland" and "Sketches of Irish Characters," by Mr. 
and Mrs. S. C. Hall, in three volumes 8vo, handsomely printed and 
illustrated by steel engravings and appropriately bound in green 
morocco, are a pleasing introduction, accentuated by a well-thumbed 
copy of Father Prout's "Reliques." On the same shelf stand the 
"Memories of Joseph Holt," general of the rebels in the rising of 
1798. Joseph Holt was an extraordinary character; he was a 
farmer in county Wicklow; a Protestant, he was too liberal to take 
any part against his Roman Catholic fellow citizens, but kept aloof 
from politics. This, however, was in that time and place sufficient 
to prejudice the authorities. So, during Holt's absence from home, 


the government agent visited his place and burned all his buildings 
and destroyed or drove off all his moveable property. Enraged by 
such treatment, Holt joined the United Irishmen and was soon at 
the head of several hundred men. He developed a great deal of 
courage and skill as a commander and, in the guerilla war which he 
carried on and for which his knowledge of the country especially 
fitted him, he was more than a match for the government troops. 
He maintained withal such a high character that he was, on the 
failure of the rebellion, permitted to go into voluntary exile; a free 
pardon, however, was soon granted him and he returned to Ireland, 
where he died in 1826. He was a brother to William Holt, grand- 
father of the late William Fleming. Close by is a set of the New 
Series of Putnam's Magazine, once a great favorite with maga- 
zine readers, bound, too, as was most fitting, in green and gold. 
There is quite a variety of magazines ; the Metropolitan Magazine, 
a Catholic Family Magazine, eighteen bound volumes of The Catholic 
World, and many more unbound, together with some volumes of 
The Dublin Review, Lingard's "History of England," in thirteen 
volumes, bound in green half calf. Mohler's "Symbolism" is con- 
sidered, doubtless, to be one of the ablest books of its kind published 
in modern times. It passed through five editions in six years and 
drew forth many criticisms and rejoinders. It is still highly esteemed 
and its author is regarded as at once the most acute and philosophical 
controversialist in his church. 

Mr. Fleming's taste in literature was as catholic as his religion, 
as is evidenced by the presence on the shelves of Carlyle's Essays, 
Christopher North's "Noctes Ambrosianae," all the works of 
DTsraeli, the elder, Gerald Griffin's books, in which the collector 
took great delight. Books which seem to have been purchased by 
Mr. Fleming as far back as 1855-1856, and which had evidently 
been much read, are the poems of Pope, Dryden and Cowper, and 
that most delightful book, "Salad for the Social," by Frederick 

Since Mr. Fleming's death his widow has made some additions 
to the library, of a few of which mention may be made. The works 
of F. W. Faber and especially a dainty edition of his hymns. Some 
of the hymns have passed into the collections of various Protestant 


denominations. "Pilgrims of the Night," "The Old Laborer," "The 
Shore of Eternity," are beautiful and no less solemn poems. One 
of the later additions to the library is Montalembert's "Monks of the 
West;" in these volumes are narrated in very eloquent language the 
labors of the monks to convert to Christianity the pagan nations of 
western Europe and introduce to them the best civilization of that 
time. It was a noble theme, a story of self-denial, of self-devotion 
even unto death for the good of others, told, too, in "words that 
burn." Two volumes interesting because of their flavor of antiquity 
— as antiquity goes in America — are a "Dictionary of Biography," 
by R. H. Davenport, first American edition, Exeter, New Hampshire, 
1839, with many outline portraits. "Letters from an American 
Farmer to a Friend in England," published by Matthew Carey, 
Philadelphia, 1793, are especially valuable as showing how greatly 
the conditions of life have changed in a century. A Prayer Book 
in German, published in 1804, and elegantly bound, is highly prized, 
apart from its intrinsic worth, for its family associations, having 
been a present to Mrs. Fleming's grandmother on the occasion of her 

Father M. E. Lafontaine furnishes the following information 
touching Bishop Alerding's library : "It contains about three thou- 
sand volumes. Among the most important works are : An explana- 
tion of the Bible, in twenty-six volumes; a collection of the best 
works on dogmatic theology ; the writings of the early Fathers ; the 
decrees of the Councils; rare or curious books; a book of sermons, 
printed in 1478; a five-volume Bible in German, containing the 
Catholic version; Luther's version, etc., printed in 1711; Letters of 
St. Jerome, printed in 1480; a Latin Bible, Nurnberg, 1679; a Ger- 
man Bible, with colored capital letters, printed in 1470." 

The number of books in the library of Hon. R. S. Taylor may 
be estimated at about two thousand. The variety of subjects repre- 
sented is indicative of the manifold activities of the owner and his 
family. In sight, at least, there is nothing that can fairly be called 
trashy. In convenient shelves on the north side are the "Century 
Dictionary" and the ninth edition of the "Encyclopedia Brittannica," 


to which has been added the new volumes dated 1902 and Index to 
the whole, in all thirty-five large quarto volumes, giving as far as it 
can be done a resume of the present state of human knowledge. 
Above and on either side of them is a very fine lot of books in ap- 
pearance no less than in substance. A copy of Burke's works is near 
by, — a fountain at which all students of political science and elo- 
quence may drink great draughts of wisdom. Burke's oratory ulti- 
mately became ineffective in parliament, his hearers actually grew 
tired of the monotonous splendors of his speeches and he at last 
drifted into a state of almost political isolation; nevertheless, he 
exercised great influence on state affairs; "Many of his views on 
politics and public economy were anticipations of science, as many 
of his provisions of the course of events were prophecies. " He was 
noble-minded, pure in life and a purist in politics. Intellectually, he 
was most richly endowed; with great imagination, rare powers of 
observation and indefatigable industry, there was no subject which 
he could not master, and none which having mastered, he could not 
expound with unparalleled richness of language. 

Near Burke's works stands a handsome edition of the speeches of 
Lord Erskine, an eloquent advocate, an independent, courageous and 
chivalric man. The speeches which he delivered in court have the 
unusual quality of being very readable anywhere, a quality it has 
been said which they have in common with those of Demos- 
thenes and Cicero alone. When Erskine came on the stage of action, 
the reactionary party was trying to put down the democratic spirit, 
then developing, by curbing the license — as it was called — of the 
press. Captain Baillie, who had published statements reflecting on 
the conduct of Lord Sandwich as governor of the Greenwich Hos- 
pital, was brought to trial for libel. Erskine successfully defended 
him; in the course of the argument, he spoke very severely against 
Lord Sandwich, who the chief justice, Lord Mansfield, reminded 
him was not before the court. "I know he is not before the court/' 
responded Erskine, "and for that very reason I bring him before the 
court." This was, be it remembered, Erskine's first case and shows 
the stuff he was made of. He was engaged for the defence in nearly 
all the libel trials of that day and probably did more than any one 
else to make sure the liberty of the press by giving to the jury in- 


stead of the court power to decide what was or was not a libel. One 
of his most gallant acts was to defend Thomas Paine in a trial for 
libel said to be committed in "The Rights of Man," in whose defense 
he made a manly speech ; though he abhorred the teachings of the 
book, he believed that Paine had a lawful right to publish them. 
This act brought on him much obloquy and caused his dismissal from 
office. In the same section are the interesting lectures of J. L. 
Stoddard, a veteran in the lecture field, in eleven handsomely illus- 
trated volumes ; by means of these books, one may enjoy much of the 
pleasure of foreign travel and at the same time the comforts and 
delights of home. Hildreth's "History of the United States," not- 
withstanding the barrenness of its style and the lack of enthusiasm, 
is a valuable book because of the general accuracy and sterling quali- 
ties of the author's judgment. "The History of the United States," 
by William H. Bryant and Sidney Howard Gay, in four sump- 
tuous volumes, has a profusion of illustrations that add much to its 
value. Bartlett's "Concordance to Shakespeare" and Sidney Lee's 
"Life of Shakespeare" indicate one of the many directions in which 
the intellectual activities of the collector of these books are exerted. 
That Judge Taylor has not confined his studies in political economy 
to writers who advocate "protection" is evidenced by the presence of 
the finely printed Oxford edition of Adam Smith's "Wealth of Na- 
tions" and Prof. Cairn's "Political Economy." Longfellow's Poems, 
in two quarto volumes, profusely illustrated and bound in full 
morocco, is one of the handsomest dresses ever given American 
poems. The value of them is greatly enhanced by the author's auto- 
graph on the title page. A neatly bound in half-calf copy of Whit- 
tier's poems also bears the autograph signature and an autograph 
letter from the Quaker poet to Mrs. Taylor. Of all New England's 
poets, Whittier seems to be the most really a product of New Eng- 
land; a genuine son of the soil was he who wrote 

Home of my heart! to me more fair 
Than gay Versailles or Windsor's halls, 
The painted, shingly town house where 
The Freeman's vote for Freedom falls. 

More than any other, too, he is the representative American poet. 
It is likely to be long before there is another whose songs will so 


faithfully and with inspiration answer the call of freedom and 
righteousness, of charity and democracy. "The Eve of Election" 
ought to find place in public school readers and be printed on the 
eve of each election in every newspaper in the land. Whittier him- 
self must have esteemed it highly, for it is one of six poems which 
he selected to represent him in "The Songs of Many Centuries." A 
full set of Lowell's works indicates the many-sided intellectual 
activity of that fine scholarly gentleman. As editor of the "Atlantic" 
and the "North American Review," as Harvard professor, as poet, 
as minister to England, as essayist and critic, he made a most honor- 
able career. It is, however, as a poet that Lowell's fame will endure ; 
in this capacity his powers were extremely diverse. It seems almost 
impossible that the same mind could have conceived "The Bigelow 
Papers," without polish and literary art and full of sharp wit and 
biting satire, and "The Vision of Sir Launfal," a poem of the most 
polished workmanship, tender sentiment and spiritual conceptions. 
Widely as these poems differ, they have at any rate one quality in 
common — the love of righteousness. A full edition of the works 
of Edgar A. Poe, an unhappy man and a real genius, whose faults 
are judged more leniently now than formerly. He was always a 
professed critic and doubtless had real critical capacity ; "he was first 
to recognize the genius of Hawthorne and quick to see the worth of 
Longfellow and showed his analytical power by telling the whole 
plot to Barnaby Rudge after reading only the first magazine install- 
ment of the novel." His vanity and dishonesty, however, made his 
criticisms generally of no value. His poetry has great merit, but it 
is as a writer of short prose romances that he shows best. But he 
is nearly always an unhealthy writer. "In imagination as in action, 
he was an evil genius and in its realms of revery he dwelt alone." 
Washington Irving, of whose works a full set is before us, has been 
called the "father of American literature." The general accuracy of 
his historical works, the cleanness and beauty of his style, the humor 
of "Rip Van Winkle," the "Sketch Book" and "Bracebridge Hall" 
all conspire to make his place secure. Ever since the publication of 
"Nature" in 18 17, Emerson has been a growing influence for good 
and like everything true and good, it will continue. 


"The wise will know him and the good will love, 
The age to come will feel his impress given 
In all that lifts the race a step above * 
Itself, and stamps it with the seal of heaven." 

And his teachings were reinforced by a life of almost ideal beauty. 
When shall we look upon his like again? Two writers, evidently 
favorites here, are Charles Lamb and John Woolman; far asunder 
in some things sure enough, but Lamb appreciated and loved the 
John Woolman self-revealed so completely in his journals. And who 
that appreciates simplicity and purity, humor and shrewd good 
sense withal can fail to love "Elia" ? But who can comprehend the 
ways of officialdom? In England a few days ago, a noncomformist 
clergyman was sent to jail for refusing to pay the school tax. To 
help relieve the dullness of prison life, the delinquent took with him 
three books, "The Imitation of Christ," Caesar's " Commentaries, " 
and the "Essays of Elia" ; he was permitted to keep the first two, 
but the last one was forbidden. 

To a lover of beautiful books, this library offers some most at- 
tractive volumes. Of these are Tennyson's "Memoirs," by his son, 
in clear large type; the "Autobiography of Philip G. Hammerton," 
the English artist and critic so long resident in France and who wrote 
so appreciatively of the French people; the "Life and Letters of Sir 
John E. Millais," in two octavo volumes, with three hundred and 
sixteen illustrations ; the "Waverly Novels," edited by Andrew Lang, 
contain some good illustrations. There are also many bound volumes 
of Scribner's Magazine and the Century. Books of very great 
value for their illustrations are "The Birds of North America," by 
Jacob H. Studer, in a large quarto volume with a great many illus- 
trations drawn and colored from nature; "The Art of the World," 
as' represented in the Columbian Exposition, in two large sumptuous 
folios, illustrated by a profusion of photogravures and typogravures 
in color, all in the highest style of art; Goupil's "Paris Salon of 
1894" is also a reproduction by photography of the most highly es- 
teemed paintings then on exhibition in Paris. There is also a large 
collection of photographic views of American and Canadian scenery 
— all substantially bound in volumes of a convenient size — taken by 
Mr. Frank B. Taylor during his geological excursions. "Nature 
Library," 1904, in ten volumes, is a great storehouse of information 


on nearly every form of animal life, of wild flowers, and one whole 
volume is devoted to mushrooms. The contributors to this work are 
authorities in their respective departments. There are upwards of 
two thousand two hundred illustrations, nearly three hundred of 
which are in color, and four hundred full-page half-tones. 

The large collection of works in various departments of physical 
science indicate another region in which the collector's intellectual 
energies find occupation. Standard works of history and biography 
are in evidence everywhere, of which those mentioned heretofore 
form a very small percentage. "Plutarch's Lives of Illustrious Men" 
must not be overlooked — a work which has lost none of its freshness 
and power in the eighteen centuries that have passed since it was 
written. Plutarch "seems to have cared little for politics, but to have 
delighted in the study of personal character, the analysis of motives, 
and the illustration of the nobler virtues in the conduct of repre- 
sentative men." "The influence of his biographies in the formation 
of character and in stimulating to deeds of high endeavor is one of 
the most notable and most firmly authenticated facts on record." 
The latest notable addition to the library is "The Historian's History 
of the World," in twenty-five volumes, 8vo, with many illustrations. 
This work is compiled from the most approved historical writers, 
so that the history of each country is told in his own words by the 
one who has written it best, all being in a manner shaped into a 
continuous whole by the edition. With an elaborate index, it must 
become a valuable and convenient book of reference. 

Col. R. S. Robertson's library contains about three thousand 
five hundred volumes. It is a good working library on several quite 
different lines. The "British Essayists," in forty-five volumes, 
edited by Alexander Chalmers, is a fine body of literature, some of 
which at any rate is likely never to be forgotten. "The Rambler" 
contains papers which today can be read with interest and profit. 
Chalmers was industrious and painstaking in editing, so that subse- 
quent editors have had but little to do; and his historical and bio- 
graphical prefaces are trustworthy and well written. 

John Bell's "British Theater," published in 1791, in twenty-two 
volumes, is a collection of the plays then most approved. Each play 


is preceded by brief introductory notes and a copper plate of the 
actor of the principal part in his stage costume. Some of these 
plays are now known only to students of dramatic literature, others 
are still played acceptably. Of the actors represented, the best 
known are Charles Kemble and his famous sister, Mrs. Siddons, and 
Mrs. Inchbald. Kemble appeared as Cato in Addison's play; Mrs. 
Siddons as Euphrasia in "The Grecian Daughter," as Medea in 
Glover's play, and as Isabella in "The Fatal Marriage;" Mrs. Inch- 
bald as Lady Jane Grey. In this collection is Thomas Southey's 
"Oroonokoo," a dramatization of Mrs. Behn's novel of the same 
name, first published in 1696. Mrs. Behn had resided in British 
Guiana and had there become acquainted with the evils of slavery and 
the slave trade and vouched for the accuracy of the statements in 
her book. The slave trade was dealt with so severely in the play 
as to make it very unpopular in Liverpool and Bristol, then largely 
interested in that business. Kemble appeared as Oroonokoo and the 
play emphasized by his powerful acting was a real factor in prepar- 
ing the way for the work of Thomas Clarkson. Bell's collection has 
been passed over both by Lowndes and Allibone. 

Mrs. Inchbald's "British Theatre," in twenty-five volumes, Lon- 
don, 1808, is a very fine collection embracing many plays now 
hardly known. Each play is illustrated by at least one handsome 
engraving of either a well-known actor or a subject, and, like every- 
thing else done by that excellent woman, is carefully edited, with in- 
troductions and notes to each play. Mrs. Inchbald was a woman of 
uncommon ability and good sense. With no other scholastic oppor- 
tunities than those within the reach of an English farmer's daugh- 
ter in the last half of the eighteenth century, she, in her eighteenth 
year, entered on the perilous vocation of an actress on the London 
stage. As an actress, and a writer of plays and novels, she achieved 
a very substantial success and throughout her life maintained an un- 
blemished refutation. She was eenerous almost to excess and 

x O 

found means for her beneficence by an economy the most rigid and 
self-denying. She was tall, of a striking figure and very lovely face ; 
vivacious and witty ; she was a favorite in society ; she had such taste 
and skill in dress that, one of her admirers records, "she was always 
becomingly clad even though the material was of the cheapest, very 


seldom costing so much as eight pence." Her prudence and industry 
were such that, notwithstanding her benefactions, she had an in- 
come at her death from investments of about one thousand two 
hundred dollars per year. The above named works are all very 
desirable, well printed, neatly and strongly bound in i6mo, a most 
convenient size for use. Black's illustrated edition of the Waverly 
Novels, in octavo, is one of the copies printed before the plates had 
become worn and so the engravings have a distinctness and beauty 
lacking in those long afterwards printed from the same plates. The 
poems of that wondrous and unhappy boy, Chatterton, are bound 
very artisticaly and appropriately in mottled green papier mache. 

Books of very substantial worth but mentioned here for the per- 
fection of their three-calf binding are first editions of Scott's "Min- 
strelsy of the Border," three volumes, 1802, and poems, early edition, 
1812; Miss Seward's "Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons," 1804; 
George Eliot's Poems, a very sumptuously bound book. 

Amongst the rarer books are FatherHennepin's "New Discovery 
of a very large country in America between New Mexico and the 
Northern Ocean." The book is printed in French and was published 
at Utrecht in 1697. It is illustrated by a number of maps and curious 
illustrations of the inhabitants. Father Hennepin was a careful ob- 
server and the substance of his observations on the natives has been 
freely used by later writers. Le Page du Pratz's "History of 
Louisiana," in two volumes, i2mo, calf, published in Paris, 1768, is 
a work of authority. The writer was a man of scientific attainments 
who devoted much time to the study of the flora and fauna of the 
country and has fully illustrated them in his book. The cuts of the 
plates seem to be very accurate, but the heads of many of the animals 
have a curiously human look and recall an anecdote of a philosopher 
who having never seen a giraffe evolved one out of the depths of his 
own consciousness. The map, dated 1757, gives with much accuracy 
the course and relative size of the principal rivers. The Maumee, 
St. Mary's and Wabash rivers are at once recognized, and the port- 
age from St. Mary's to Little River. 

A "History of Peter the Great," published in London, 1740, the 
first biography in English of the illustrious Russian; a translation 
into German of the histories of Livy and Florus, with a lengthy 


preface by Theodosius Rihel, dated at Strausburg, 18th March, 
1574. It is a thick folio bound in pigskin and well preserved. It is 
profusely illustrated by wood cuts characteristic of the style of that 
period. The artist seems occasionally to have exhausted his powers, 
for sometimes the same cut is used to illustrate events very different 
from each other. "The Code and Institutes of Justinian," in two 
very thick volumes, with notes apparently more extensive than the 
text, printed in 1548- 1568, is in excellent condition. The print, 
though small, is very legible and except that the covers are loose, 
the fine old book seems good for centuries to come. Besides many 
of the most approved formal histories, Colonel Robertson has col- 
lected a very large number of books relative to the history of Indiana 
and of Fort Wayne. It is impracticable to speak of them in detail, 
but nearly everything of real value on that subject or touching on it, 
seems to be included. One volume is unique; a large quarto scrap 
book filled with newspaper cuttings relative to Fort Wayne, past 
and present. Colonel Robertson has begun a second volume on the 
same line. Those volumes will be a real thesaurus to a future 
historian of the city. The collection of books on Mormons and 
Mormonism is one of the most complete in the country. It em- 
braces one hundred and eighty bound volumes and over two hundred 
unbound pamphlets. Some of these are extremely rare, being works 
which the Mormon government has, with a large measure of suc- 
cess, tried to destroy. Colonel Robertson, as member of the Utah 
board of commissioners, had special opportunities for making the 
collection and it is unlikely that a similar collection could be made 
now. The writer ventures to hope that it may never be dispersed, 
but will ultimately find a home in the Public Library. 

There is much of general literature, poetry, belles-lettres, in fact 
a well selected miscellaneous library. 

Mrs. Robertson has a library of much value to students of art 
in all its forms ; it includes the complete works of some of the most 
highly esteemed historical and critical writers on art. Some of these 
are as follows : Giorgio Vasari was a pupil of Michael Angelo 
and was patronized by many distinguished men, but the great work 
of his life was "Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and 
Architects," first published in Florence in 1550 and dedicated to 


Cosmo di Medici; the second edition was revised by himself and 
published in 1568. Since then, many editions have been published in 
Italy and the work has been translated into German, French and 
English. Many of the persons whose lives he records and whose 
works he describes were his contemporaries and some of them his 
personal friends. "He writes simply, honestly and sometimes elo- 
quently" and is free from jealousy of the great artists whose works 
he reviews. His judgments have generally been confirmed by art 
critics for three hundred and fifty years and his work is esteemed a 
model of art criticism and biography. Hayden once said, "If I 
were confined to three books on a desert island I would certainly 
choose the Bible, Shakespeare, and Vasari." 

"Lives of the British Painters," by Allan Cunningham, was 
published in 1833 as P art °f Murray's "Family Library." It has been 
often reprinted and long ago proved its right to existence. It is a 
very useful book ; the biographies are so well written and so full of 
anecdote as to be interesting reading to any one, while the thoughtful 
and just criticism with which it abounds make it an excellent guide to 
students of art. A distinguished painter wrote to Cunningham, after 
reading his book, "I differ from you as to some small things, but I 
cordially agree with you in the general estimate of character and 
judgment of works of genius." Cunningham was no genius, but he 
is a fine illustration of what a healthy boy of fair abilities may be- 
come with almost no scholastic opportunities, by a diligent use of 
such opportunities as may offer. Cunningham, at the age of eleven 
years, left school and was apprenticed to a stonemason; he became 
a good workman and continued to work until the age of twenty- 

A "Concise History of Painting," by Mrs. Mary M. Heaton, is 
a useful book, eminently popular in style. The story never flags in 
interest and the materials are so pleasantly put together as to lead 
young people toward a more thorough study of art. Mrs. Heaton 
also wrote the descriptive account of the twenty-six photographs of 
"The Great Works of Sir David Wilkie," with a memoir of the artist. 
She is the author also of "The History of the Life of Albert Durer," 
with a translation of his letters and journals, illustrated by litho- 
graphs and autotypes. Mrs. Heaton was a very industrious writer 


on art subjects. It is said that for nine years no number of "The 
Academy" (London) appeared without some article or note by her; 
at the same time, she contributed to other periodicals in the depart- 
ment of art. 

"The Renaissance : Studies in Art and Poetry," by Walter Pa- 
ter, is a fascinating book. The author's power, individuality and 
charming* style are such as make his book a notable one. "The moral 
taught seems to be that life is short, but that art can make it long; 
that the wisest men give themselves to art and song, and thus get as 
many pulsations as possible into the allotted term. Art, comes pro- 
fessing frankly to give nothing but the highest quality to your mo- 
ments as they pass and simply for the moment's sake." 

J. A. Symond's "The Renaissance in Italy" is a "learned, 
thoughtful and brilliant work; he knows a great deal about his sub- 
ject, weighs carefully what he has to say concerning it, and expresses 
himself with precision and strength and sometimes with eloquence." 
In the "Age of the Despots," he shows the political and social con- 
dition out of which Italy and then Europe awakened to a new life. 
In u The Fine Arts," much the greater part is devoted to Italian 
painting, in which his descriptions show quick perceptions and kindle 
sometimes into a very impassioned eloquence. The volumes on Ital- 
ian literature is said to be the completest and best work on the sub- 
ject in the English language. In the introductory chapters are traced 
the earlier growth of the Italian literature and language. 

The works of the collaborators Joseph Archer Crowe and Gio- 
vanni Battista Cavalcaselle are of the highest authority. The au- 
thors were notably diligent and painstaking and thorough in their 
work, clever and accurate in expression, avoiding the snares of word- 
painting and tinsel, and eminently impartial. In "The Early Flem- 
ish Painters," they give an exhaustive description of all that is 
known now of the lives and works of the early painters of those most 
interesting cities which are now comprised in the Belgian kingdom. 
"Titian, his Life and Times," says the Saturday Review, "is full of 
information and interest. The authors have neglected nothing that 
can make their work complete. Take them all in all, these volumes 
form a true and exhaustive record of what is still left of the work of 


the most perfect painter of the Venetian school, and therefore, some 
think the most perfect painter in the world." 

In "Raphael, his Life and Works," "there is doubtless a great — 
perhaps an unparalleled — record of the life and doings of the great 
painter, well qualified to stand as a text-book and an honorable mon- 
ument of the acumen, taste and research of the authors." Of Raph- 
ael himself too much can not be said in praise. "His sweet and gra- 
cious nature was so replete with excellence and so perfect in all the 
charities that not only was he honored by men, but even by the very 
animals who would constantly follow his steps and always loved him. 
In like manner, all who do their best to emulate his labors in art will 
be honored on earth, as it is certain that all who resemble him in the 
rectitude of his life will secure their reward in heaven." With these 
words, Vasari closes his biography of him. 

A fine copy of "Modern Painters," by John Ruskin, brings up 
the career of that remarkable author of a very notable book. The first 
volume of the work was published in 1843, ^ ne l as t i n i860. Seven- 
teen years bring great changes to every one, most of all to a diligent 
and conscientious student. The first volumes aimed to show that 
modern landscape painters, especially Turner, were superior to the 
old masters, but in the later volumes the work became a discussive 
treatise on the principles of art, interspersed with artistic and sym- 
bolical descriptions of nature more elaborate and imaginative than 
any writer, prose or poetic, had ever attempted. It came like a reve- 
lation, and ever since has exerted an influence that cannot be meas- 
ured. "At his worst," says a writer in the Athenaeum, "Ruskin is a 
better writer than most men ; at his best, he is incomparable. There 
are few manners in literature at once so affluent and so varied, so co- 
pious and so subtle, so capable and so full of refinement, as that of 
the author of 'Modern Painters.' This is felt to be so because Mr. 
Ruskin in fact is not only great as a writer, but great as an intelli- 
gence and as a man." "The cardinal doctrine which runs through all 
his teachings is," as Professor Dowden so well expresses it, "that 
men and not the works of men, men and not materials or machines 
or gold or even pictures or statues or public buildings, should be the 
objects of our care and reverence and love. Hence the life of the 
workman is of higher importance than the quality of his work. 


Hence, too, he has opposed himself to the orthodox political 
economy with a sense that man and the life and soul of man 
can not be legitimately set aside while we consider apart from these 
laws of wealth or of so-called utility. No other truth can be quite so 
important for our age or for any age as the truth preached so unceas- 
ingly and so impressively by Mr. Ruskin." 

In addition to the foregoing are many other important writers on 
art and artists, as Mrs. Jameson, Mrs. Oliphant, Luebke and that 
very versatile American, W. W. Story, lawyer, poet, sculptor, 
painter, novelist and almost a genius in each. There is also a fine 
collection of the best works on Greek mythology, indispensable to 
the students of art. Some of the most approved works on Oriental 
rugs, old china, ancient furniture, well round out the resources of 
this excellent art library. Nor finally must be overlooked some hun- 
dreds of engravings ranging from the fourteenth century down, and 
illustrating the progress of the art of engraving on wood, copper, 
steel and stone. Connoisseurs and amateurs of art will both find 
here very much to interest and instruct them. 

The library of John H. Jacobs comprises about fifteen hundred 
volumes; of these, about two-thirds are historical works, including 
under that heading biographies, travels, letters and similar works. 
After Plutarch, whose supremacy as a writer of biographies is hardly 
questioned, the life of Agricola, by his son-in-law, Tacitus, the histo- 
rian, is the best biography that has come to us from the ancient 
world. Measured by the best- Roman standard, indeed by any stand- 
ard, Agricola was a good man, an able commander, a real patriot; 
in the rich, but subdued colors peculiar to himself, Tacitus draws a 
picture of him that will "remain in the minds of men, transmitted in 
the records of fame, through an eternity of years." Under autobi- 
ography, letters may be placed very properly. "It has ever been a 
hobby of mine, perhaps it is a truism, not a hobby," writes Cardinal 
Newman, "that the true life of a man is in his letters. Not only for 
the interest of a biography, but for arriving at the inside of things 
the publication of letters is the true method." Mr. Shuckburg's 
translation of Cicero's letters puts them within reach of everybody. 
They begin practically B. C. 68 and from that time forward "the cor- 


respondence illustrates as no other document in antiquity does, the 
hopes and fears, the doubts and difficulties of a keen politician living 
through the most momentous period of Roman history — that of the 
fall of the republic." Their great historical value was fully 
appreciated in his own age. Cornelius Nepos, in the life 
of Atticus, writes, "Whoever reads these letters needs no 
other history of that time." There is a great variety 
in them. Politics and business, literature, philosophy, family 
affairs are all dealt with most frankly, so that the reader knows 
Cicero the man as well as Cicero the statesman and orator. This 
thin i2mo of ninety pages, Eginhard's "Life of Charles the Great," 
Guizot says is the most distinguished piece of history from the sixth 
to the eighth century; it is a real political biography written by one 
who was an eye witness of the events which he narrates, and who 
understood their importance. Nearly a century after the death of 
Charlemagne, died Alfred the Great. His life was written simply 
and affectionately by Bishop Asser, who knew him well and loved 
him, and subsequent writers, French and German as well as Eng- 
lish, have delighted to dwell on this the greatest and best of English 
kings. His life was pure and unselfish; in an age of ignorance, he 
was a scholar; he delighted in the society of learned men; did all in 
his power to spread knowledge among his people ; and busy as he was 
with public affairs, found time to translate into the vernacular several 
books for the public good. Dr. Pauli, a German biographer, writes, 
"There have been many princes more renowned for power and glory 
and reigning over greater nations; and although by the side of Al- 
fred, ruling in his narrow Wessex, their forms appear to tower high 
among the stars, yet his figure, in its smaller proportions, remains 
one of the most perfect ever held up by the hand of God as a mirror 
to the world and its rulers," These three volumes of letters nearly 
all written by and to members of the Paston family in Norfolk 
county, England, begin in 1424 and end in 1506, thus covering the 
whole of that turbulent and bloody period in the course of which the 
English baronage was practically destroyed. The letters touch on 
almost every matter of interest and give a faithful picture of English 
life in the fifteenth century. Here are three biographical works that 
are not only very pleasant and profitable companions, but the writers 


all dealing with their own times still "catch the manners living as 
they rise." Mrs. Hutchinson's life of her husband, the Colonel, com- 
mander of Nottingham Castle in the great rebellion, shows one of 
the most pleasing sides of Puritanism. It is of the life of an un- 
pledged politician, an independent gentleman, educated, refined, 
fond of and participating in all innocent social enjoyments of the 
time, but none the less devoted to his religious views, a character 
far removed from the intoleraiit, ascetic, traditional Puritan. 
"Reliquae Baxteranae," Richard Baxter's narrative of important pas- 
sages in his life and times, a folio of eight hundred and eighty pages, 
published in London in 1696. A note on a fly leaf states that this 
copy was owned by Lord Macaulay, and that the notes and pencil 
marks were made by him. Coleridge says of this book that it is of 
inestimable worth, that its author may sometimes have reasoned in- 
correctly and his memory may sometimes have been erroneous, but 
that his truthfulness is indisputable. It has been said of Baxter that 
he engaged in more controversies, published more books and preached 
more sermons than any other man of his time. All his life an in- 
valid and often on the verge of death, his resolution and industry 
never flagged. He was a very popular preacher in London — not 
even the Abbey and St. Paul's could hold the crowds that wished to 
hear him. At Kidderminster, the scene of his pastoral labors, his 
influence was such that in a little while the tone of public feeling and 
manners was entirely changed, and nearly all the population was 
brought into the church. In the first part of this book he states 
thirty causes of his success as a minister, all of them being interest- 
ing and worthy of consideration. A few of them are : The Kidder- 
minster people had not heard much real preaching, and so were 
not sermon-proof; being in the full vigor of his faculties, but in very 
frail health, he preached, he says, as a dying man to dying men ; he 
devoted a great deal of time to catechising and conversing on reli- 
gion with his people; this he thought more effective than preaching. 
Once a week a meeting of such adult church members as desired to 
attend was held at his home, at which some member repeated the 
sermon of the previous Sunday. Doubts and difficulties in regard to 
it were resolved, and prayer was offered by the laymen. A young 
people's meeting of the same kind was also held weekly. He thought 


also that his church's influence was greatly increased by its denunci- 
ation of the wicked conduct of those in authority. Baxter and his 
people had taken sides with parliament in its contest with Charles I. 
Baxter had served as chaplain, but when Cromwell's ambition grew 
and the King was put to death and the laws and constitution set 
aside, he did not hesitate to repudiate the revolutionary party, and 
"on all just occasions to express abhorrence of their hypocrisy, per- 
jury and rebellion." "And," says he, "had I owned their guilt it 
would have been my shame and the hindrance of my work and pro- 
voked God to have disowned me." Baxter was very benevolent; in 
giving he never asked whether the applicant was good or bad, "for 
the bad had souls and bodies that needed charity most." "And this 
truth I will speak for the encouragement of the charitable, that what 
little money I have by me now, I got it almost all (I scarce know 
how) in that time when I gave most." His published works num- 
bered over one hundred and sixty. Of these, so high an authority as 
Dr. Barrow says, the practical ones were never mended and the 
controversial ones seldom refuted. The best known of his books, 
"The Saint's Everlasting Rest," was written during an enforced va- 
cation of four months on account of an unusually severe attack of 
sickness, when he "was sentenced to death by the physicians." All 
the rest of his books were written "in the crowd of my other employ- 
ments, so that I scarce ever wrote one sheet twice over, nor stayed 
to make any blots or interlinings, but was fain to let it go as it was 
first conceived ; the apprehensions of present usefulness and necessity 
prevailed against all other motives." Perhaps the most interesting 
part of the book is the account of the changes which his opinions had 
undergone ; but it is much too long to be inserted here. Never bigot- 
ed, he grew more and more charitable in his views concerning those 
who differed from him. He was on very friendly terms with Arch- 
bishop Usher, a man of like liberality and learning. It has been said 
that had the ecclesiastical matters in dispute between the government 
and the non-conformists been left to these two men they would have 
settled the whole matter justly and amicably in half an hour. It is 
unaccountable that in these days when "lives" of nobodies are as 
plentiful well-nigh as blackberries, some enterprising publisher does 
not reprint this great man's honest account of his work and opinions 


and comments on the turbulent and eventful times he lived in. The 
third book is George Fox's Journals, in which the beginnings of the 
society of Friends are truthfully set forth, the character of Fox him- 
self, so to speak, held up in the sunlight and the religious unrest of 
the times faithfully depicted. 

The lives of Dean Colet, Sir Thomas More, and Erasmus, present 
to us three great men who labored diligently and earnestly to intro- 
duce the "New Learning" into England and to reform the church 
without breaking loose from the supremacy of the Pope. Colet 
founded St. Paul's School, which has been, and is still, one of the 
greatest educational powers in England. More was a sound scholar, 
a good lawyer and judge, a wit, a public-spirited citizen, and to crown 
his life, a real martyr for his faith. Erasmus remained only five 
years in England; a scholar and critic, he saw clearly the evils in 
church and state and favored reformatory measures, but he was not 
the stuff that martyrs are made of. The lives of Dr. Donne, Sir 
Henry Wotton, Richard Hooker, George Herbert and Bishop San- 
derson, by Izaak Walton, are to be placed among the choice pieces 
in the language. Walton's literary taste, his placid, quiet temper and . 
pious appreciation of the good men about whom he wrote enabled 
him to do what very few more learned and intellectual than he have 
ever done. These brief biographies and "The Complete Angler" have 
always been great favorites. "Memoirs of My Life and Writings," 
by Edward Gibbon, is one of the most interesting of autobiographies. 
"Truth," says the author himself, "naked, unblushing truth, must 
be the sole recommendation of this personal narrative." In it he tells 
with the utmost frankness the story of his life, his opinions, their 
changes and growth, the immense range of his reading and his meth- 
ods of study and composition. His literary skill and industry were 
not less amazing than his learning, and his accuracy as to matters 
of fact has seldom been questioned. "The Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire" is a history of Europe for nearly thirteen hundred 
years; it is as interesting as it is learned; "the style of it is marked 
by the highest power of condensation and is full of smiting phrases 
and ponderous antitheses." Niebuhr considered it to be the greatest 
achievement of human thought and learning in the department of his- 
tory. Thomas Gray and William Cowper are mentioned here not as 


poets, but as writers of delightful letters. Gray's letters are those 
of the most accomplished scholar of his time, but a student of na- 
ture no less than of literature and art. "In his youth he was the man 
who first looked on the sublimities of the Alpine scenery with pleas- 
ure, and in old age he was the pioneer of Wordsworth in opening the 
eyes of England to the exquisite landscape of Cumberland." Like his 
poems, the letters are highly polished literary productions, and, it 
may be, they were intended for publication. Cowper's letters, how- 
ever, have the "true epistolary charm. They are conversation, per- 
fectly artless, and at the same time, autobiography, perfectly gen- 
uine." They were entirely unpremeditated. He too was a real lover 
of nature, but it was the quiet, tranquil scenery about Olney and 
Weston; his amiability, his innocent simplicity, his taste and his 
power to invest with interest the most trivial events in his restricted 
life make his letters a never failing source of delight. Here are 
some old-time anti-slavery worthies. John Woolman, Ralph Sandi- 
ford, Benjamin Lay, Anthony Benezet, Thomas Clarkson and Gran- 
ville Sharp. Many earnest writers had preceded Sharp; but he was 
the first man in England to determine on a plan of action in behalf 
of negro slaves and to carry it out. In his fourteenth year, Gran- 
ville Sharp, the ninth son of a country clergyman, was apprenticed to 
a London tradesman; during the seven years of apprenticeship he 
had successively as masters a Quaker, a Presbyterian and a Free- 
thinker, but he remained to the end of his life a devoted son of the 
Church of England. Among his fellow-boarders were a Jew and a 
Unitarian; to confute the Unitarian, who insisted that the New Testa- 
ment was not correctly translated, he learned Greek ; to bring confu- 
sion to the Israelite, he learned Hebrew, and learned it so well that 
even in old age he delighted to chant the songs of Zion in their na- 
tive tongue to the accompaniment of his own harp. On the expira- 
tion of his apprenticeship he obtained a clerkship in the ordnance de- 
partment. While in this position he became deeply interested in the 
case of the negroes brought from the West Indies, whose masters 
claimed right of property in them in England. Sharp procured the 
freedom of several negroes who were about to be sent back to the 
slave colonies, for various reasons, but whether they were entitled to 
liberty under English laws was not decided. The weight of profes- 


sional opinion was against that contention; in the first edition of 
Blackstone's Commentaries it was asserted that there could be no slav- 
ery in England, but this declaration was omitted from all subsequent 
editions prior to the decision in the Somerset case. Notwithstanding 
the adverse opinion of his counsel, Sharp decided to examine the sub- 
ject for himself, and so, though he had never looked into any law 
book except the Bible, all the time which he could spare from his of- 
ficial duties for two years was devoted to an investigation of the law 
of England touching the liberty of the subject. The result of his re- 
searches was a tract entitled "The Injustice of Tolerating Slavery in 
England." Copies of this tract in manuscript were circulated for 
nearly two years among members of the legal profession, and it is no 
exaggeration to say that it produced a complete revolution of opinion 
and brought about, five years later, the decision of the Court of 
King's Bench in the Somerset case, that as soon as any slave sets his 
foot on English ground he becomes free. It was a great victory for 
the ordnance clerk to have changed the prevailing opinion of the law- 
yers and to have obtained such a verdict from a reluctant court. The 
remainder of his life was in harmony with the preceding ; it abounded 
in good works. In his seventy-ninth year, without pain or disease, 
he literally "fell asleep," and was gathered to his fathers. Zachary 
Macauley, who knew him long and well, wrote of him, "I verily be- 
lieve that a purer and more upright mind, one more single in its aim 
and intention, and more unequivocally scrupulous as to the rectitude 
of his means, more simply directed to the glory of God and the good 
of man, has never left the world." In the Poet's Corner in Westmin- 
ster Abbey a monument was erected to his memory. In that noble 
mausoleum, wherein England has gathered so many of her illustrious 
dead, not a name glows with more unsullied lustre than that of Gran- 
ville Sharp. 

Anthony Benezet, of Philadelphia, a member of the Society of 
Friends, belonged to a French Protestant family which had sacrificed 
its estates and expatriated itself for the sake of its religious princi- 
ples; he was a very successful schoolmaster, but his vocation did 
not monopolize his energies; he was active and earnest in anything 
likely to promote human welfare. He early became interested in the 
subject of negro slavery; he and John Woolman were probably the 


most effective of all the American anti-slavery workers of that day ; 
by personal interviews, by public addresses, by tracts and books 
nearly always printed and circulated at their own expense, they were 
so successful that by 1787 not a recognized Quaker in Pennsylvania 
owned a slave. But the effect of his labors extended far beyond the 
limits of Pennsylvania and the Society of Friends. His book enti- 
tled "An Historical Account of Guinea," was circulated in England 
by his co-religionists and an edition published with notes and addi- 
tions by Granville Sharp. Rev. Dr. Pickard, vice-chancellor of Cam- 
bridge University, who had in sermons severely denounced slavery 
and the slave trade, in 1785 offered to the undergraduates a prize for 
the best dissertation in Latin on this question : "Is it right to enslave 
men against their will?" Thomas Clarkson competed for the prize 
and won it. While in pursuit of information on the subject, he read 
Benezet's book on Guinea ; the book not only supplied him with nearly 
all the information he needed, but it produced on him such a deep 
and vivid sense of the wickedness and cruelty of the slave trade, as 
led him to make the destruction of that traffic the work of his life. 
He soon formed an acquaintance with Granville Sharp, Rev. James 
Ramsay, Dr. Fothergill and some others which resulted in the forma- 
tion of a society, composed almost entirely of Quakers, for the abo- 
lition of the slave trade. It was an audacious undertaking; for the 
West India interest and the slave traders of Bristol and Liverpool 
and all more or less directly connected with them were numerous, 
rich and powerful; the abolitionists were few, and with limited re- 
sources, but rich in faith and courage. For twenty years they ceased 
not in every way to appeal to the reason and conscience of England, 
and each year they gained in numbers and favor until, in 1807, Par- 
liament passed the act which destroyed the traffic so far as England 
was concerned. The struggle is fully related in Clarkson's "History 
of the Abolition of the Slave Trade" ; this copy contains the author's 
neat and characteristic bookplate in old English letters; the initials 
T. C. enclosed in the legend Wyn God, Wyn All. 

Of about fifty works of travel and description, there may be men- 
tioned Pausanius' "Description of Greece," as he saw it about seven- 
teen hundred years ago. "Then every city was full of life and re- 
finement, every temple a museum of art, and every spot hallowed by 


some tradition which contributed to its preservation. Now but few 
works of art remain, and the traveler of today reflects with a melan- 
choly interest upon the objects described by Pausanius, but which no 
longer exist." Besides the description of works of art the book is a 
mine of mythology and gossip. Pausanius is held to have been a 
man of good sense and truthfulness, who moreover still had faith 
in the gods of his country. In this attractive book, "Around the Cal- 
endar in Portugal," Oswald Crawford, for twenty years British con- 
sul at Oporto, treats of rural life in Portugal, mainly of the peasant 
folk — their labors, recreations and superstitions — who own the land 
they till. He draws a very pleasing picture, not indeed of a golden 
age, but of a pastoral life much more like that which the poets 
dreamed of than is found in any other country. He shows that in 
many respects the people have changed but little from their ancestors 
of Roman days. "Their rules and methods of tillage are the same 
simple and often foolish ones as the ancients followed ; the old heathen 
superstitions still mingle with the new religion; their language is 
liker to the old Latin than any other extant; ploughman, wagoner 
and reaper, the shepherd in his goat's skin coat and the maiden with 
her distaff" might all take their places in some such rural procession 
as we see sculptured on a bas-relief of the Augustan Age." 

"Lombard Studies" is a collection of papers by the Countess Mar- 
tenengo Cesaresco on various subjects touching life in Lombardy. 
That on "Agriculture" deals very sympathetically and with full per- 
sonal knowledge with the peasants or small farmers ; these are mostly 
renters on the "share system," as it is called here; this plan seems to 
work well in some places, but not everywhere. The farms are small, 
capital insufficient, taxes oppressive, and interest high. The peas- 
ants are industrious, frugal, kindly disposed, and, on the whole, find 
as much happiness in life as people in far more favored lands. The 
minute subdivisions of estates is an evil here as in France. In the 
latter country, however, this is partly remedied by the very small 
number of children ; but in Italy the peasants at any rate have hardly 
anything except children. The greatest evils, however, are the op- 
pressive taxes, restrictions and monopolies — many of them of an- 
cient date, which, it may be slowly but none the less surely, are sap- 


ping the energies of the peasantry — the real foundation of the state, 
or driving them to foreign lands. 

In "The Forgotten Isles/' Gaston Vuillier, a French artist, gives 
an enticing account of his visit to the Balearic isles, Corsica and Sar- 
dinia, with one hundred and sixty-seven illustrations of the text. 
Most readers know hardly more of these islands than that they are in 
the Mediterranean sea and that the inhabitants of the Balearic isles 
were in ancient times famous "slingers." Palma, a great commercial 
city when America was still an unknown world, yet possesses "mar- 
vels of art and superb monuments, while the grandeur of the sierras 
and barrancos, the friendliness and simplicity of the people and the 
soft equable climate render a journey through Majorca a dream of 
enchantment." In the immensity of the Corsican forests the traveler 
still hears the laments of bygone generations and shivers with the 
pity of death or crosses the moor in peril of robbers ; and in the soli- 
tude of the heights, seats himself at the humble hearth of sooth-say- 
ing shepherds, who recite Tasso and Ariosto to the accompaniments 
of the pastoral instruments played by shepherds and rhapsodists 
from the remotest antiquity. To visit Sardinia is to revive the Mid- 
dle Ages; the costumes of other days have preserved their pristine 
beauty, and the black coat of the nineteenth century brushes against 
the violet doublet of the fifteenth." 

"Travels in New England and New York," by Rev. Dr. Timothy 
Dwight. Dr. Dwight's position as head of Yale College, and his 
reputation as a clergyman gave him abundant opportunities which 
he did not fail to improve. This record of his observations is a pic- 
ture of New England life and conditions — social, political and reli- 
gious — at the close of the eighteenth century which can be accepted 
as absolutely trustworthy. Connecticut, his own home, is treated 
more thoroughly than any other state, and although the increase of 
wealth has been very great, it seems that the conditions which make 
for happiness are not so favorable now as then. Wealth was more 
equably distributed ; there was very little poverty ; there was employ- 
ment at remunerative wages for all ; a primary school was within the 
reach of almost every child in the state and higher schools were 
abundant ; there were well-nigh no crimes of violence ; churches were 
hardly less numerous than schools ; the population was peaceful, or- 



derly, intelligent, prosperous, religious and as happy as it is given 
mortals to be. Politically, the contrast between then and now may 
well cause every son of the "land of steady habits" to blush for shame. 
Then office-seeking, bribery and corruption were unknown; now 
bribery is the accompaniment of every important election, and in 
some places, if public report be true, votes have a regular market 
price like any merchantable commodity. 

The most important of the modern historical works are these: 
"The Gentile and the Jew in the Courts of the Temple of Christ," by 
Professor J. J. Dollinger, is a presentation of the moral and religious 
condition of the world at the coming of Christ. With great learning 
and literary skill, the author reviews the various religious systems 
of the ancients, and shows how they had broken down and become 
utterly useless for good and how the morals had become hopelessly 
corrupt. It is an introduction to the history of Christianity, and is 
held in very high esteem; its readableness is not the least of its mer- 
its. Augustus Neander's "History of the Christian Religion and 
Church" is a great book, one that nobody will ever read for recre- 
ation; its learning and thoughtfulness make it a book to be studied, 
and those who do study it will be richly rewarded for their pains. 
Two sentences may be quoted : "Christianity we regard not as a 
power that has sprung up out of the hidden depths of man's nature, 
but as one which has descended from above — a power which as it is 
exalted above all that human nature can create out of its own re- 
sources, must impart to that nature a new life and change it from its 
inmost center. The great source of this power is Jesus of Nazareth." 
"All national greatness depends on the tone of public feeling and 
manners, and this again on the power of religion in the life of the 
people." Besides his merits as a scholar, teacher, thinker and author, 
Neander has the still greater merit of having lived a noble life, free 
from any taint of selfishness; his beneficence was limited only by 
his resources. 

"The Great Rebellion and Civil War in England," by Edward 
Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, is a history of the most eventful and one 
of the most turbulent periods in English history by an active partici- 
pant in it from the beginning of the Long Parliament, November 
3i 1640, to 1660, the date of Charles IPs return. These twenty years 


were crowded with events which enlisted the sentiments and exer- 
tions of every able man in the kingdom. An impartial account of 
that time could not be expected from an actor in it, especially from 
one who like Clarendon, thoroughly conscientious in all he did, be- 
lieved heart and soul in monarchy and the British constitution. But 
though his account is partial, the partiality is that of a man who de- 
sires to tell the truth, and is due to this, that his judgment was dis- 
turbed by prejudices and controlled by partisan sentiment. Claren- 
don knew as thoroughly at any rate as any one all the affairs of his 
time, was personally acquainted with the principal actors on both 
sides, and was a careful and discriminating observer of men and 
events. His "characters," the result of his observations of his com- 
peers, form a portrait gallery of unequalled brilliancy and value. This 
is one of the books which those who wish really to understand the 
life of that time and to enter into its spirit can not neglect. 

Of the books on sociological subjects, a good many are of little 
worth ; they embrace, however, some of the standard authors. Adam 
Smith's "Inquiry into The Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Na- 
tions," because of its fine, clear style and abundant illustrations from 
curious facts, is the most readable of them all. No student of polit- 
ical economy is likely to neglect it. One very pregnant sentence it 
may be permissible to quote : "Every man, as long as he does not 
violate the laws of justice, should be (is) left perfectly free to pur- 
sue his own interest in his own way, and to bring both his interest 
and capital into competition with those of any other man or order of 
men." "National System of Political Economy," by Frederick List, 
is an able and soberly written book in behalf of a protective tariff ; a 
student of political economy in Germany, the author when he came 
to America left all his books behind him, and in the novel conditions of 
the new world studied his favorite subject in the "Volume of Life." 
"The Communistic Societies of the United States," by Charles Nord- 
hoff. The materials for this work were acquired during personal 
visits to ten of the most important communistic societies in the coun- 
try. Mr. Nordhoff wrote in a very friendly spirit and finds some 
good in most of them — least in the Oneida community. Since the 
publication of the book in 1875, all except the Shakers and the Inspi- 
rationists at Amana in Iowa have ceased to be. The Shakers have 


lost in numbers, but in all other respects hold their own. The Amana 
community has gained both in numbers and in possessions. Mr. 
Nordhoff finds the communal life to have a good effect on the moral 
and social qualities of the members and generally upon individual 
character. "If," he says, "I compare the life in a successful com- 
mune with the life of an ordinary farmer or mechanic even in our 
prosperous country and more especially with the lives of working 
men and their families in our great cities, I must confess that the 
communist life is so much freer from care and risk, so much better 
in many ways and in all material aspects, that I sincerely wish it 
may have a further development in the United States." 

"The Principle of Population," by Rev. T. R. Malthus, on its first 
publication was received with severe, and for the most part, unrea- 
sonable criticism ; and it is so criticised yet by writers of a socialistic 
or communistic tendency. The facts, however, which he adduced 
in support of his views have not been successfully impugned, nor 
have his arguments been refuted. They show in brief that the in- 
crease of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsist- 
ence. Population invariably increases when the means of subsistence 
increases, unless prevented by powerful and obvious checks. These 
checks, and the checks which keep the population down to the level 
of the means of subsistence, are moral restraint, vice and misery. By 
moral restraint is meant restraint from marriage from prudential 
motives, with a conduct strictly moral during this restraint, i. e., no 
one should marry until he is prepared to support a family. If such 
moral restraint were prevalent, vice and misery so far as they result 
from poverty would be greatly diminished. War and excesses of 
various sorts, which are also prolific causes of vice and misery, can 
be and ought to be controlled by the state. In order that the advan- 
tages of moral restraint become known, Malthus advised that suit- 
able instruction concerning it should be given in the parish schools 
so as to inculcate in young men a strong conviction of the great 
desirableness of marriage, with a conviction at the same time that the 
power of supporting a family was the only condition which would 
enable them really to enjoy its blessings, would be the most effectual 
motive imaginable to industry and sobriety before marriage, and 
would powerfully urge them to save all their earnings above the sum 


needed for their adequate support in order to the accomplishment of 
an object so rational and desirable. Chapter 9 of his book closes thus : 
"In an attempt to better the condition of the laboring classes of so- 
ciety our object should be to raise this standard (of living) as high 
as possible by cultivating a spirit of independence, a decent pride, and 
a taste for cleanliness and comfort. The effect of good government 
in increasing the prudential habits and personal respectability of the 
lower classes of society has already been insisted on; but certainly 
this effect will always be incomplete without a good system of educa- 
tion; and indeed it may be said that no government can approach to 
perfection that does not provide for the instruction of the people. The 
benefits derived from education are among those which may be en- 
joyed without restrictions of numbers ; and as it is in the power of 
governments to confer these benefits, it is undoubtedly their duty to 
do it." This is very commonplace doctrine now, but when Malthus 
wrote, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, it had but few sup- 

"Modern Socialism," by Lawrence Gronlund, is an attempt to 
show that the present economic order is entirely unjust and that gov- 
ernment is based on and permeated by such false ideas that reforma- 
tion is impracticable, so that the only hope of real and general im- 
provement lies in the substitution for the present political and eco- 
nomic condition of a co-operative commonwealth, i. e., pure social- 
ism. Society, the author says, is an organism of such sort that all 
power resides in the organism, none in the individual members. The 
rights of members individually are such and only such as the "organ- 
ism" confers on them. It is pure, unlimited despotism, such as no 
king or emperor ever had. To this writer, the chief of all evils seems 
to be the inequitable distribution of wealth and the chief good the 
abolition of individual ownership of wealth. 

"Law and Authority" and "Anarchy — its Philosophy and its 
Ideal," by P. Kropotkin, are expositions of "anarchy" by its ablest 
and most prepossessing advocate — a man of scientific attainments, of 
international reputation as a writer on scientific subjects, and socio- 
logical as well, no advocate of, but rather an enemy to, the use of vio- 
lence. Like Gronlund, he finds the present economic conditions to be 
unqualifiedly unjust and not to be reformed but destroyed. Both 


writers show in colors, sadly vivid and lifelike, the evils inflicted by 
governments on their subjects, and the still greater evils that are 
permitted by them, but they differ widely as to the remedy. While 
Gronlund would center all power in the "organism" called the state 
and so reduce the individual to a mere instrument, Kropotkin would 
practically destroy the state and make each voluntary group of like- 
minded individuals a law unto itself. "Instead of the old formula, 
'Respect the law/ we say, 'Despise law and all its attributes'." "The 
law, which on its first appearance presented itself as a compendium 
of customs useful for the preservation of society, is now perceived 
to be nothing but an instrument for the maintenance of exploitation 
and the domination of the toiling masses by rich idlers ; its civilizing 
mission is nil." "It has no more title to respect than capital — the 
fruit of pillage, and the first duty of the revolutionists of the nine- 
teenth century will be to make a bonfire of all existing laws as they 
will of all titles to property." Such sentiments could not come from 
educated, scholarly men of pure lives and noble aspirations, had not 
the iron of most cruel despotism entered deep into their souls. 

"The Great Pestilence in 1348-49," by Francis Aidan Gasquet, 
D. D., is an account with an abundance of details of the dreadful 
sickness which in less than two years carried off twenty-five thousand 
clergymen and two and a half million laymen — fully one-half the pop- 
ulation — of England. Dr. Gasquet points out the enormous effects, 
social and religious, which resulted from this catastrophe. It was 
in truth the real close of mediaeval life and the beginning of our mod- 
ern age : the diminution in the number of laborers and the consequent 
advance in wages, in spite of laws and proclamations to prevent it; 
the change in the manner by which the land was worked and held; 
the unavoidable induction into the priesthood of men entirely desti- 
tute of training for that office to take the place of the parish priests, 
who had died in such large numbers ; the consequent destruction of 
serfdom, and the growth of towns and trade unions, are all dwelt 
on and some of the remoter effects indicated. The book is a model 
of thorough historical research. The author, a Benedictine monk, 
well sustains the ancient and well-earned reputation of his order for 
thoroughness and accuracy. The biographical and historical works 
relating to the United States, which number about two hundred and 


fifty volumes, embrace some of the most approved standard authors. 
Bancroft, Schonler and McMasters being the most important. There 
are also some monographs of value, and several collections of docu- 
ments. One of the best books in the collection is "The Rise of the 
Republic of the United States," by Richard Frothingham. In this 
thoughtful and carefully written volume the author sketches "The 
political history of the rise of the United States, traces the develop- 
ment of fundamental principles and the embodiment of them into in- 
stitutions and laws ; shows how the European emigrant organized 
self-governing communities, and follows the stages of their growth 
into a union ; he traces the origin and rise of a sentiment of national- 
ity ; its embodiment into the Declaration of Independence, which was 
the first covenant of our country, and in the Federal constitution the 
supreme law of the land. One of the latest additions is "A Quaker 
Experiment in Government," a history of Pennsylvania from 1682 to 
1783, by Isaac Sharpless. The principles of this government were 
perfect democracy, perfect religious liberty, perfect justice in deal- 
ing with Indians and neighbors; absence of all military and naval 
provision for attack or defense; the abolition of oaths. The experi- 
ment was only partially successful. Dr. Sharpless points out clearly 
the insurmountable obstacles in the way of success ; but he also shows 
that during the seventy years of Quaker rule the province prospered 
as no other did, and that while- wars raged between the other col- 
onies and the Indians, during all that time within the borders of 
Pennsylvania there was unbroken peace. And the experiment was 
not a failure. Little by little the leaven of Christianity is permeat- 
ing the mass of humanity; in due time the experiment will be tried 
again and will succeed. 

"For right is right since God is God, 

And right the day must win; 
To doubt would be disloyalty, 
To falter would be sin." 

The library contains a fair collection of the poets and essay writ- 
ers of Great Britain and the United States, together with translations 
into English of some of those who wrote in other tongues. It is a 
very valuable body of literature ; the authors of these essays put into 


them all that was best in themselves. Plato, Erasmus, Montaigne, 
Sir Francis Bacon, Addison, Steele, Swift, Johnson, Goldsmith, Col- 
eridge, Southey, Lamb, Carlyle, Emerson — what a list of great 
names ! They have given the flower and fruit of their learning, their 
observation of men and manners, their reflections, their experience in 
life. They speak to the universal human heart, and so they grow not 

"Poetry," says Shelley, "is the record of the best thoughts." 
From Chaucer to Tennyson, not many of the best British poets are 
missing ; and they are the worthiest part of the library, indeed of any 
library. For poetry, as Shelley wrote, is the record of the best 
thoughts and happiest moments of the best and happiest minds. 

They sing 

"Of truth, of grandeur, beauty, love and hope, 
And melancholy fear, subdued by faith; 
Of blessed consolation in distress, 
Of moral strength and intellectual power, 
Of joy in widest commonalty spread, 
Of the individual mind that keeps her own 
Inviolate retirement, subject then 
To co nscience only and the law supreme 
Of that Intelligence which governs all." 

The library of the Railroad Young' Men's Christian Association 
contains something over two thousand volumes, of which about 
one-half were presented last year by Miss Helen Miller Gould. As 
the library is intended for the use of the members of the association 
exclusively, the books have been selected to suit their tastes and 
needs. A very large part of them relate to railroads and cover ap- 
parently the whole ground from the building and equipping of a 
railway to the administration of it in all its details. Such a library 
offers to railway employees in all departments and of every grade 
the opportunity to acquire theoretical knowledge whose value they 
can practically test in their daily work. There is a fair represen- 
tation of current novelists, with a few classics and books of travel. 
Works of popular science are more fully represented. Among 
historical works Woodrow Wilson's "History of the American 
People," and Ridpath's "Universal History" seem to have been most 
in demand. Professor Ridpath's book especially gives evidence that 


it has been used a great deal. Among the books given by Miss 
Gould is a fine set of Henry George's works. No other writing, of 
our time, on political economy has had such a large number of read- 
ers and has exercised such a powerful influence as "Progress and 
Poverty." However diverse may be the opinions held concerning 
the soundness of Mr. George's principles, the validity of his reason- 
ings and the efficiency of the remedies which he proposed, there 
can be no doubt as to the attractiveness of his style, or of his sin- 
cerity and earnestness. Biographies are much more numerous than 
formal works on history; they are all of them excellent, up-to-date 
books and ought to interest a great many readers. The works illus- 
trative and explanatory of the Bible are very well chosen, but the 
number and variety of them might be profitably increased. Books 
on Christian missions are, as they ought to be, in force. Two of 
them narrate the work of David Livingston and John G. Paton — 
heroes of unsullied lives and of the noblest aspirations; of such men 
and such books the world cannot have too many. The reading room 
is a very useful adjunct to the library. It is well supplied with local 
papers and some magazines which seem to be in pretty constant use. 
Besides the works devoted to railroad interests, there is a consider- 
able number on other branches of mechanical industries and applied 
science. On the whole, the library seems to be, for the purpose in- 
tended, a very good one. Its usefulness might be considerably en- 
hanced by the addition of a few of the best up-to-date reference 
books, and some magazines and newspapers of a class different from 
those now in use. 






"President of fifteen clubs, 
Member of as many more, 
'Sociate in half a score; 
And read, 
And sung, 
And said, 
In her clubs from dawn 'till bed." 

When the history of the nineteenth century comes to be writ- 
ten there will be chronicled upon its pages one of the great epochs 
of the world's history, that of a movement which, starting but a 
generation ago, with but a single club, has developed into an or- 
ganization comprising thousands of clubs and half a million women. 
With the inception of this movement in the last half of the last 
century, women appear as organizers and leaders of organized 
movements among their own sex for the first time in the history of 
the world. 

The word "club" comes from an Anglo-Saxon word, "cleofan," 
to divide, because the expenses are divided into shares ; others claim 
the word comes from an old English word meaning to cleave. In 
any sense, it seems to express the inborn tendency of man to asso- 


date and form into communities. "All clubs," so says a satirical 
writer, "were founded on eating and drinking, which are points 
most men can agree on and where philosopher and buffoon can all 
bear a part." 

Clubs for men, which seem to present a combination of classes, 
opinions, pursuits, professions quite unprecedented, have been in 
existence since the days "we wot not of." A man goes to his club to 
be amused, entertained and to enjoy its luxurious surroundings and 
furnishings and to partake of its princely service. His club is his 
home, and as such it has long been a menace to the sacred structure 
of domestic life; for the luxury, the splendor and the high society 
of men's clubs are great tempters and not calculated to qualify a 
man for the plain simplicity and monotonous round of the married 
life and home. 

The woman's club has not been an echo; it was not a banding 
together for a social or an economic purpose, like the clubs of men. 
It became at once, without deliberate intention, a light-giving and 
seed-sowing center of purely altruistic and democratic activity. The 
first women's clubs had no leaders. They brought together qualities 
rather than personages; and by the representation of all interests 
an ideal basis of organization was created, where every one had an 
equal right to whatever came to the common center. The club move- 
ment on this basis has extended to every form of human thought 
and takes its place alongside the school, the church and the press 
in the noble work of advancement. Some one has said, "that if 
men need clubs, women have a greater need." Women, denied 
business and politics, those broadening and educational factors, 
have instinctively sought the association of her own sex and, leav- 
ing the miserable traditions of her domestic imprisonment behind 
her, she has started out to make her club a clearing house for the 
pent-up activities of her mind and heart. 

During the early '50s, in the small village as well as in the 
larger towns, the great social institution was the quilting bee and 
the sewing circle. At these the whole neighborhood came together. 
There were no cliques nor sects ; but every woman knew how to 
handle her needle and tongue. Gossip was then a fine art, and pink 
teas and chrysanthemum dinners bear no sort of comparison to the 


excitement of these gatherings, where the newest scandal or the 
last ''burying at the graveyard" was rolled as a "sweet morsel." 

In the '60s we begin to hear the far-away cry of the woman's 
suffrage movement, which, while it may be said to have been the 
pioneer organization of women, never became a popular movement, 
and we may say that the primitive effort of the quilting bee and sew- 
ing circle expanded into the live issues of the club movement. 

In the last quarter of the nineteenth century woman's organiza- 
tions were formed mostly for religious or charitable purposes, and 
the first organizations that seemed to have the stamp of approval 
from the world at large were women's church auxiliaries, church 
socials and missionary societies. It was at this period, however, 
that a reactionary force began to work and the new note, which 
meant for women liberty, breadth and unity, was struck and the 
"vague unrest," or that nameless longing for self-improvement on 
the part of women long debarred from the enjoyment or acquisi- 
tion of knowledge, gave the first impulse to the woman's club move- 
ment in America. For in the olden days unless a woman became a 
teacher her education was pretty sure to end with her marriage. 
Her home and her children comprised her world. "The highest 
ideal of God is father, and of heaven, home, but, mind you, even 
paradise would grow dull if we were everlastingly shut up in it !" 

Filled with a desire to be in touch with the progress and devel- 
opment of the races and peoples of the world, small wonder, then, 
that the literary club afforded these shut-in women the opportunity 
for a college course, or helped give the education of every woman 
a "continuous existence." Even if very bad papers were written and 
read on protoplasm, Savonarola or Browning, each subject served 
as a means towards a larger culture and a satisfying end. 

An interesting story and incident is told of the first literary club 
of women formed in America. In 1868, when Charles Dickens was 
touring and lecturing in this country, a dinner was given in his 
honor, in New York city, by the Press Club. "Jennie June" Croly, 
then a newspaper correspondent, asked for tickets to the dinner for 
herself and a friend. The request was promptly refused, whereupon, 
in her indignation, she declared she would form a club "for women 
only." At that time a woman's club or other secular organization 


composed exclusively of women was an unheard-of thing; yet Mrs. 
Croly made good her word and Sorosis was given its christening 
ceremony, and Alice Carey, the poet, was made its first president 
in 1869. Olive Thome Miller has said: "Women will yet crown 
these sisters, who caught the first glimpses of the rising sun of 
womanhood and crystallized their hopes in the woman's club. Its 
progress is a stately march down the ages, with which, sooner or 
later, every woman will keep step, and with results in the history of 
the race which no one can predict." 

In the state of Idiana, New Harmony, that quaint village in 
the southern part of the state, boasts of having the first woman's 
club in the west. In fact, a young girl, just returned from a school 
life spent abroad, contends that a club which she formed as a read- 
ing circle and called the Minerva antedates the birth of Sorosis in 
New York by ten years. Be that as it may, it shows that the time 
had come, all over the land, for the banding together of women for 
intellectual, helpful and definite purposes, and while we will have 
to concede to the sisters in the southern part of the state an earlier 
desire to cultivate a broader education, we are not willing to admit 
that the women of the northern part were any the less eager to 
adopt the "method and manners" when the time became ripe for 
them to fall into the ranks of culture clubs and federated bodies. 
In this part of the state one of the earliest organizations to be 
formed was the 


and while the enfranchisement of women was the keynote of this 
organization, it can not be said to have been essentially or poten- 
tially a woman's club. It was formed at a convention held at Fort 
Wayne in 1871, thirty-five years ago. The meetings of this con- 
vention, which were held in Hamilton Hall, were well attended and 
between fifty and sixty names of both men and women were en- 
rolled during the three days' session, March 18-21. The first presi- 
dent was Mrs. L. M. Ninde and the annual dues were one dollar. 
This association lived just three years. During that time Mrs. 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton came to lecture once, and Miss Susan B. 


Anthony twice. Miss Anthony told her friends that she had re- 
ceived more courtesy here from the newspapers and the citizens than 
she had been accorded elsewhere ; yet we find that, after the society 
had struggled and languished through three years, the executive 
board and Miss Anthony decided that there was not sufficient inter- 
est in the work to keep it up, partly owing to the large foreign pop- 
ulation. The books were closed in 1874, and we find no record of 
any effort being made to open them for business since that time. 

We are told of another early club — composed of men and wom- 
en — thought to be formed in the year 1868 by a circle of friends, 
who met together for the purpose of combining the study of litera- 
ture with the pleasures of social intercourse. Some of the charter 
members were Mrs. Charles McCulloch, now deceased; Miss Mary 
G. Humphrey, now a citizen and newspaper writer of New York 
city, and Miss Elizabeth Johnson. The society was called 


and the best known young men and women of Fort Wayne were 
active members. The only preserved records of The Club were 
written between the years October, 1872, and January, 1874, and 
they make most entertaining reading. Mr. William H. Hoffman, 
who has recently been called to a higher life, was one of the record- 
ing secretaries of these minutes, and Miss Drake, now Mrs. Roger 
Butterfield, of Michigan, was the president. The outlines of the 
programs were written out at each evening's meeting and included 
recitations, music and conversations, and each session ended with 
a "bountiful supper." "What is history ?" and "In what does the 
difference between two intellects having had the same advantage 
consist?" were some of the questions propounded and discussed. 
Little wonder we read of how "the discussions were carried over to 
the next meeting." Autograph letters from E. P. Whipple, An- 
thony Froude, George W. Curtis and other literary lights were 
often read as a feature of an evening's meeting. Prof. James Smart, 
at one time president of Purdue University, but now deceased, was 
one of the leading members of The Club and the records tell us 
where he asked leave at one of the meetings "to give a few pickings 


from his violin," and of how Miss Irwin, now secretary at Purdue 
University, asked that her work "be considered 'readings,' and not 
'recitations.' As many of the members were not more than 
twenty-one, the ambitious desire of these young people to be en- 
lightened on many "abstruse subjects" is a surprise; yet not more so 
than the animus which we note often pervaded the meetings during 
the election of officers. Miss Anna Lowry, secretary in 1873, ten<s 
us that "the election passed off, contrary to past custom, in a most 
harmonious and amiable manner." This spirit of contention we 
thought belonged exclusively to more recent club times and elec- 
tions. Soon after 1874 The Club decided to dignify itself by as- 
suming an appropriate name. It chose San-Souci, but there are no 
annals to 1 reveal its further work along literary lines, although the 
"bountiful suppers" are whispered at by the members still living and 
remembering. Possibly the shades of its departing spirit took 
shape in the 


a society formed on similar lines, for social and literary pleasures 
among the young people of the town. Mr. Henry Freeman and 
Miss Merica Hoagland were among the first organizers, although 
the records kept for the first two years of its career — 1878-80 — 
tell us that its membership numbered fifty and among them it was 
positively stipulated that "they should not organize for social, lit- 
erary or dramatic purpose alone, but for the three combined." 
"Silas Marner" was the most pretentious attempt in the drama line 
and after it had been dramatized and the parts enacted, it was voted 
to be the most successful of any of the several prepared dramas. 
One unique feature was the publication of a club paper, called The 
Gossip. In its columns squibs on varied subjects, personal charac- 
teristics of members, and criticisms of work of previous meetings, 
were to be found. 

Then we hear of the famous Round Table Club, at whose meet- 
ings bright scintillations of wit and rare gems of thought were 
flashed out; but alas, not a woman's name appears upon the roll 
call !* 

*The Round Table was a convivial, as well as literary club, composed wholly of gentle- 
men.— Ed. 


woman's reading club. 

In 1888 one of the best known and cultured women in Fort 
Wayne was obliged to sojourn for a time in Battle Creek, Michigan. 
While there she had for a companion a friend from Indianapolis, 
who one day said to her, "How many women's clubs have you in 
Fort Wayne?" After some hesitation and thought, she replied, 
"Why, not one!" On her return home one of the first things this 
benefactress did was to call together two or three congenial friends 
and to then and there form the Ladies' Literary Circle. Since then, 
although Fort Wayne occupies a remote corner of Indiana, it can 
boast of being a strong club town, as it rejoices in supporting nu- 
merous women's literary clubs, of all sizes and numbers. The La- 
dies' Literary Circle soon changed its name, at the suggestion of one 
of its oldest and most prominent members, Mrs. G. E. Bursley, who 
has since passed into the beyond. She proposed the name should 
be changed into the Woman's Reading Club, claiming the word 
"Woman's" had a more dignified sound than "Ladies'." The 
club was formally organized in 1889, Mrs. Hiram C. Moderwell 
and Miss Mary Irwin being the promoters and founders. "London" 
was the first program studied and each member was expected to 
prepare at least three papers on assigned topics during the year. 
The programs were made out with pen and ink and were few, but 
voluminous. What a contrast to the beautiful creations of the 
printer's art that are demanded today! The Woman's Reading 
Club continues its active work, with its founders on its list of hon- 
orary members. In fancy there arises a gentle protest from some 
other "long time ago" clubs at thus giving precedence to the 
Woman's Reading Club, but the writer feels that this club was so 
purely a formally organized woman's literary club, with a "consti- 
tution and by-laws" attachment, that its claim to point of age has 

Prior to 1889 there were several societies, such as the Haw- 
thorne, Shakespeare, Longfellow and The Other Club, all more or 
less literary; yet they all had men members and were not governed 
by any set of rules. They all held social dinners and other social 
functions, and this feature alone will give them another complexion. 


Beyond a doubt the women members in these clubs were the con- 
trolling spirits, and in one, 


composed of young men and women, a quickening impulse was 
given to literature such as it had never known before. Plays and 
stories were written and read at the meetings and poems were often 
read by the makers of the same. The following bears witness to 
the effort made toward intellectual heights: 

A toast I drink, 

"The Other Club," my other self, 

Our friends, my love, 

True friendship, pure affection. 

Our union, 

Your loss, my gain, 

The tie past and present. 

Your token of affection 

A wish 
The members of "The Other Club" 
Enjoying like blessings with 
Your brother-in-law. 

This was offered by Mr. Stephen A. Burrows on the occasion of 
the receipt of a wedding present when he became the husband of 
Miss Lizzie Morgan, a charter member of The Other Club. Miss 
Margaret McPhail was also a charter member of this club. The 
Hawthorne endeavored to raise the literary standard of the town 
by bringing lecturers here from the universities to speak. Many 
of its members were young college men and school girl graduates, 
and among its charter members we find the names of Mr. Perry 
A. Randall and Mrs. James B. Harper (nee Miss Mollie Rowan). 
Late in the fall of 1884, several years before the "club wave" 
reached Fort Wayne, two or three women became interested in the 
same book and met every day or two to read it aloud. This led to 
the reading of another, still at irregular intervals, until in January, 
1885, a C 1 UD was formed by adding four more members, and to 
meet regularly and read some interesting book of fiction or other 
good solid publication. It was absolutely informal, having neither 
constitution, rules, officers, programs, business or dues. It had 



not even a name. "We simply met once a week to enjoy each 
other's hospitality, and to listen while sometimes one and some- 
times another read aloud. Early in the history of the circle one 
of the members moved to another state and this vacancy was filled. 
Since then the personnel of the club has never changed and though 
three of our number have been called to a higher life and the others 
live apart in other cities, we have never disbanded. Informal and 
unpretentious as this club was, it has influenced each of our lives, 
filling our minds with pleasant memories and forming friendships 
not to be broken this side of the grave, and while there may not be 
another meeting, as long as there is a member living the memory 
of this club will be cherished and with the memory will come a 
realization that our lives were enriched by the union." It has 
been a pleasure to be able to thus quote Mrs. Helen F. Guild, an 
original member of the club, composed of women who were matrons 
of many years and Avho thus sought recreation from home duties 
and cares. Mrs. Guild, who now lives in Indianapolis, has this to 
say concerning her club, in which she has always been an active 
member: "I look back with pleasure upon the many subjects I 
have been led, by club study, to take an active interest in, that I 
would otherwise have passed by entirely or would have lacked 
the perseverance to follow up. I can see that it enriched my home 
life by increasing my interest in people and things, making it more 
varied and full and making me more companionable. Most women 
will bear testimony that even the crude efforts of the earlier clubs 
were a preparation for broader interest and work; that it taught 
them to work together to reach results. In short, the woman's 
club has been to me only a source of pleasure and profit." 

THE T. M. C. C. CLUB. 

In contrast to this club of middle-aged women was one formed 
a year later, in 1886. This was made up entirely of young girls, 
six of them, whose ages ranged from eleven, so* we are told, to 
fourteen. They call themselves the T. M. C. C. Club and the 
meaning of the letters was never divulged, although it was said 
by some young boy friend that they stood for "Try My Chocolate 


Cake," "because the dear girls could bake such good cake." But 
they not alone shone in the culinary art, for literature was their 
watchword and one member read a very cleverly arranged paper, 
before a large organization, on the love story of "Abelard and 
Heloise." The members of this youthful club were Miss Grace 
Bass, Miss Charlotte Lowry, Miss Constance Wilder, Miss Ger- 
trude Webb, Miss Tracy Guild and Miss Bertha Maier. Active 
work ceased as each member was married, but a strong bond of 
friendship unite the members still and reunions are had whenever it 
is possible. In 1887 another small circle of friends met to interpret 
the writings of the "inspired bard," Shakespeare, and this formed 
the nucleus for a more important club two years later; but all of 
these study circles were informal affairs and it is only when we 
reach the year 1889 that we can speak with confidence of formally 
organized woman's clubs. 


The Saturday Club and the Seven Club both claim priority as to 
age, but in tracing back the records we find both were organized 
sometime during the year 1889, probably a short time after the 
founding of the Ladies' Literary Circle. The Seven Club sprang 
from the fire kindled in the reading of Shakespeare two years 
before and the expressed wish of a few intimate friends that one 
of their number should read, while the others sewed. "Mosses 
from an Old Manse" was first read by Mrs. Ella Welling, now 
deceased, and this was followed next by the reading of George 
Kennan's magazine articles on Russia and Siberia by the Seven. 
The second year a program was outlined and the organization 
continued until a superstition crept in, akin to the feeling created 
by the little old-fashioned poem "We are Seven," for the church- 
yard in both told a sad story. Mrs. R. T. McDonald and six other 
well-known women of the city were the members. 


The Saturday Club began in a modest way in the fall of 1889, 
by Mrs. Mary S. McCune, now living in Petoskey, Michigan, call- 
ing a small circle of her friends together for the purpose of study 


and mutual improvement. The first study begun by this strong 
and important club was the history of art, and while literature has 
been interspersed at times in its programs, art in some phase has 
formed an essential feature in all the years of its work — for it is 
still doing active work, with a number of the original members as 
interested leaders. Mrs. Miles F. Porter, Mrs. Robert S. Taylor 
and Mrs. Chester Lane were charter members and are yet closely 
identified with the club. It was during the years 1890 to 1900 that 
the greatest impulse was given to the club movement in Fort 
Wayne, for we hear of the forming and founding of clubs by the 
dozens and hundreds and one is fairly bewildered at the array of 
names, classic and otherwise, that we find recorded during these 
years. It must have been in these years of activity that this spicy 
bit was perpetrated anent the "club habit:" Three little children 
were trying to tell the largest story they could think of about when 
and where they were born. One said he was born at such a number 
on a very fashionable street ; another said he didn't know the street, 
but it was in a great big city, while the third said : "Well, I know 
all about when and where I was born, but there wasn't anybody 
at home but grandma, for mama had gone to her club." 


It was in 1892 that a member of the Saturday Club, Mrs. 
Charles R. Dryer, now living in Terre Haute, introduced the sub- 
ject in her club of forming a federation of all the clubs in the city. 
At that time no literary club numbered more than thirty-five mem- 
bers, and all were more like classes than clubs. It was apparent 
that these small clubs might grow into self-centered cliques, with 
accompanying rivalries and jealousies. So a committee was formed 
in the Saturday Club to confer with the other clubs of the city, 
and at the first called meeting all the literary, art and musical clubs 
were represented. This meeting was held on the afternoon of De- 
cember 8, 1892, in the parlors of the Wayne Hotel, and these 
twelve clubs, Saturday, Woman's Reading, Wednesday, Seven, 
Morning Musical, Students' Art League, Unity, Wit and Wis- 
dom, Shakespeare, T. M. C. C, Duodecimo, and French Literature, 


organized and founded what is now known as the strongest organi- 
zation in the city, The Woman's Club League. Mrs. Alice P. 
Dryer was its first president and Mrs. Ellen R. Bursley its first 
secretary, and through the magnificent Public Library and the 
furtherance of all public matters relating to the health, beauty, edu- 
cation and cleanliness of the city, it is proud to pay a living and 
loyal tribute to the women who founded and endowed it with their 
wisdom and foresight. The clubs which have become affiliated with 
the League at various times since 1892 are the English, Nineteenth 
Century, Parliamentary Coterie, Wednesday, Society of College 
Women, Keramic, Nos Temps, General Culture and Book Re- 
viewers. The Woman's Club League stands truly a monument 
to the untiring and zealous efforts of the members of all these clubs. 
In 1897 incorporation papers were secured and we find the follow- 
ing names enrolled upon the "Articles :" Aristine Noyes Felts, 
Alice P. Dryer, Ellen R. Bursley, Helen F. Guild, Fanny W. Tay- 
lor, Hannah Hall Ellison, Caroline R. Fairbank, Catherine N. Beers, 
Sara P. Foster, Merica Hoagland. 


Through the efforts of the Morning Musical Society, an organi- 
zation begun in a very small way in 1890, the musical taste of the 
people of Fort Wayne has been brought to a high degree of per- 
fection. Next to the Woman's Club League, it has the largest 
membership of any woman's club in the city and in every way it 
has encouraged the love for the classic as well as the 
popular music of the greatest masters of the world. The Morning 
Musical was the outgrowth of an idea conceived by a young woman 
fresh from the schools of Boston. She saw the need and an open- 
ing for the formation of this society and Fort Wayne will ever 
have cause to bless the name of this young woman, who, all too 
soon, was taken away while yet in her youth. This was Mrs. 
Jennie Ninde Brady. There is one other woman who soon became 
identified so closely with the Morning Musical that its history 
is incomplete without her mention. When the club movement be- 
gan sweeping the country and first touched this city, it found a 


warm advocate in an energetic and ambitious little woman, Essie 
Preble Myers, whose keen intellect and enthusiasm easily made her 
a leader in whatever department she enlisted her efforts. As pres- 
ident of the Morning Musical her influence was far-spreading and 
always for the betterment of the club. Both of these noble women 
have answered a higher summons, but the Morning Musical still 
prospers and has made a reputation now outside of Indiana, gained 
at the World's Fair at Chicago in 1893, where Mrs. Anna Siboni 
Ruhland and Miss Thyra Schioler, prominent members, won first 
club honors and individually a medal. Still another Fort Wayne 
club owes a tribute to the memory of Mrs. Jennie Ninde Brady. 
When she was about to become a bride, her heart was troubled 
about leaving her father alone; so happily she thought, why not 
invite her father's most intimate and congenial friends to meet 
fortnightly at his home, to read, study and discuss topics ad libitum, 
to the benefit of the literary tastes of all concerned. Both father 
and daughter are sleeping the last long sleep, but the Fortnightly 
has grown more important each year and adds to its ranks the 
names of ministers, lawyers, senators and judges, as well as promi- 
nent women, who take their part in the distinctive literary character 
of the club's work. 


The Society of Art, the Students' Art League and the more re- 
cent Fort Wayne Art School Association are all organizations be- 
gun by women. They all owe their inception and growth to the 
influence of Miss Margaret Hamilton, who has always been a patron 
and devoted tx> the art interests of the city. The Art School 
Association became an incorporated body in 1903 and is the only 
surviving art society in the city. 


In 1894 there was formed a club in the city composed entirely 
of Catholic lady members. In respect to the memory of the first 
archbishop of the Roman Catholic church in America, it called 
itself the Carroll Club. It was formed for the purpose of making 


a thorough study of literature and for eight years its programs were 
varied and instructive. There were many bright names among the 
members and it was with regret that their conscientious study was 
abandoned, for the club was disbanded in 1903. Mrs. Helen Flem- 
ing and Mrs. Thomas Hedekin were among the original founders 
of the club and Mrs. Fleming was many times elected to the leader- 
ship. A valentine, original with one of the members, was at one 
time read in her honor, after she had presented the club with a 
tumbling toy, "McGinty," which she had made out of an old cuff. 


We're a woman's club who read a page 
Of history, art and heritage, 

And admit no man for a member. 

Our president here a fellow has brought, 
Whose acquaintance by Mrs. Breen is sought 

And he's to the rules an offender; 

And he flirts and squints and tumbles around 
From somebody's bay-window to the ground, 
And no excuse does tender. 

But he's only a cuff after all, no more v 
And all this happens from two to four 
At the Carroll Club on Friday. 


One day in 1895 a few friends proposed to each other that they 
renew the pleasures of their school days by taking a short course 
in literature. There were twelve original women who thus sought 
to enjoy the pursuit of knowledge, and while death and removal 
from the city have decimated the ranks until now the membership 
is only ten, the good work goes on and the club still bears its orig- 
inal name, Current Literature, and number, ten. Mrs. Herbert 
Shorey was among the charter members and is still an enthusiastic 

The American Literature and the Study Clubs are the most 


recent additions to the list of clubs in the city, they having been 
formed in 1904, the former by Mrs. John Grosjean and the latter 
by Mrs. Isabel Bradley. 


Among the larger organizations in the city operated and ad- 
vanced by women for charitable and benevolent purposes we should 
mention the Young Woman's Christian Association, the Woman's 
Exchange and the Needlework Guild. The Young Woman's 
Christian Association was founded in 1894, probably on the founda- 
tion laid two years before, when Miss Agnes Hamilton and Miss 
Rena Nelson started, in a small way, a Noon-Rest Association. 
At the suggestion of some young women, it was decided to> create 
a Young Woman's Christian Association and add to it the "noon- 
rest" department. This was accordingly done at a called meeting 
at the home of Miss Margaret Hamilton in 1894. The presidents 
of the association, in succession, up to the present time have been 
Miss Agnes Hamilton, Miss Merica Hoagland, Miss Lillie Beaber, 
now a missionary in Persia, and Mrs. Frederick J. Hayden. In 
1 90 1 a branch was added to the association called the Woman's 
Exchange, but it was discovered that a ruling in the national body 
forbade a branch of this kind. So in 1904 it separated itself from 
its foster parent and in 1905 became an incorporated society. How- 
ever, it began its career in the basement of the Association building, 
with a store box for its one and only piece of furniture. Its flour- 
ishing and prosperous condition today bespeaks for its leader, who 
has been at its head from the beginning, a strength of will and 
determination that must ultimately overcome every obstacle in the 
way of its future success. This is Mrs. Elizabeth J. Dawson. 


The Needlework Guild was organized in 1900 and while it is 
a branch of the national society, the work of the local guild has been 
of the steady growing and most helpful kind. Mrs. Stephen B. 
Bond and Miss Katherine Hoffman are two< of the many zealous 


workers. Mrs. Helen F. Guild has been its president for a number 
of years. 

There are numerous Chautauqua circles here also, whose work 
is to follow a prescribed course of literature, and at the end of a 
certain time examinations and diplomas are awarded from the 
Chautauqua centers in various parts of the country. One member 
has given us this amusing story : One day it came her turn to be 
hostess for her own particular Chautauqua circle and her little 
six-year-old boy, seeing the guests arriving, ran to her and said, 
"O, mama, here comes your she talkers!" 

In closing the history of the city clubs, we ask to be allowed 
to give the value of the club to individual members, as has been 
gleaned in working out these details. It can be summed up thus : 
First, it makes better wives and mothers ; second, it enlarges the 
heart and broadens the mind; third, it is woman's greatest edu- 
cator; fourth, it makes women more neighborly; fifth, it creates a 
spirit of sisterly love; sixth, it teaches charity, the sweetest of 
earthly virtues; and yet Grover Cleveland would have us believe 
that "women's clubs are a menace to the home." 


It has been a difficult matter to> trace the woman's club move- 
ment in the smaller towns surrounding Fort Wayne, but from in- 
formation gained from correspondence we find the first club to be 
established in the county was the Duodecimo, at New Haven, in 
1889. New Haven is but six miles from Fort Wayne and is not 
largely populated, yet there are three friends, Mrs. Allie Schnelker, 
Mrs. J. R. Hartzell and Mrs. John Ashley, who have found the 
pleasures arising from their club so attractive that they remain 
active workers and members. While no> literary programs are stud- 
ied, the aim of the club is for social advancement and its meetings 
have always been held for the purpose of keeping alive the social 
spirit and closer alliance of friends. We find numerous aid societies 
in the smaller towns, and one that deserves notice was established 
in Areola in 1895. It was through the efforts of Mrs. Barton, 
who asked a few of her neighbors to gather at her house one sum- 


mer afternoon, that this particular Ladies' Aid Society was formed. 
Now the mantle of her energies has fallen upon Mrs. J. H. Bonnell. 
While the work of this society has been confined mostly to religious, 
devotional and charitable work and thus helped support the church, 
it has beyond a doubt reacted upon the morals of Areola and the 
place has been benefited greatly by the influence exerted by this 
small band of women. 

ladies' aid society, dunfee. 

In Dunfee we find another Ladies' Aid Society that has done 
much good in the community by helping in church work. It was 
established in the spring of 1901 and it meets weekly, with a mem- 
bership of fifteen, who pay a per capita tax of five cents. Hunter- 
town also and some of the other villages have bands of Willing 
Workers, all helping to support and spread the influence of the 
small churches. In three towns in the county we find three most 
important literary clubs. The one at Monroeville was founded in 
1900. In quoting from a prominent member of the Twentieth 
Century Success Club, Mrs. G. Elmar Spake, of Monroeville, who 
says, "We are very proud of our club, and the incentive we had in 
forming it was to do what we could to benefit the town and our- 
selves by united action," we come to the true idea and strength 
of organization. Continuing she says, "I think it has been in 
many ways a great benefit to our town. We have given a few 
entertainments in the way of lectures and have taken charge of the 
school library and placed quite a number of new books in it." As 
Monroeville has a population of only about eight hundred and is 
fifteen miles from Fort Wayne, the women of this club are to be 
commended for their determined effort to establish a higher literary 
standard for their town and for the successful results. 


In Hoagland, which lies thirteen miles south of Fort Wayne 
and has a population of about three hundred, there is another strong 
and active literary club. The first meeting of this club was held 
at the home of Dr. Joseph L. Smith in the fall of 1901. The idea 


of forming a club was conceived by Mr. D. E. Rausch. At the 
first meeting twelve people responded, the men and women being 
equally represented. They then formally organized for the study 
of literature and chose Minerva for a name and adopted the owl, 
that emblem of wisdom, for their insignia. The Minerva now 
numbers twenty-seven and the best literature of the world is stud- 
ied and discussed at their weekly meetings. At a banquet held in 
the fall of 1904 seventy-five congenial friends sat around the fes- 
tive board and, while the abundance of earth was partaken of, the 
real live issues of the day were discussed intelligently as well. Dr. 
J. L. Smith, who' was one of the charter members, was elected to 
the office of county auditor two years ago and has moved with his 
family into a beautiful home in this city, while Mr. Rausch, the 
promoter, is studying medicine at a Cincinnati college. Mrs. 
Smith is very proud of being also a charter member of the Minerva 
and says, "The first meetings of the club created a great deal of 
comment and a sensation among the outsiders," but also declares 
that "the club work had been very helpful to her and had served 
as a much needed recreation and diversion from her many domes- 
tic cares," and the writer could well agree that to "educate a man 
and you educate an individual; educate a woman and you educate 
a whole family," for, as Mrs. Smith told of the club and its work, 
she was seen surrounded by her large, bright and beautiful faced 
family of children, who were pleased to bear witness to all she had 
to say concerning her club. 


We find the third literary club of the county at Harlan, or as it 
is more commonly called, Maysville. This club, while yet in its 
swaddling clothes, still rings with the true steel. Mr. Edward Met- 
calf, whose literary tastes are of the highest order, believed a club 
could be formed of young men and women which would be of 
value to his town. So he issued a call for that purpose, and one 
blustering cold night in January, 1905, a number responded and 
without a doubt its destiny and achievements are foresworn when 
we quote what has been sent to us by one of its prominent members 
and promoters, Mrs. C. F. Swift, "If a man be educated on certain 
lines, his neighbor will also be educated, providing he carries out 


the sociability and reciprocity his club teaches." The club has been 
named the Harlan Literary Club, and who knows but that from its 
ranks senators and leaders are being born? So thoroughly is the 
work assigned each member, being done each week, that not only 
the interest and knowledge of current and classic literature has 
been increased, but the power to express themselves has been devel- 
oped to a remarkable degree among the members, Mr. and Mrs. 
G. G. Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. G. A. Reeder, Mr. and Mrs. A. M. 
Keener, Jonas Griffith, John Hoffman, Lyle Swift, Florence Hen- 
derson, Bertha Beckhart and Frances Carrington are some of the 
members and each one exerts an influence in the community, 
through the efforts of this club, of inestimable value. 


One of the strongest organizations in the county is the Home- 
makers' Association and one of its most untiring and strongest ad- 
vocates is Mrs. Naomi Devilbiss. Mrs. Devilbiss has made herself 
an indispensable factor at farmers' institutes, through her ener- 
getic zeal and speech making, and in her latest field of activity she 
has developed a remarkable executive ability, which is noteworthy 
when one considers that Mrs. Devilbiss is a self-educated woman 
and the mother of a large family of children, and with a fruit farm 
of many acres also under her special supervision. Mrs. Devilbiss's 
name stands now as a household one for better methods of bread- 
making, butter-making and the general improvement of every con- 
dition of the domestic life of the farmer's wife and daughter. In 
conclusion : 

"What is a woman's club? No idle place 
Wherein to chatter of the last new play, 
Or whisper of a sister gone astray, 
Or strip with cruel gossip every trace 
Of sweetness from some life borne down with strife. 

What is a woman's club? A meetisng ground 

For those of purpose great and broad and strong, 

Whose aim is toward the stars, who ever long 

To make the patient, listening world redound 

With sweeter music, purer, nobler tones. 

This is a woman's club, a haven fair, 

Where toilers drop an hour their load of care." 






The settlement of Allen county and the introduction of Catholicity 
were contemporaneous events, but unfortunately the Jesuit fathers 
who first visited Fort Wayne, when it was a mere trading" post on 
the remote frontier, appear to have left no record of their explora- 
tions and labors. It is stated upon reliable authority that the first 
evidence of any priest having come to this part of the west was 
when the noted missionary, Father Allouez, a member of the order of 
the Jesuits, made his way through the wilderness from Canada some 
time between the years 1665 and 1675 and explored the country bor- 
dering upon the St. Mary's, St. Joseph and Maumee rivers, but be- 
yond the fact of his probable appearance, nothing definite is known. 
There is also a tradition, which some writers claim to be founded 
on fact, to the effect that at a very remote period, as early perhaps 
as the Allouez expedition, a white man whose name has never been 
learned visited the vicinity in the capacity of a missionary of the 
gospel and celebrated the sacrifice of the mass somewhere near the 
site now occupied by St. Joseph's Hospital, but of the extent of his 
labors or any facts concerning him nothing was ever learned, the 
whole matter being largely conjecture and shrouded in mystery. 


The few Catholics who located at the fort and in the vicinity 
when the country was finally opened for settlement were visited for 
the first time on record by Very Rev. Stephen Theodore Badin, who 
made his appearance on June i, 1830, the entire state of Indiana at 
that time being within the diocese of Bardstown, Kentucky, of 
which jurisdiction the Right Rev. Benedict Joseph Flaget was con- 
secrated bishop on the 4th of November, 18 10. To Father Badin 
belongs the distinction of being the first priest ordained in the United 
States, and at the time of his visit to Fort Wayne he was serving as 
vicar general of the two dioceses of Bardstown and Cincinnati. This 
noted prelate repeated his visit in 183 1, and offered the holy sacrifice 
of the mass and preached in the house of Francis Comparet, and 
the following year performed the functions of his ministry at the 
residence of John B. Bequet, one of the early Catholics of the place 
and a leader in the work of the church. 

According to the account of Rev. Julian Benoit, himself an early 
missionary and the apostle of Catholicity in northern Indiana, the 
next priest to visit the town was Rev. Father Picot, then pastor of 
the church at Vincennes, who arrived in September, 1832, and per- 
formed the functions of his holy office at different times and did 
much to unify the Catholics in the surrounding country and gather 
them into a permanent organization. In December of the same year 
Rev. S. T. Badin was again in Fort Wayne and he continued his 
visits at intervals during the succeeding two years, Father Boehme 
being his co-laborer in 1832. During 1835 the place was visited 
from time to time by Revs. Simon P. Lalumiere, Felix Matthew 
Ruff and I. F. Tervooren, while Father Francis, who was stationel 
at Logansport, also came to the field when he could be spared from 
his own flock, his visits being confined to the months of January, 
February, May, June, July and August. 

The year 1835 was also signalized by the arrival at Fort Wayne 
of the saintly Right Rev. Simon Gabriel Brute, first bishop of Vin- 
cennes, and the following year Rev. Louis Muller, the first perma- 
nently appointed pastor, took charge of the congregation and served 
with marked success until April 16, 1840, when he was succeeded 
by the distinguished missionary priest, Rev. Julian Benoit, who, in 
addition to ministering to the spiritual needs of the home church, 


attended the congregations at Lagro, Huntington, Columbia City, 
Warsaw, Goshen, A villa, New France, Bensancon, Hesse Cassel and 
Decatur, an extensive and important field to visit, which required 
all the time and energy at his command. 

Father Benoit had as his first assistant Rev. Joseph Hamion, 
a saintly young priest who died at Logansport in 1842; his second 
assistant, Rev. Joseph Rudolph, died in Oldenburg, Franklin county, 
after many years of faithful service, and the third was Rev. Alphonse 
Munschina, afterwards pastor at Lanesville in the diocese of Vin- 
cennes. The fifth assistant was Rev. Edward Faller, under whose 
leadership the German-speaking membership of St. Augustine's 
church, the name of the original organization, withdrew and 
established a congregation of their own, building a house of worship 
and a school house and taking the name of St. Mary's, a history 
of which will be found on another page of this chapter. 

In 1835 a portion of the present cathedral square was pur- 
chased, Father Badin being largely instrumental in locating the 
site for the building which it was proposed to erect as soon as cir- 
cumstances would admit. The purchase was first made in the name 
of Francis Comparet, but subsequently the property was deeded to a 
committee consisting of Francis Comparet, Francis D. Lasselle, John 
B. Bruno, Charles Hillsworth and Michael Hedekin, by whom in 
due time it was transferred to the regular ecclesiastical authorities of 
the diocese. The first building, erected in the year 1837, on the 
cathedral square was an indifferent frame structure, without plaster- 
ing, and contained only the most ordinary conveniences, being but 
illy adapted for a place of worship. This was known as St. Au- 
gustine's church and answered as a place of meeting until prepara- 
tions were made for the building of the cathedral, when it was 
moved to the east side of the square, where it stood until destroyed 
by fire a few years later. 

In 1857 tne diocese of Vincennes, which up to that time had 
included the whole of Indiana, was divided and the northern part 
of the state erected as the diocese of Fort Wayne, with the city of 
the same name as the episcopal see, the Right Rev. John Henry 
Luers being appointed its first bishop. Realizing the need of a 
church in keeping with the dignity of the diocese, Bishop Luers and 


Rev. Julian Benoit in 1859 began the erection of the new cathedral, 
being ably assisted in the undertaking by a building committee con- 
sisting of the following gentlemen : Henry Baker, Michael Hedekin, 
Maurice Cody and Jacob Kintz. Plans were submitted and ap- 
proved and in due time work began, and, under the direction of 
competent managers, was pushed rapidly forward until the stately 
structure stood complete, its massive proportions, lofty spires and 
other attractive features making it one of the finest and most im- 
posing ecclesiastical edifices at that time in the west. The cost of 
the building proper was fifty-four thousand dollars, the organ, pews 
and other furniture bringing the total up to a little over nine thou- 
sand dollars in excess of that amount. Of this large sum, fourteen 
thousand dollars was realized from popular subscription, two thou- 
sand six hundred dollars resulted from a fair or bazar and the bal- 
ance was collected by Father Benoit while on a visit to New Or- 
leans in i860, or gathered from other sources, the good father con- 
tributing very liberally from his private means to the liquidation of 
the debt. Thomas Lau was the architect of this splendid building 
and to him was also awarded the contract for the carpenter work, 
the brick being laid by contractor James Silver. 

The episcopal residence is the result of the untiring efforts of 
Rev. Benoit and cost the sum of sixteen thousand dollars, of which 
amount the diocese contributed two thousand dollars, the remainder 
being expended from the generous father's private resources. 

Right Rev. Bishop Luers passed to his eternal reward in June, 
1 87 1, and was succeeded by Right Rev. Bishop Joseph Dwenger, 
who took charge of the diocese on April 14th of the following year 
and served with distinguished ability until his death, which occurred 
on January 22, 1893. 

The successor of Bishop Dwenger was Right Rev. Joseph 
Rademacher, D. D., one of the most learned and popular prelates of 
the church in this country, who was transferred from Nashville, 
Tennessee, to the bishopric of Fort Wayne by pontifical letters bear- 
ing the date of July 14, 1893. Like his predecessors, he too was 
called away in the prime of manhood and in the midst of his use- 
fulness, after a signally honorable and praiseworthy administra- 
tion, being succeeded by Right Rev. Herman Alerding, of Indian- 


apolis, the present incumbent, whose official career thus far has not 
been dimmed by those of his illustrious predecessors, being a man 
of eminent scholarship, a theologian of honorable standing, and as 
a bishop has already made a most favorable impression on both 
clergy and laity by his superior executive ability and by the becom- 
ing dignity with which he discharges the duties and responsibilities 
of the high station to which, in the providence of God, he has been 

Father Benoit served as pastor of the Cathedral of the Immacu- 
late Conception for several years under Bishop Dwenger, but by 
reason of increasing age he finally relinquished the charge and spent 
the remainder of his life in honorable retirement, dying at the epis- 
copal residence January 26, 1885. 

Among the pastors who officiated at the cathedral from time to 
time were the following : Revs. E. P. Walters, J. H. Brammer, A. 
M. Meile, W. F. M. O'Rourke, J. M. Graham, M. E. Campion, J. 
Grogan, P. M. Frawley, J. R. Dinnen, J. M. Hartnett, L. A. 
Moench, H. A. Boecklemen, P. F. Roche, J. F. Lang, T. M. O'Leary, 
J. F. Delaney and M. J. Byrne. The pastor in charge at this time is 
Rev. Patrick F. Roche, who is ably assisted by Rev. William Sulli- 
van, Rev. John H. Bathe being secretary and chancellor of the 

In 1844 the Sisters' school was erected by John Burt, who, in 
exchange for his labor and materials, received three acres of land 
north of the city, and the following year Rev. Father Benoit brought 
from St. Mary's, Vigo county, three Sisters of Providence who 
opened the first Catholic school in the new building. The sisters of 
the order have continued in charge of the school ever since, there 
being at this time about twenty-two employed to teach the large 
number of girls who receive instructions at this excellent institution, 
the average attendance being considerably in excess of four hundred. 
The school is connected with the St. Augustine Academy and the 
present building, a large and commodious brick edifice, well equipped 
with all the modern educational appliances, stands a short distance 
from the church on Calhoun street. 

A few years after the above institution had been started Father 
Benoit opened a separate school for boys, using for the purpose an 



abandoned carpenter shop, which ere long was supplanted by the 
present brick structure on Jefferson and Clinton streets. After being 
taught by lay teachers for several years it was finally turned over 
to the Brothers of the Holy Cross, who have since remained in 
charge, the work under their excellent supervision being of a high 
order and eminently satisfactory to pupils, parents and clergy. 

The first pastoral residence, a substantial brick building which 
stood on the corner of Lewis and Calhoun streets, was erected 
through the agency of Rev. A. Bessonies and answered the purpose 
for which designed until replaced by the library hall in 1880. The 
latter is a large, imposing edifice, admirably adapted to the objects 
for which intended and one of the finest and most complete library 
buildings in the state. The present parochial residence is also a 
creditable structure of brick three stories high, and, though plain 
in design, presents a massive and impressive appearance, suggest- 
ing the idea of utility and comfort, rather than elegance. 

By far the most beautiful and attractive structure, however, is 
the episcopal residence, a veritable palace of brick and stone which 
was completed in 1903 and which easily ranks among the finest edi- 
fices of the kind, not only in Indiana, but in the entire country. This 
is also a massive three-story building of plain design, the main part 
nearly square, the first story built of a fine cut stone, the rest of 
pressed brick, the edifice in its entirety being a magnificent specimen 
of architectural art upon which neither money nor pains has been 
spared to make it complete in its every part, and a fit dwelling for 
the high dignitary by whom it is occupied. Its internal arrange- 
ments, both as a residence in which no comfort nor modern con- 
venience is lacking, and as a place for transacting" the official busi- 
ness of the diocese, are in every respect admirable and especially 
adapted to the purposes for which intended, while its harmonious 
proportions, artistic finish and many other attractive features are 
such as to make it an honor to the see and an object of pride to 
the people of the city, irespective of religious belief. 


This organization is an offshoot of old St. Augustine's church, 
and was established in 1848 by about thirty German families that 


hitherto had been identified with the former congregation, but were 
led to found an independent body by reason of their desire to hear 
the word of God proclaimed in their own tongue. Purchasing a few 
lots at the present intersection of Lafayette and Jefferson streets for 
seventeen hundred dollars, to secure the payment of which several 
leaders of the movement gave mortgages on their farms, work on 
the building began in the summer of 1848, but ere it had proceeded 
very far the cholera broke out and for a time put an end to further 
operations. In November of the same year, however, it was finally 
brought to completion and on the 29th of that month the thirty 
families moved in solemn procession from St. Augustine's church to 
take possession of the new edifice, the leader on the occasion being 
Rev. F. X. Weninger, who during the previous week had been 
preaching a mission to the German Catholics of the town and 

The new church was a brick building, thirty- two by sixty- four 
feet in size, well adapted to the purposes for which intended. Later, 
a small one-story frame house was erected to serve as a pastoral 
residence and the school house that had formerly been used by the 
Germans was moved from Calhoun street in 1849 an< ^ placed in the 
rear of the other church property. 

Bishop de Saint Palais, of Vincennes, visited the new church in 
1850 and, besides administering confirmation, contributed to the 
parish the sum of five hundred dollars, which was greatly appreci- 
ated. The congregation continued to meet in the original house of 
worship until the growth in membership made larger quarters nec- 
essary; accordingly, in 1858 subscriptions were circulated to raise 
funds for a more commodious building. Plans were prepared by 
Thomas Lau, bricks and other material were purchased and a build- 
ing committee appointed, consisting of B. Trentman, H. Nierman, 
John Trentman, M. Noll and B. H. Schnieders, under whose di- 
rections operations were pushed with promptness and dispatch. 
Right Rev. Bishop Luers laid the corner-stone in the summer of 
1858, and in November of the year following the building was 
formally dedicated by the same prelate in the presence of a large and 
appreciative audience which far exceeded the capacity of the church 
to accommodate. 


Prominent among the leading spirits in bringing about the erec- 
tion of this beautiful and stately temple were Henry Monning and 
Rev. J. Weutz, who spent considerable time traveling about the 
country soliciting contributions to meet the thirty thousand dollars 
which the building cost, but which was not all paid for a number of 
years after its completion. Rev. Weutz was the able and popular 
pastor of the church for several years, being assisted in his labors 
at different times by Revs. Heitman, Young and Burg, and during 
his absence in Europe in 1871 his place was filled by Rev. F. Von 
Schwedler, in whose care the work was not permitted to decline. 
In 1872 Rev. Weutz resigned the pastorate and was succeeded by 
Rev. Joseph Rademacher, who had as his assistant Rev. Charles 
Steurer, and under their joint labors the church enjoyed an unusual 
degree of prosperity, being greatly strengthened in membership, 
while all of its departments were thoroughly organized and fitted 
for effective service. After a very successful pastorate of about 
seven years Rev. Rademacher was transferred to another field and 
Rev. J. H. Oechtering appointed to take charge of the Mother of 
God church, his assistants in their order named being Revs. C. 
Steurer, C. Ganser, A. L. Moench, C. M. Romes, R. Denk and G. 

January 13, 1886, will ever be memorable in the history of the 
church by reason of the destruction of the magnificent house of wor- 
ship by an accident of appalling magnitude which is deserving of 
more than passing notice in this connection. At half past one in 
the afternoon the boiler beneath the building, in which the steam 
for heat was generated, exploded, completely wrecking the great edi- 
fice and killing the firemen in charge, the shock being distinctly 
felt in every part of the city. A little girl passing the church at the 
time was struck by a door which. In d been blown from its holdings, 
and instantly killed; the pastoral residence was also greatly dam- 
aged and such a scene of ruin and desolation as the building pre- 
sented has never been witnessed in Fort Wayne, before or since. It 
was not long, however, until a new building was under headway, 
larger and in every respect superior to the former edifice, and when 
completed it was pronounced one of the most stately and imposing 
temples of worship in the Fort Wayne diocese, as well as one of the 


most valuable, its cost representing the sum of seventy-five thousand 
dollars. The corner-stone of this magnificent edifice was laid by 
Right Rev. Bishop Dwenger on July II, 1886, and on the third 
Sunday of Advent, 1887, it was formally dedicated, the Bishop of- 
ficiating and preaching the English sermon, the discourse in German 
being delivered by Very Rev. Abbelen, of Milwaukee. Pontifical 
mass was sung by Right Rev. Bishop Rademacher, of Nashville, and 
the occasion was one of great rejoicing, being attended by a vast con- 
course of people who came to congratulate the pastor and congre- 
gation upon the completion of a noble piece of handiwork which for 
many years to come will stand as a monument to the generosity of a 
people whose faith in God never wavered and whose trust in divine 
providence led them through struggles and hardships to final victory. 
In 1862 the old school house, a part of which had served as a 
church during the interim from 1849 to ^58, was replaced by the 
handsome new brick school house and Sisters' convent, the two 
buildings costing the sum of twenty thousand dollars. St. Mary's 
is one of the strongest and most flourishing parishes in the diocese 
of Fort Wayne and its present status is greater and farther reach- 
ing in its influence than at any other period in the history of the 
church. Every department is thoroughly organized for effective 
work, the schools are under most efficient management and the or- 
ganization in its entirety is moving gradually forward to the accom- 
plishment of still greater things in the service of the Master, being 
ably directed by the efficient and beloved pastor, Rev. John H. Oech- 
tering, assisted by Rev. Gustave Hattenroth. 

st. peter's church 

was established in 1872 by a number of Catholic families living in 
the southeastern part of Fort Wayne, and the same year a building 
was planned for the two-fold purpose of church and school, the four 
ground rooms to be used for the latter and the second floor for the 
former. The corner-stone of this structure was laid in the summer 
of 1872 and on December 29th of the same year the building was 
dedicated by Right Rev. Bishop Dwenger, the cost amounting to 
something like twelve thousand dollars. 


The first pastor of St. Peter's was Rev. J. Wemhoff, who served 
very acceptably for a period of eight years, or until his death in De- 
cember, 1880, since which time the church has enjoyed the oversight 
of several able and faithful priests who have labored zealously for 
the material and spiritual advancement of the congregation. Rev. 
A. Mossman, the successor of Father Wemhoff, was called to the 
pastorate in December, 1880, and after continuing his labors until 
July, 1896, was followed by Rev. F. Koerdt, whose lamented death, 
in the spring of 1905, cast a pall of gloom over the church, besides 
being deeply regretted by the people of the city, Protestants as well 
as Catholics, he being held in high esteem by the public, irrespective 
of church or belief. The present pastor, Rev. John Biederman, is a 
worthy successor of the several eminent priests who have had charge 
of the church, and has already won a warm and abiding place in the 
hearts and affections of his people, being an able preacher, a judicious 
adviser and a man in whom his parishioners repose the utmost con- 

The schools connected with St. Peter's were opened in 1873 ; 
eight years afterwards sisters from Milwaukee, known as School 
Sisters, were secured as teachers and have since been in charge of the 
educational interests of the parish, the average attendance of pupils 
being about four hundred and fifty. In 1882 the congregation pur- 
chased a house, and then additional lots for a pastoral residence, 
which, with the other church property, constitute what is known as 
St. Peter's square, which extends from Warsaw street west to 
Hanna, and contains the entire strip between DeWald and Martin 
streets. On a part of this square there was erected, in 1887, a fine 
two-story brick building to be used as a residence by the sisters. 

Having outgrown the first house of worship, the congregation, 
in 1893, began the erection of a new and much larger building, 
which was completed and dedicated in October of the following 
year. This splendid edifice is seventy-five by one hundred and 
eighty- four feet in area, eighty feet high and surmounted by a grace- 
ful spire, which, terminating at a point two hundred and seven feet 
from the ground, can be seen from all parts of the city and surround- 
ing country. The interior of the building is artistically decorated 


and the auditorium can easily accommodate a congregation of eleven 
hundred, this being its normal seating capacity. The structure is 
purely Gothic, easily ranks among the finest church buildings of the 
state, and represents a cost of seventy thousand dollars. 

The parish, which is one of the most prosperous ones in the 
diocese of Fort Wayne, supports the following sodalities : The St. 
Joseph Society, the Association of the Holy Motherhood, St. 
Stephen's Society, consisting of young men, St. Agnes' Society, for 
young women, Guardian Angels Society, Rosary Society, Sacred 
Heart League, St. Cecelia Society, which looks after the choir, St. 
Martin's Benevolent Society, St. Vincent DePaul's Society, devoted 
to the interests of the poor of the parish, Catholic Knights, Catholic 
Benevolent Legion, and the Society of the Holy Childhood. 

st. paul's church. 

The history of this organization dates from 1864, in which year 
about thirty-five German families met at the home of the Reker 
brothers and, after due deliberation, decided to build a church in 
the west end of the city for the benefit of the German Catholics liv- 
ing in that locality. For some time the Reker brothers had been 
managing a home for orphans and aged people, which drew its chief 
support from private charities, with additional aid from the county 
and church. 

Property for the new church was purchased near the intersection 
of Griffith and Jefferson streets, and in due time a frame building, 
costing the sum of three thousand seven hundred dollars, was erected 
thereon, which, with the amount paid for the lot, brought the value 
of the property up to about four thousand eight hundred dollars. 
The building was completed in 1870 and several years later the cor- 
ner lot on which the present church edifice stands was procured; 
other lots were also bought, and in 1886 the fine brick edifice which 
graces the northeast corner of Griffith and Washington streets was 
begun, and the same year the corner stone was laid by Right Rev. 
Bishop R'ademacher, of Nashville, Tennessee, the dedication of 
the building taking place on the first Sunday of November, 1887, 
the Bishop of Fort Wayne officiating. This building, like all ec- 


clesiastical edifices of the Catholic church, was erected with an 
eye to the future and is substantially constructed, beautifully dec- 
orated and reflects great credit upon the congregation that worships 
within its stately walls. It cost the sum of fifty thousand dollars, 
compares favorably with other ecclesiastical structures of the city and 
since its completion the church has taken on new life and is con- 
tinually growing in strength and efficiency as an agency for the dis- 
semination of the gospel among the people. 

The membership of St. Paul's numbers between one hundred 
and eighty-five and two hundred families and the schools, which 
are in the charge of able and conscientious teachers, have an aver- 
age attendance of about three hundred pupils. 

Rev. H. F. Joseph Kroll, who ministers to the spiritual needs 
of the congregation, is one of the able and popular clergymen of the 
Fort Wayne diocese, having held important charges before being 
transferred to his present field of labor. His assistant is Raphael 
L. Paquet, a man of talents and fine address, whose work has proven 
entirely satisfactory to the parishioners and his superior. 

st. Patrick's church. 

Realizing that in no distant future the Catholics living in the 
southern part of Fort Wayne would need a church of their own, 
Bishop Dwenger, early in the year 1889, purchased a property on 
Fairfield avenue to be used for the two-fold purpose of a house of 
worship and a school. A school was accordingly opened and in Oc- 
tober of the same year Rev. T. M. O'Leary was appointed to minister 
to the spiritual needs of the newly organized congregation. About 
the same time a favorable opportunity for the purchase of six lots on 
DeWald street, between Harrison and Webster streets, presented 
itself and as this property was more centrally located and very de- 
sirable, Father O'Leary was instructed by the bishop to secure it. 
The latter at once entered into negotiations for its purchase, but be- 
fore the completion of the transaction death claimed the good priest, 
after which Bishop Dwenger donated to the congregation the prop- 
erty on Fairfield avenue and appointed Rev. J. F. Delaney as pastor 
of St. Patrick's parish, the name by which the organization was to be 



Father Delaney at once began the work of perfecting a perma- 
nent organization, also of soliciting subscriptions for the purpose of 
building a house of worship, in both of which his success was most 
encouraging. To complete the half square he purchased the re- 
maining two lots on DeWald street, four having been previously 
purchased by Father O'Leary, and on April 20, 1890, ground was 
broken for the new church. The corner-stone was laid on the 20th 
of May following, after which the work went rapidly forward until 
on Sunday, November 22, 1891, the splendid new edifice of St. 
Patrick's was duly consecrated to the worship of God, the occasion 
being one of mutual congratulations and rejoicing, in which many 
societary and civic bodies participated. 

St. Patrick's church is truly a magnificent structure of Gothic 
design, one hundred and sixty-three feet in length, sixty-five feet 
in width, with a frontage of ninety-four feet, the spire towering to 
a height of one hundred and eighty-five feet, the whole presenting 
a massive, as well as a graceful and imposing appearance. The cost 
of the building, exclusive of furnishing, was about fifty thousand 
dollars, and with the latter the total amounted to a much larger 
figure, no expense being spared to make the interior as beautiful and 
attractive as the exterior. The building will comfortably seat an 
audience of one thousand persons and is pronounced one of the 
finest and most complete churches in a city noted for the size and 
magnificence of its ecclesiastical edifices. 

St. Patrick's parish is alive to> every good work, not only for the 
advancement of the congregation but for the welfare of the com- 
munity as well, being ably directed in all of its efforts by the popular 
pastor, Rev. Joseph F. Delaney, whose long period of service has 
greatly endeared him to his people, being one of the able and schol- 
arly clergymen of the diocese and a man of broad views whom 
Protestants as well as Catholics hold in high esteem. He is assisted 
in his labors by Rev. E. J. Mungoven, who has also won a large place 
in the confidence of the parish, his personality and services being 
such as to win and retain warm and abiding friendships. 

Additional to the organizations mentioned, the Catholics have an- 
other congregation in Fort Wayne, which, like the preceding, is 
constantly growing in numbers and influence, namely: 



on the corner of Barthold and Fourth streets, the history of which 
dates from only a few years in the past. This congregation is ani- 
mated by a commendable zeal to advance the kingdom of God ac- 
cording to the principles and precepts of the Holy Mother church and, 
as already noted, its progress has been creditable along every line of 
endeavor, and, under the judicious leadership of Rev. Chrysostum 
Hummer, the parish is not only moving forward to higher achiev- 
ments, but is continually extending its bounds, which at this time 
includes a large and important part of the city in the locality indi- 
cated. The pastor is a man of keen discernment and fine executive 
talent and, being thoroughly consecrated to duty, his labors have 
been fruitful in results, not only in cementing and strengthening 
the bonds of union among his own people, but in inducing many to 
accept the terms of salvation and enter upon the higher life. 

st. Joseph's chapel, 

connected with the hospital of the same name, is in charge of Rev. 
Thomas Eisenring, the chaplain of the institution, who conducts serv- 
ices at regular intervals, in addition to the more serious and onerous 
duty of attending to the spiritual wants of the inmates and such of 
the patients as desire his services. The influence of this wise and 
good father has tended greatly to the success of the hospital, his 
kindly presence being most welcome in the wards of the sick, to 
whom he is constantly speaking words of cheer and encouragement, 
thus assisting the invalids on the way to recovery; or when the last 
feeble spark of life is glimmering and eternity draws nigh he points 
to the One who can take away the sting of death and infuses hope 
into the spirit as it takes its flight. 

st. Vincent's orphan asylum. 

The building of this noble institution began in 1886, on July 4th 
of which year the corner-stone was laid by Right Rev. Bishop 
Dwenger, and on the 27th of September, 1887, the structure was 


completed and formally dedicated, the same prelate officiating. The 
original cost of the asylum was $49,289.37, of which amount 
$13,265.00 was derived from individual donations, $13,300.00 from 
various other sources, $11,800.00 from the sale of real estate in 
Jasper county, Indiana, and $2,130.81 from a special diocesan collec- 
tion, bringing the total receipts up to $40,495.89, and leaving an 
indebtedness of $8,793.37, which has since been discharged. The 
structure, which is certainly a magnificent one and splendidly adapted 
to the purpose for which designed, crowns an elevation in the north- 
ern part of the city, having a frontage of one hundred and twenty- 
six feet, a depth of one hundred feet, being four stories high and 
supplied with water, gas, steam heating, fire protection and every 
other modern convenience, and, with improvements added from 
time to time, will comfortably accommodate four hundred children. 
There are three flights of stairs in the building, the school rooms are 
commodious and well ventilated, the reception halls large and airy 
and in matters of comfort and sanitation the living apartments are 
unrivalled by those of any similar institution in the land, while the 
chapel is a model of architectural beauty and taste. 

This institution is the diocesan orphan asylum for girls, children 
being admitted from any part of the diocese upon application to 
the bishop, who issues a permit to the pastor applying for the ad- 
mission. To the Sisters of Charity known as Poor Handmaids of 
Christ is intrusted the care of the orphans, the management being 
in charge of a sister superior, whose duties take a large range and 
who is selected with special reference to her fitness for the many 
responsibilities coming within her sphere of service. There is a 
wise division of labor in the asylum, some of the sisters being en- 
gaged in teaching, others attend to the domestic affairs, while the 
spiritual welfare of all the inmates is carefully looked after by a 
chaplain, who is appointed by the bishop, and whose tenure of office 
depends upon his fitness for the place. The asylum derives its sup- 
port from collections taken in every church of the diocese on Christ- 
mas day and forwarded to the bishop, who disburses the moneys as 
they are needed; in addition to these general collections, there are 
occasional private contributions, there being a number of parties who 
have thus befriended the institution. 


St. Vincent's Asylum is a noble monument to a noble cause and 
admirably has it fulfilled its mission and realized the high expecta- 
tions of its founders and friends, the latter including Catholics and 
non-Catholics alike, the public having ever manifested an abiding 
interest in the success and welfare of the institution. It is ably 
sustained and its management , being in the hands of those eminently 
qualified to direct and control its various interests, has been judicious 
and satisfactory to all concerned. Fort Wayne has every reason to 
be proud of an enterprise which represents the highest phases of 
religion and benevolence, and as long as the institution stands it 
will add honor to the city's reputation at home and abroad. 



Among the early settlements of Allen county was the one on the 
St. Joseph river about fourteen miles northeast of Fort Wayne, 
made by a few French families and known as Leo. This, however, 
is not the official name of the village which these people planted in 
the wilderness, the records designating it as "Hamilton," but the 
place has always been called Leo and as such has become endeared to 
the people living in the vicinity. P. Sullivan, John Rogers, William 
Mueller, Mr. Lawler and Charles Nettlethorst, with their respective 
families, were among the first Catholic residents of the locality and 
as early as 1838 Rev. William Mueller, of Fort Wayne, visited the 
neighborhood and held services in the cabin of Mr. Nettlethorst. 
Later Rev. Father Benoit ministered to them from time to time, after 
which Father Bessonies visited the little flock about once a month and 
to him is due the credit of inducing the congregation to purchase 
ground and erect a house of worship. Two lots in the village were 
secured for this purpose and two more donated by Mr. Mueller, and 
in due time, a neat, substantial building was erected and formally 
dedicated by Right Rev. J. H. Luers, bishop of the Fort Wayne 
diocese. Father Bessonies began his visits about the year 1853 and 


continued them at stated intervals for some time, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. E. Faller, during* whose pastorate the house of wor- 
ship was built and the parish greatly strengthened. Since the ex- 
piration of Father Faller' s period of service the church has been 
ministered to by several devoted and faithful priests, among whom 
were Fathers Deschamps, Schaefer, Holz, who was the first resident 
pastor, Duehmig, Zumbuelte, Young, Franzen, Vagnier, Byrne, 
Robinson and others. 

During the pastorate of Father Zumbuelte the church was pro- 
vided with pews and a bell, and ground secured for a cemetery, and 
for some time thereafter the parish was in charge of Fathers of 
the Holy Cross, notably among whom were Revs. Vagnier and 
Robinson, whose earnest labors were effective in arousing a deep 
interest in the congregation and adding much to its spiritual inter- 
est and strength. By some the name of the church is claimed 
to be St. Mary's, but the majority of the communicants being in 
favor of calling it St. Leo it has generally been designated by the 
latter. The congregation is united in every good work and its pros- 
perity is attested by the wholesome influence which it has long exer- 
cised in the community, non-Catholics as well as members being in- 
terested in its growth and welfare. 


The first Catholic priest to visit Jefferson township and hold 
services for the few scattered families of the ancient faith was Rev. 
A. Bessonies, who about the year 1853 offered mass at the home of 
Joseph Dodane, one of the early Catholic residents of the locality. 
During the one year in which the good father visited the community 
he not only organized a parish, but erected a commodious frame 
church, to which the name of St. Louis was given, besides in divers 
other ways extending the kingdom of God among the people for 
many miles around. He was followed by Rev. J, Benoit, after 
whom came Rev. Father Grevin, during whose labors a pastoral 
residence was built, and in addition to those three devoted servants 
of the Most High, the church since 1865 has been ministered to by a 
number of faithful priests, among whom may be noted the follow- 
ing : Revs. J. C. Carrier, F. M. Ruiz, A. de Montaubricq, A. J. M. 


Vandervennet, A. Mignault, and A. Adams, during whose adminis- 
tration of five years the present beautiful and imposing temple of 
worship was erected at a cost of ten thousand dollars. After the 
resignation of Father Adams in 1875, Rev. G. Demers became pas- 
tor, but was succeeded one year later by Rev. Felix Veniard, of the 
Order of the Holy Cross, who among other good works succeeded in 
paying off a debt of three thousand dollars which had long been an 
embarrassment to the congregation. 

It is worthy of note in this connection that the saintly Benoit, 
in addition to his earnest and self-sacrificing labors for St. Louis, con- 
tributed from his own purse the sum of five hundred dollars to enable 
the church to construct a pastoral residence, this being but one of the 
many evidences of the good man's unselfish devotion to the cause to 
which from early youth his life had been consecrated. The mem- 
bership of St. Louis parish is largely French and consists of about 
one hundred families. There is a neat cemetery yard by the church, 
beneath whose quiet shades many former members of the congre- 
gation are sweetly resting until the trumpet of the resurrection shall 
call them from their sleep. 


at New Haven, was organized by Rev. Father Batty in 1837, the 
ceremony taking place at the home of Mr. N. Schuckman, where 
services had been held from time to time during several preceding 
years. Among the early families of the parish were those of H. 
Schnelker, G. Schlinck, N. Jostvert, N. Schuckman and Herman 
Schnelker, Messrs. H. Schnelker, G. Schlinck and N. Jostvert con- 
stituting the first church council. These gentlemen gave their in- 
dividual notes to Henry Burgess as the purchase price of sufficient 
land whereon to build a church, and later, through the united efforts 
of the members and the pastor. Rev. Father Grevin, who visited the 
little city once a month, the edifice was pushed to completion, at a 
cost of four thousand dollars. 

Rev. Father Giedel became pastor in 1861, and served with 
great acceptance until his death, in 1873. Two years prior to his 
demise he secured the services of the Sisters of St. Agnes, of Fond 


du Lac, Wisconsin, for teaching the pupils of the school connected 
with the church, several of whom are still employed, the school at- 
tendance averaging from one hundred and thirty to one hundred 
and forty-five children. The school building was erected in 1872, 
at a cost of eight thousand dollars, and the present temple of worship, 
one of the finest ecclesiastical edifices in the county outside of Fort 
Wayne, was completed during the effective pastorate of Rev. 
Bernard Wiedau, and represents a capital of seventeen thousand dol- 
lars. St. John's is a strong and influential church, in a prosperous 
community and at this time has a membership of nearly, if not 
quite, six hundred. 

st. Joseph's church, 

in the village of Hesse Cassell, is one of the old Catholic settlements 
of Allen county, services having been held at the village in the early 
'30s by different priests, but it was not until 1835 tnat tne families 
of the neighborhood were organized into a church, a log house of 
worship being erected the following year. The first resident priest 
was Rev. Father Mueller, whose successors for a number of years 
were as follows : Revs. Benoit, Hamion, Rudolph, Munschiem, 
Cairus Failed, Schultes, Weutz, Fora, Schneider and Meyer, the 
last named being in charge when the present temple of worship was 
erected in 1868. Rev. Martin Kink became pastor after Father 
Meyer, and was followed by Father Wemhoff and he in turn by Fa- 
ther Nusbaum, who remained until 1879, since which time the 
church has been ministered to by Fathers Geer, Huesser, Mark, 
Benziger and others. 

The parish consists of about seventy-five families, mostly Ger- 
man, and the church is in a healthy financial condition and a power 
for good in the community. There is a substantial brick building 
for school purposes in charge of three Francisan Sisters of the 
Sacred Heart, the average attendance being about fifty pupils. 

st. Vincent's church, academy. 

As early as 1840 several French families established a settle- 
ment about six miles north of Fort Wayne, to which they gave the 
name of New France, in honor of their fatherland. Three years later 


Rev. Julian Benoit visited these devoted people and celebrated mass 
at the residence of Isidore Pichon, the service being attended by the 
entire neighborhood and much enthusiasm aroused. The good father 
continued his visits to these families until 1853, ms successor being 
Rev. A. Bessonies, who began his labors the following year. In 
1846 the first house of worship was erected, and in 1855 a frame 
cottage for the use of the pastor was built, Rev. Father Dechamp 
being the first resident priest to minister to the wants of the congre- 
gation. After his death, which occurred in 1858, Rev. Father 
Grevin succeeded to the work, and under his able administration the 
organization prospered greatly, numbering before he left about 
eighty families. In 1861 Rev. A. Adam became pastor, during 
whose period of service a new church was built, which is still used by 
the congregation. A new pastoral residence was also constructed 
and an academy of large proportions erected for the education of 
young ladies, the institution being in charge of the Sisters of the 
Holy Cross, from Notre Dame, Indiana, and known as the Academy 
of the Sacred Heart. The school has always been prosperous and, 
under the excellent management of the good sisters, is accomplish- 
ing a noble work in the cause of education and religion, both being 
considered necessary to the correct and symmetrical training of the 
immortal mind. 

In 1870 a priest of the Holy Cross became pastor of St. Vincent's 
and for a number of years succeeding that date the church was in 
charge of this order, to the great advancement of its material pros- 
perity and the extension of its influence. Among the fathers who 
ministered to the parish were Rev. P. Roche, whose services covered 
a period of ten years and were greatly blessed along all lines of 
religious activity; Rev. P. J. Franciscus, who afterwards became 
president of a college in Rome, Italy; Rev. J. Lauth, Rev. Father 
Robinson, and others whose labors have been equally effective. 

St. Vincent's is one of the most thriving parishes of Allen county 
and its good work and beneficial influence have done much to give 
the community the high moral reputation which it has long enjoyed. 
The members are loyal to the traditions and teachings of the holy 
mother church, and exemplify in their daily life and conduct the 
principles which should distinguish and animate all true Catholics. 


st. Patrick's church, arcola. 

About the year 1845 ^ ev - Julian Benoit visited the early Catho- 
lic settlement of Arcola, and after conducting services at the resi- 
dence of Victor Muneir,. gathered the faithful into a congregation, 
which during the following year was ministered to at stated intervals 
by Rev. Dr. Madden. The successor of the latter was Rev. Father 
Schaefer, who, in addition to building a modest house of worship, 
greatly strengthened the organization and made it a power for good 
in the community. Among the early members of the parish were 
John Dougherty, William Rawley, Thomas Brannan, John Owens, 
Nicholas Eloph, Michael Donahoe, B. McLaughlin, W. Brown, with 
their respective families, and the first priest to take up his residence 
at Arcola was Rev. Theodore Vander Pohl, who remained with the 
church for a period of five years and added much to its material 
growth and spiritual advancement. At the expiration of the time 
indicated Rev. H. T. Wilkens became pastor and after serving as 
such for eight years was followed by Rev. B. Hartman, whose pas- 
torate of several years is remembered as one of prosperity in every 
department of religious work. The next pastor was Rev. James 
Twiggs, who died after a residence of a few months, being suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. A. Werdein, since the expiration of whose pas- 
torate several able and zealous priests have had charge of the church. 
A few years ago a building in keeping with the growing and in- 
fluential congregation was erected and a flourishing school estab- 
lished, the ground on which the former stands being donated by 
Patrick Ney, and the lot for the school house by Mr. Welsheimer. 


Like the majority of rural churches of Allen and neighboring 
counties, this organization is the outgrowth of the labors of Rev. 
Julian Benoit, who visited the village of Monroeville as early as 
1850 and celebrated mass in private residences, the services being 
attended by the few Catholic families living in the vicinity. At first 
these visits were irregular, but later the good Father came at stated 
intervals, being assisted by Father Madden, who proved a faithful 


and untiring missionary and co-laborer. After some months a room 
in the house of a Mr. Hayes was converted into a temporary chapel, 
and in this humble place of worship the faithful continued to meet 
from time to time to celebrate the mass and listen to the words of 
life, as delivered by Rev. E. P. Walters, who visited the little band 
once a month until the year 1868. During the latter's administra- 
tion a frame building, twenty-eight by fifty feet in area, was erected 
and dedicated to the worship of God, in addition to which the church, 
under his able efforts, forged to the front as one of the growing 
Catholic congregations of Allen county, gaining continuously in 
membership and influence, until it became a power for good and a 
factor of no small moment in controlling public sentiment in the 

Among the pastors of the congregation from time to time have 
been the following: Revs. B rammer, Graham, Meile, Heitman, 
Hibbelen, Grogan, Wilkens, Hartman and others, the majority of 
whom became distinguished in ecclesiastical circles, after leaving 
this parish several being called to eminent positions in the church 
throughout the country. The first resident pastor was Rev. J. 
Grogan, who entered upon his duties in 1884, since which time the 
church has not been without the oversight of a priest living in the 
town of Monroeville. 

In October, 1887, the church edifice was destroyed by fire, imme- 
diately after which a subscription of four thousand five hundred 
dollars was raised for the purpose of rebuilding. The foundations 
of the new structure were laid in the spring of 1888, and on July 
1st of the same year the corner-stone was put into its place by Bishop 
Dwenger, work being pushed with such dispatch that on May 12, 
1889, the beautiful and commodious brick edifice was formally dedi- 
cated, the bishop of the diocese officiating. 

The church and school at Monroeville are in a thriving condi- 
tion, the buildings of both being substantially constructed and well 
furnished, while the support is unanimous and free-hearted, all mem- 
bers of the parish striving by every means at their command to live 
up to their highest conceptions of Christian duty and to further 
the cause which lies so close to their hearts. 




in Pleasant township, is the result of the labors of Rev. Jacob Mayer, 
of Decatur, who visited the neighborhood in the latter part of 1858 
and conducted services in the home of Frederick Weaver. These 
visits were continued during the following year and it was soon 
decided to erect a building, which in due time was planned and under 
headway. Among the leading Catholics of the locality was Christian 
Miller, who donated three acres of land for church purposes, which 
was increased by the purchase of an additional acre in 1878, to be 
used for a cemetery. The church edifice, a neat and attractive build- 
ing twenty-nine by thirty-six feet in size, was completed" within the 
time specified and called St. Aloysius by Mrs. Christian Miller, to 
whom was accorded the honor of selecting an appropriate name by 
which it should be designated. 

After Rev. Mayer ceased visiting the mission, Rev. M. Kink be- 
came pastor, and he in turn was succeeded by Rev. A. L. Meile, who 
divided his time between this point and Hesse Cassel. Later came 
Revs. Hibbelen, Woeste and Nussbaum, and it was during the ad- 
ministration of the last named that the church was enlarged and a 
spire built, at a cost of one thousand five hundred dollars. 

On July 30, 1876, Rev. Father Koerdt took charge of the church 
as its first resident pastor, and during his incumbency the interior 
of the building was decorated and otherwise beautified, in addition 
to which he also established a school, with an attendance of thirty- 
eight pupils, using for the purpose a small frame house, which in 
1882 was replaced by a handsome two-story brick edifice, costing the 
sum of four thousand dollars. In the meantime he erected a pas- 
toral residence, which represents a capital of four thousand dollars, 
and in many ways was the church advanced under his able leadership. 
Among the teachers of the parochial school during its early years 
were Profs. Smoll, Kenning, Gruber and Miss Philomena Wilford, 
the first two being ably assisted in their work by Father Koerdt, 
himself a very efficient teacher and tactful disciplinarian. 

In 1883 two Sisters of St. Agnes took charge of the school and 
continued to manage the same for some years, to the satisfaction of 
pupils, pastor and patrons. Both church and Sunday school enjoy 


high standing in the diocese, the congregation being made up of 
an intelligent, steady class of people who have ever displayed com- 
mendable zeal in the cause of religion and education, and the spirit 
of amity which exists between pastor and people, and the unity of 
sentiment among the latter in relation to all lines of moral and re- 
ligious effort, have made the church a powerful agency for good 
and gained for it an honorable reputation among its sister churches 
of Allen county. 






The doctrines of the Methodist church do not belong to any new 
system of theology, ethics or philosophy, but are as old and time- 
honored as the Christian era itself. It was not John Wesley who 
founded Methodism as much as it was Methodism which founded 
John Wesley and made of him one of the greatest religious reform- 
ers in the world's history. 'Tis true that the Wesleys first gave im- 
petus to a religious movement which spread with remarkable rapidity 
over England and installed new life and zeal into a church upon 
which formalism had fastened itself to the great detriment of vital 
faith and evangelical progress. From the old world the work of 
evangelism was not long in making its way across the Atlantic to 
find fertile soil in the hearts of the colonists, and it was only about 
forty years after John Wesley began his work in England until the 
first society of Methodists was organized in New York, the meetings 
being held in the carpenter shop of one Philip Embury, an humble, 
pious man, whose only ambition was to do good in the world. This 
little society, consisting of only four or five persons, whose names 
have long been forgotten, formed the nucleus of the greatest organi- 
zation for substantial good the world has ever known. Less than 
two centuries have elapsed since Philip Embury's humble carpenter 
shop held all the Methodists in the United States and yet today the 


church claims nearly four millions within its fold and over twice that 
number that are being influenced by instruction from its pulpits 
throughout the land. 

In every new country this zealous people have been the heralds 
and forerunners of civilization, and in the early days of the West 
there was hardly a settlement in which they were not the first, or 
among the first, to raise the standard of the cross and preach to the 
pioneers the unsearchable riches of the kingdom of God. Itinerant 
missionaries penetrated the wilderness of northern Indiana when 
a few scattered settlements were but niches in the primeval forests, 
and gathered the people together, organizing them into classes, which, 
being visited at intervals, and carefully administered to by those tire- 
less servants of the Most High, gradually grew into churches, the 
influence of which tended greatly to curb the prevailing evils of the 
times and build up enlightened and God-fearing communities. 

Hardly had Fort Wayne assumed the dignity of a backwoods 
village until Methodists began settling here and in the vicinity, and 
as early as 1824 Rev. James Holman, a representative of a distin- 
guished family of the same name in the county of Wayne, and 
a local preacher of considerable note, moved his family to the new 
town, purchasing land in what is now a part of the city north of the 
St. Mary's river, from which in due time he cleared and developed a 
farm. No sooner had he erected his cabin than he began preaching 
to as many of his neighbors and friends as would meet under his roof, 
and in addition to these services he went from place to place through- 
out the surrounding country, holding meetings at different places and 
never tiring in the good work of calling the people to repentance and 
instructing them in the ways of the better life. Rev. Holman con- 
tinued these ministrations with gratifying success until the latter 
part of 1830, at which time Rev. Alexander Wiley, a presiding elder 
of the Ohio conference, came to Fort Wayne and established a mis- 
sion, which the same year was placed in charge of Rev. Nehemiah 
B. Griffith. After laboring for some time and greatly strengthening 
the organization and extending its influence, this missionary went to 
another field and was succeeded by Rev. Richard S. Robinson, the 
latter in due season being followed by Rev. Boyd Phelps, during 
whose period of service the name was changed to the Maumee mis- 


sion, by which it continued to be known until the organization of the 
Fort Wayne circuit, a few years later. 

All of the above missionaries were sent out by the Ohio confer- 
ence, the last one being appointed to this place being Rev. Freeman 
Farnsworth, during whose labors meetings were held in various lo- 
calities and largely attended by the settlers, affording as they did a 
means of social recreation, as well as religious instruction. 

In 1832 the class numbered six members, namely: Judge Rob- 
ert Brackenridge and wife, James Holman, wife and daughter, and a 
Miss Alderman, who subsequently became the wife of Simon Edsall, 
one of the leading citizens of the place. At the end of one year Rev. 
Farnsworth was succeeded by Rev. James S. Harrison, the latter 
appointed by the Indiana conference, which had just been organized, 
and about the same time the Maumee mission became the Fort 
Wayne circuit. Mr. Harrison was a man of considerable energy and 
zeal, and, realizing the need of a stated place of worship, he inaugu- 
rated a movement for the erection of a building, securing for the 
purpose a lot on Main street between Ewing and Cass, and pushing 
the enterprise as rapidly as circumstances would admit. In due time 
a large, imposing frame structure, with Gothic windows and a grace- 
ful steeple, was erected, but the congregation not being able to meet 
the expenses, which were much heavier than at first anticipated, the 
enterprise was finally abandoned and the frame work removed, the 
lot subsequently reverting to the original owners. After this the ' 
congregation continued to hold services at different places, the Ma- 
sonic Hall and a carpenter shop being most frequently used, but occa- 
sionally recourse was had to the school house, which afforded a com- 
fortable and fairly commodious meeting place. 

Among the early ministers who successively served the Fort 
Wayne circuit were Revs. S. R. Ball, James T. Robe and Jacob Col- 
clazer, the last named a man of much more than ordinary ability, a 
fine orator and widely known in Methodist circles throughout Indi- 
ana and neighboring states. During his pastorate a prominent lay- 
man by the name of Alexander M. Mcjunkin generously donated the 
use of his school house as a meeting place, and within its walls serv- 
ices were held until the church made a second and more successful 
attempt to erect a house of worship of its own, which enterprise was 


begun and completed in the year 1840. It stood on the corner of 
Harrison and Berry streets, was a frame structure and for a number 
of years answered well the purposes of the congregation, affording 
ample room for regular services and the work of the Sunday school. 


The year in which the building was completed witnessed the 
changing of the Fort Wayne circuit to Fort Wayne station, the first 
pastor under the new order of things being Rev. B. A. Conwell, 
whose efforts in behalf of the church were very effective and highly 
appreciated by the congregation. Accessions were frequent during 
the next few years and the influence of the church did much to coun- 
teract many of the evils of the times, mold public sentiment and add. 
to the reputation of the town as a peaceable and law-abiding com- 

In 1849 the communicants numbered two hundred and seven- 
teen, in view of which large increase and the extensive area of the 
parish it was deemed prudent to divide the congregation and estab- 
lish a new church ; accordingly, a part of the number withdrew and 
organized what is known as the Wayne Street congregation, building 
a suitable house of worship on the corner of Wayne and Broadway, 
Rev. William Wilson being pastor when the division was consum- 

Among the pastors who served the original congregation from 
time to time were the following : Revs. George M. Boyd, Hawley B. 
Beers, J. S. Bayless, Samuel Brenton, Amasa Johnson, William Wil- 
son, Homer C. Benson and Milton Mahin, since whose time the 
church has enjoyed the labors of some of the denomination's leading 
divines, not a few of whom achieved wide repute and eminent stand- 
ing in ecclesiastical circles. 

After being used for a period of twenty years the frame building 
referred to gave place to a commodious brick edifice, which cost the 
sum of twenty-two thousand dollars, and to which the name of Berry 
Street church was given, this being its designation from 185 1 to 
1902, since which time it has been known as the First Methodist 
Episcopal church of Fort Wayne. In addition to the house of wor- 


ship a fine parsonage was also erected at a cost of eight thousand dol- 
lars, and the growth of the organization in its every department of 
work has continued unabated to the present day, the church at this 
time being one of the largest and most influential, as well as one of 
the most popular and prosperous Protestant bodies in the city, also 
occupying a conspicuous place among the strong Methodist churches 
of Indiana. 

By reason of the large increase in membership and continued 
growth in public favor, the church after the lapse of about fifty years 
found it necessary to provide a larger and more convenient house of 
worship; accordingly, in 1901, successful efforts were made to erect 
a building more in keeping with the demands of the congregation. 
Plans and specifications were prepared and accepted and in due time 
work on the new edifice was being pushed rapidly forward. The 
structure, which was erected on the southwest corner of Lafayette 
and Wayne, was completed and dedicated in the year 1902 and stands, 
as it will for perhaps a century to come, a magnificent monument to 
the enterprise and progressive spirit of the congregation, and to the 
energy and zeal of the founders, being easily one of the finest and 
most imposing temples of worship in a city abounding in splendid 
ecclesiastical structures, its harmonious proportions, artistic design 
and architectural beauty, also the handsome and tasteful interior, in 
which beauty is combined with utility, being not only attractive in all 
the term applies, but peculiarly impressive, affording as it does a fit 
and appropriate place for the worshiper to meet and hold communion 
with his God. 

The First church has a creditable history and, while pointing 
with pardonable pride, as well as with a deep sense of thankfulness, 
to its long series of splendid achievements in the past, the membership 
are planning for a still greater advancement in the future, every 
auxiliary and agency being thoroughly organized and under the 
leadership of consecrated men and women eminently qualified to di- 
rect along the lines of the most effective services. The Sunday school, 
which is one of the largest in the city, is managed by capable officials, 
the classes being in charge of teachers especially fitted for the duties 
required of them, while the Epworth League and other organizations 
are firmly established and have been the means of accomplishing 


untold good, not only in strengthening* the congregation and adding 
to its influences, but in carrying the gospel to the by-ways of the city 
and directing the benevolences of the church into proper channels. 
The present pastor is Rev. Charles Rowand, under whose zealous and 
prudent management, as well as by his exceptional ability in the pul- 
pit, the church is keeping up to its high standard of former years and 
moving grandly forward in the noble work of winning souls to the 
higher life and extending the kingdom of God among men. Rev. 
Rowand has the love and confidence of his flock to an eminent degree 
and in addition thereto is highly regarded by the public, being inter- 
ested in all enterprises having for their object the material advance- 
ment of the community, while every laudable movement for the good 
of his fellow men is sure to enlist his sympathy and support. 

Since the division of the original congregation in 1849, which 
resulted in two separate bodies of Methodists, four additional 
churches have been established and handsome buildings erected, 
namely : Simpson church, in the south part of the city ; Trinity, in 
the north; St. Paul's, on the East Side, and Bethany, at the inter- 
section of Boone and Fry streets. 


Like the parent body, the Wayne Street church has had an emi- 
nently successful and praiseworthy career, having outgrown its orig- 
inal quarters, and is now worshiping in a handsome and stately brick 
structure on the southwest corner of Broadway and West Main 
streets, the property, which also includes a fine parsonage, being 
among the best located and most valuable church properties in the 
city. In all that constitutes an ecclesiastical edifice, commodious and 
complete in all its parts, the Wayne Street church compares favor- 
ably with any other building of the kind in Fort Wayne, being plain, 
but exceedingly beautiful and impressive, with a handsome and taste- 
fully decorated auditorium, also a large Sunday school, class rooms 
and its various auxiliaries, the structure as a whole presenting a mas- 
sive though attractive appearance, a model of taste and utility and 
admirably adapted to the purposes for which designed. 

The congregation worshiping in this building is larger than that 


of any other Methodist church in the city, while its aggressiveness 
in the prosecution of its own interests and its activity in assisting 
every enterprise for the welfare of the community, have been influ- 
ences for good second to that of no other agency in the city. Every 
department of the church at this time is reported in excellent condi- 
tion, the Sunday school being large and flourishing, the teachers 
thoroughly consecrated to their duties and the superintendent a gen- 
tleman of tact and fine executive ability, under whose efficient man- 
agement the work has been made very popular and effective, while 
the Epworth League and other auxiliaries are under able and dis- 
creet supervision ; indeed there is a general forward movement along 
the entire line, each member realizing the responsibility resting upon 
him as a soldier in a warfare which will continue to be waged until 
the world is won for the Master and the white banner of truth flies 
in triumph from every citadel of error. Rev. Asher S. Preston is the 
able and popular pastor of the Wayne Street church at this time and 
his ministry has been very acceptable to the congregation, he being a 
forcible and logical preacher, faithful and zealous in his efforts to 
spread the truths of the gospel, and judicious as a leader and adviser, 
his people reposing confidence in his judgment and integrity, while 
the public has learned to prize him for his many excellent qualities of 
mind and heart. 


which, as already indicated, is composed of a membership confined 
to the south part of the city, is a strong and progressive organiza- 
tion, its house of worship, situated at the intersection of Dawson and 
Harrison streets, being a beautiful brick building, well finished and 
finely equipped, and a credit to the congregation that assembles for 
services within its walls. While not as strong as some of its sister 
churches of Fort Wayne, this society is alive to every good word 
and work, and its progress has been commendable in every respect. 
It has enjoyed and profited by the labors of a number of pious and 
zealous ministers, who spared no pains to promote its interests and 
left nothing undone in their efforts to benefit the community and 
bring the people to a saving knowledge of the truth. Few churches 
in the city have accomplished as much in the same length of time as 


the Simpson congregation, and none exceed it in its zeal for the Mas- 
ter's cause, or in the consecrated efforts put forth by both pastor and 
parishioners to counteract the sins of the times and win the trans- 
gressor to a better mode of life. The various agencies of the church 
are organized for systematic and effective work, a flourishing Sab- 
bath school being among the greatest influences for good, while the 
Epworth League and other collateral branches have been the means 
by which the congregation has been greatly benefited and grown in 
public favor. Rev. J. W. Canse, although but recently sent to this 
charge, has already won a warm place in the affections of his flock, 
and being in the prime of vigorous manhood, a splendid preacher and 
thoroughly devoted to the work, it is fair to presume that his pas- 
torate will prove fruitful in good results and eminently satisfactory. 


is the growth of a desire on the part of the Methodists of the East 
Side for a house of worship nearer their places of residence than 
either the First or the Wayne street church, both of which were 
quite remote, rendering attendance at times inconvenient and diffi- 
cult. The agitation for a building more favorably located finally 
resulted in definite action and in due time a lot was secured at the 
intersection of Seldon avenue and Walton street, and not long after- 
wards a neat, substantial edifice was completed and formally dedi- 
cated, the occasion being one of great rejoicing by the members and 
friends of the newly established organization. 

St. Paul's has been served by a number of able and consecrated 
ministers, and from the beginning its prosperity has experienced lit- 
tle interruption worthy of note, having ever proved a potential 
agency for the dissemination of the principles and doctrines of Meth- 
odism and an earnest and uncompromising advocate of truth and a 
high standard of morals. The membership, which numbers about 
three hundred, consists of an enterprising and intelligent class of peo- 
ple, the house of worship is comfortable and commodious, with a 
spacious and attractive auditorium and other rooms and apartments 
in which the various auxiliary branches of the church transact busi- 
ness and carry on their respective lines of work, the entire edifice 



eing well finished and furnished, and a credit to the congregation 
rhose home it is. 

The material interests of the congregation have been managed by 
len of fine administrative talent, while its spiritual welfare, under 
le charge of those eminently fitted for the duties of their holy office, 
as known no neglect, all things moving harmoniously and bringing 
bout results most gratifying to the church and the community. The 
astor at this time is Rev. L. Rehle, a gentleman of culture and abil- 
:y and a fluent speaker, under whose faithful ministry and wise 
*adership the congregation is steadily advancing towards the high 
deals which the Master has set before it. 


>ne of the younger of the Methodist Episcopal organizations of Fort 
Vayne, is of comparatively recent origin, nevertheless its career has 
>een replete with continued successes, and its achievements not onlv 
peak well for its efforts in the past, but may be accepted as prophetic 
)f still greater advancement and a wider sphere of activity in the 
: uture. The congregation meets for worship in a very creditable 
milding on the southwest corner of Boone and Fry streets, the pastor 
it the present time being Rev. James Campbell, to whose energy, 
combined with kindness, forbearance and genuine Christian charity, 
he church is indebted for no small share of the prosperity which it 
low enjoys. Bethany occupies an important place among the ecclesi- 
istical bodies of Fort Wayne, especially the churches of its own or- 
ier, and with an aggressive membership, in which the spirit of har- 
nony and good will obtain, it is realizing the expectations of its 
founders and wielding an influence which tends greatly to the spir- 
tual and moral benefit of that part of the city in which it is located. 


This denomination, which has quite a respectable following in 
Fort Wayne and vicinity, is represented in the city by one organiza- 
tion which meets for worship in a spacious and substantial building 
3n East Creighton avenue, the pastor at this time being Rev. Ulysses 


G. Hoover, whose labors have been wisely directed and fruitful of 
much good in strengthening the cause he advocates. While not as 
strong as the majority of Protestant bodies in the community, the 
congregation is steadily growing in numbers and bids fair to attract 
a still larger following, the principles and doctrines of the church 
being peculiarly acceptable to that eminently respectable class of 
Christians who insist upon the necessity of sound personal piety and 
belief, that with the help of the holy spirit man may so live as to rise 
superior to his desire to do wrong and become in a large measure 
free from sin and its temptations. The organization in this city is 
doing a good work and all sincere believers wish it Godspeed in its 
heavenly ordained mission of preaching the gospel of the higher life 
and winning humanity to a higher state of being. 


Although not so numerous in Fort Wayne as in many other cities 
of Indiana, the colored people have ever been quiet and law-abiding 
and, like the better element of their race, wherever surrounded by 
proper influences, they have not been slow to acknowledge the claims 
of the gospel and yield cheerful and implicit obedience to its man- 
dates. Of an ardent temperament and in the main essentially re- 
ligious, this race has long furnished a commendable example to their 
white brethren in the fervency of their piety and in the intensity with 
which they demonstrate the beauty and worth of the Christian faith, 
their churches everywhere being thronged with worshipers and well 
supported, while their ministry is always loyally and lovingly sus- 

Among the colored people of the North, Methodism appears to be 
the popular creed, and in nearly every city or locality where they are 
sufficiently represented may be found one or more churches of this 
denomination, in which services are regularly conducted and which 
prove of great benefit, not only by affording the means of worship 
and an avenue for the exercise of intense religious enthusiasm, but in 
providing a barrier against certain evils which might otherwise be- 
come a menace to the peace and quiet of the community. 

The better element of Fort Wayne's colored population support a 


fairly strong and healthy Methodist society, the organization of 
which was effected on December 12, 1872, by Rev. Jason Bundy, the 
following being the names of the constituent members : W. L. Stew- 
ard, Mary Steward, William Herdle and John Hall, of whom Hall, 
Herdle and Steward were elected trustees. After ministering to the 
little charge for a year and adding a number to its membership, Rev. 
Bundy was succeeded by Rev. M. Patterson, and he in 1874 by Rev. 
C. Russell. Among other early pastors were Revs. Daniel Bur- 
den, A. H. Knight, G. O. Curtis and Robert McDaniel, all of whom 
preached prior to 1880 and did effective service for the congregation. 
The society meets for worship in a neat and comfortable chapel on 
the corner of East Wayne and Harrison streets, services being held 
at regular intervals by the pastor, Rev. Alexander Smith, whose min- 
istry thus far has been productive of much good in strengthening the 
congregation and arousing among the members a deep and abiding 
interest in spiritual things. A good Sunday school is maintained, 
the other auxiliaries are well organized and supported and on the 
whole the church is moving forward, intent upon its noble work of 
advancing the cause of the Redeemer among men. 






The first Protestant minister to visit Fort Wayne was the Rev. 
Matthew G. Wallace, a Presbyterian, who, when General Harrison, 
in September, 1812, marched to the relief of the garrison besieged 
by the Indians, was chaplain of his army. In May, 1820, Rev. Isaac 
McCoy, a Baptist minister, came as a missionary to the Indians. He 
remained two years and a half, conducting an Indian mission school, 
and in August, 1822, organized in connection with it a small Bap- 
tist church. But the first one who came to preach to the white set- 
tlers was Rev. John Ross, a Presbyterian minister, honorably and 
affectionately known to a later generation as "Father Ross," who, 
having given up a pastorate near Dayton, Ohio, to engage in home 
mission work, became one of the pioneers of the church in Indiana. 
Having received an appointment from the Presbyterian general as- 
sembly to labor here for three months, he arrived in December, 
1822. He started from Dayton in a light two-horse wagon in which 
a trader was conveying a stock of hats and dried fruits to the same 
destination. The journey, as long afterwards described by him- 
self, was through a wilderness where at night the wolves howled 
around them, and before they reached the end of it a snow storm 
came on, followed by intense cold. Failing to strike fire from a 
flint, and the wagon having become frozen fast in the mud, they, 


leaving it in charge of a faithful dog, unloosed the horses and, the 
weather being too cold to ride, led them to Fort Wayne where they 
arrived late on a Saturday night and where Mr. Ross found a warm 
welcome in the hospitable home of Samuel Hanna. Next day he 
began his work by preaching morning and afternoon in the fort, 
"because," as he explained, "there was no other convenient place 
to preach in." The settlement at that time consisted of between 
one hundred and fifty and two hundred souls, including French and 
half-breed families, mainly engaged in trading with the Indians. 
Until 1826 Mr. Ross in his preaching tours made five several visits 
to Fort Wayne. He earned his honorable title of "Father Ross" 
by long and useful service in the state and died at Tipton in 1876, 
aged ninety-two years. 


In 1829, in response to an appeal made in December of the pre- 
ceding year by Allen Hamilton, then the postmaster, the Home 
Missionary Society appointed Rev. Charles E. Furman a missionary 
to Fort Wayne. He arrived November 13th and, writing to the 
mission rooms in New York the following February, he said, "From 
this place a hundred miles in every direction is a perfect wilderness. 
The country contains only seven or eight hundred inhabitants, be- 
tween three and four hundred of whom live in town." Then, having 
stated that an unusually large proportion of the people attended 
upon the preaching of the gospel and that he thought a Presby- 
terian church of twelve members might be organized, he added, 
"The people are hospitable and have more intelligence and liberality 
of feeling than those of any similar town I have found in the coun- 
try." Mr. Furman continued to preach here till the mid-summer 
of 1830, preparing the way for a church, and then departed to an- 
other mission field. In June of the next year Rev. James Chute, 
of the presbytery of Columbus, Ohio, arrived, and at the request of 
the few Presbyterians residing here, on the first day of July, 183 1, 
under a rude shelter of boards near what is now the junction of 
Columbia with Harrison street, organized the First Presbyterian 
church of Fort Wayne, consisting of twelve members. Smallwood 



Noel and John Mcintosh were elected ruling elders. Among the 
members were two ladies of half Indian blood who had united with 
the Baptist church connected with Mr. McCoy's mission school. 
They were Mrs. Ann Turner and Mrs. Rebecca Hackley, daughters 
of Capt. Wells and nieces by his Indian wife of Little Turtle, the 
famous war chief of the Miamis. They had been educated in Ken- 
tucky and were ladies of refinement, and intelligent, devoted Chris- 
tians. Forty-four citizens, subscribing differing sums, promised a 
salary of two hundred and fifty-eight dollars for the pastor. For 
six years the main hindrance to the progress of the church was the 
want of a house of worship. A school house, twenty by twenty-five 
feet, the Masonic Hall, somewhat larger, a carpenter's shop, two dif- 
ferent rooms on Columbia street, and in the summer of 1833, and 
again in 1835 and 1836, the courthouse of that time were success- 
ively used until, in 1837, the congregation happily ceased from their 
wanderings by occupying a church home of their own. It was of 
frame, forty feet square, and stood on the south side of Berry street, 
between Barr and Lafayette streets. In this building were organ- 
ized the old synod of Northern Indiana in October, 1843, an< ^ tne 
presbytery of Fort Wayne January 1, 1845. Occasionally it was 
used for public town meetings and at least one session of the Allen 
county court was held in it. For several years after the organization 
of the church Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists worshipped 
together (there not being enough worshippers to divide), their re- 
spective ministers preaching on alternate Sabbaths; and there was 
one union Sunday school until, in 1840, the Methodists and Luth- 
erans, and in 1842 the Baptists, established their separate denomi- 
national Sunday schools. 

Rev. James Chute died December 28, 1835. During 1836 the 
congregation was temporarily served by Rev. Daniel Jones and 
for a part of 1837 by Rev. Jesse Hoover, a Lutheran. In October, 
1837, Rev. Alexander T. Rankin became stated supply and re- 
mained in that capacity till September, 1843. The church now 
desired to have a minister in the relation of pastor and in the spring 
of 1844 a call to the pastorate was given to Rev. William C. Ander- 
son, D. D., a professor in Hanover College. He declined the call, 
but ably served the church as pastor-elect for six months when, be- 


ing obliged to give up on account of failing health, by his advice a 
call was given to Rev. Hugh S. Dixon, of Bardstown, Kentucky, 
which he accepted, beginning his service September 2$, 1844, as the 
first regular pastor of the church. In May of that year six members 
were at their own request dismissed to unite with others in the or- 
ganization of the Second Presbyterian church. Meanwhile the 
frame building had become too small to accommodate the growing 
congregation and it was resolved to erect a larger and more commo- 
dious building, which was begun in October, 1845, the site purchased 
being at the southeast corner of Berry and Clinton streets where 
the United States government building now stands. The basement 
was occupied for worship in 1847 an d on November 16, 1852, the 
substantial and stately brick structure, having been completed, was 
dedicated. The pastorate of Mr. Dixon having ended in July, 1847, 
by his resignation, Rev. Lowman P. Hawes served the church as a 
temporary supply for six months and in August, 1848, Rev. John G. 
Riheldaffer, a graduate of that year from Princeton Theological 
Seminary, accepted a call and continued to be pastor until by his res- 
ignation the relation was terminated in July, 185 1. Soon after- 
ward a call was given to Rev. Jonathan Edwards, D. D., which he 
accepted, beginning his pastoral work on the 13th of the following 
October, and continuing it till July, 1855, when he resigned to accept 
the presidency of Hanover College. After Rev. J. H. Burns had 
supplied the church for a few months, Rev. John M. Lowrie, D. D., 
accepted a call and in November, 1856, began his pastorate, which 
continued till his death, September 26, 1867, at the age of fifty 
years. During his pastorate the church edifice was enlarged by an 
addition, and the Third Presbyterian church, an offspring of the 
First, was organized, a more particular account of which will be 
given in its order. Dr. Lowrie was the author of "Adam and His 
Times," "The Hebrew Lawgiver," "A Week with Jesus," and other 
books published by the Presbyterian board of publication. The 
session of the church in resolutions adopted upon his death, after 
expressing their great sorrow and that of the whole church in their 
bereavement, also express their "deep sense of the loss to the cause 
of religion by the cutting down in his prime, of one so eminently 
qualified by learning, piety and experience for usefulness not only 


here but in the wider fields of ministerial labor and religions litera- 

In March, 1868, Rev. Thomas H. Skinner, D. D., previously 
pastor at Stapleton, Staten Island, New York, having accepted a 
call, entered upon his pastorate, which was terminated in November, 
1 87 1, by his resigning to accept a call to the Second Presbyterian 
church of Cincinnati, Ohio. February 5, 1872, a call was given to 
Rev. David W. Moffat, D. D., then pastor of the Presbyterian 
church of Georgetown, D. C. (the West Street church of Wash- 
ington), which, after having visited Fort Wayne, he accepted, en- 
tering upon the duties of the pastorate May 1, 1872. He has con- 
tinued the pastor until the present time, but has announced his in- 
tention to retire January 1, 1906. 

Only the outside history of a church as marked by some note- 
worthy events can be given in a record like this, and indeed no one 
could tell a great deal concerning the inner spiritual history which 
is known fully and accurately only to God. 

In 1 88 1 the semi-centennial of the church was celebrated. On 
the Sabbath there was in the morning an appropriate discourse by 
Rev. Samuel J. Wilson, D. D., LL. D., of the Western Theological 
Seminary at Allegheny, Pennsylvania; and in the evening there 
was read by Rev. Dr. Meade C. Williams a history of the church 
written by his father, Mr. Jesse L. Williams, who had been an in- 
fluential member and elder since the second year of its existence, to 
which history the writer of this is indebted for much information 
concerning the early years. On Monday evening a banquet was 
given in the Academy of Music, the largest hall then in the city, 
which was crowded by the congregation and a large number of in- 
vited guests including the older citizens of all church denomina- 
tions. The pastor presided, giving the address of welcome, and 
responses to toasts were given by Dr. Wilson, Rev. A. T. Rankin, 
one of the former ministers, and by gentlemen of the congregation. 
Altogether it was a happy occasion. 

Saturday evening, December 16, 1882, the church edifice, with 
all its contents, was totally destroyed by fire, only the bare brick 
walls being left standing. The next afternoon the congregation 
gathered for worship in the Trinity English Lutheran church, which 


had been kindly offered for the purpose, and the pastor's sermon 
was full of hope for the future. Thereafter the circuit court room 
was used for regular services until May, 1883, when an arrange- 
ment was made whereby the Jewish synagogue was used for a 
period of twenty-nine months. The old church site was sold to the 
United States government and a new one purchased at the northeast 
corner of Washington and Clinton streets. By the vote of the con- 
gregation it was left to the pastor to name a building committee and 
the committee, after looking at a large number of churches in the 
larger cities, out of many plans submitted to them by architects 
chose those of Mr. Gregory Vigeant, of Chicago. Early in 1884 
building was begun ; the lecture room was occupied for public wor- 
ship October 1, 1885, it being a little more than two* years and nine 
months since the congregation had come together in a place of their 
own; and the auditorium was occupied May 1, 1886. The building 
is of stone, its total length being one hundred and thirty- four feet 
and total breadth one hundred feet. Its cost when completed, with 
organ and furnishings, was ninety thousand dollars. It is a noble 
edifice, majestic and beautiful, and the interior is both artistic and 
conveniently arranged for all church purposes. The late Dr. Samuel 
A. Mutchmore, editor of The Presbyterian, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, who saw it soon after it was finished, in giving an account 
of it in his newspaper, said, "It would grace any street in New 

February 15, 1894, out of a mission of the First church Beth- 
any Presbyterian church was organized, more about which will be 
found in its place. 

May 1, 1897, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the pastorate of 
Dr. Moffat was celebrated. His Sunday discourses were of an his- 
torical and reminiscent character, and Tuesday evening a delightful 
reception was given to him and his family, the cordial and kindly 
greetings of the congregation being emphasized by the presentation, 
through the church session, of a gift of a generous bank check. 

Although the policy of the church has been not to aim at build- 
ing up one large congregation, but rather to establish and aid to 
independence new churches conveniently situated in relation to the 
growing and spreading population of the city, yet there has been a 



steady and healthful growth and the number of communicants is 
now five hundred and eighty-one. In the amounts annually con- 
tributed to home and foreign missions and to the other benevolent 
boards of the general assembly it stands in the front rank with two 
or three other Presbyterian churches in the state and its members 
are prominent and active in every benevolent work in the city. A 
fundamental principle of Presbyterianism is that God alone is mas- 
ter of the conscience and Christ the sole and sovereign head of the 
church. In form of government it is a republic. In every local 
church the ruling or administrative body under Christ is the ses- 
sion, consisting of the pastor and a board of elders, all elected by 
the people. Some churches elect their elders for a term of years, 
others, among which is the First of Fort Wayne, have no time limit. 
It is easy to perceive therefore that the peace, purity and prosperity 
of a church will depend largely upon the sort of men chosen to the 
eldership. From the beginning until now this church has been most 
happy in the character of those elected by it at various times to be 
ruling elders. They have been intelligent, judicious and capable 
men in whose Christian spirit and love and loyalty the pastor could 
always repose with confidence, and men of personal influence not 
only in the church but in the community. To speak of all whose 
names would deserve a place in the roll of honor would be impossi- 
ble, but the names of three of them, years ago gone to their reward, 
may be mentioned because of what they all had to do with the 
church in its early and formative period, and the remarkably long 
service of two of them. Samuel Hanna, although he did not unite 
with the church until some years after its organization, was its ac- 
tive friend and efficient helper from the first, as he had been of all 
religious effort previously, and at the time of his death, in 1866, 
had served as an honored elder for more than twenty-three years. 
Jesse L. Williams, coming from Ohio in 1832 and uniting with 
the church by certificate early in 1833, was chosen to be an elder 
January 1, 1834, and, with the exception of a temporary residence 
of a few years at Indianapolis, served continuously till his death, in 
October, 1886, a period of over fifty-three years. And John Coch- 
rane, having united with the church by profession of his faith in 
December, 1840, was chosen to be an elder at the same time with 


Mr. Hanna in September, 1843, an d served continuously till his 
death, in March, 1891, a period of over forty-eight years. Under 
the favor of God it is to the wise guidance of these men and others 
like minded associated with them and succeeding them, some of 
whose names it is hard to resist mentioning with theirs, men of 
Christian intelligence, conviction and character, of good judgment 
and personal influence, that the church is largely indebted for the 
united, peaceful and substantial character which it possesses. And 
today, although all those who were elders when the present pastor- 
ate began have passed away, the quality of the eldership is not 


The Second, now called the Westminster Presbyterian church, 
was founded in May, 1844, by the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, then 
pastor of the Second Presbyterian church of Indianapolis. The 
First church dismissed six members who united with others in the 
organization. The early records of the church have been lost, on 
which account only a bare summary of events can be given. A 
frame church building, ample and comely, was erected on the south 
side of Berry street, between Webster and Ewing streets, and Rev. 
Charles Beecher, a brother of the founder, became the first pastor, 
serving the church for seven years, when he resigned on account of 
ill health. Following his resignation the church was served by 
supplies as follows : Rev. Isaac Taylor, three months ; Rev. Smith, 
two months; Rev. Amzi W. Freeman, two months; Rev. Daniel 
Blood, four months; Rev. Ray, five months, which brings us to 
June, 1852, when Rev. Amzi W. Freeman became stated supply 
and remained two full years. He was succeeded by Rev. Eleroy Cur- 
tis, who, having received and accepted a call, became the pastor 
from November, 1854, till October, i860, when he resigned. Then, 
after Rev. W. R. Palmer had supplied the church for two* years, 
Rev. George O. Little, first as supply and afterwards as pastor, 
served the church from May 15, 1864, till September, 1870. At the 
close of his pastorate the church dismissed a number of members 
who united with others in organizing Plymouth Congregational 


church. Mr. Little was followed by Rev. W. J. Erdman, who 
served in the relation of supply from December, 1870, till June, 
1874, and he was succeeded in the same relation by Rev. Joseph 
Hughes from July, 1874, till April 23, 1876. Mr. Hughes came to 
the church as a young man fresh from Lane Theological Semin- 
ary, and similarly his successor, Rev. William H. McFarland, came 
from Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pennsylvania, to 
be, by the call of the church, its pastor from June, 1876, till Sep- 
tember, 1886, his being the longest pastorate in the history of the 
church till that date. Rev. John M. Fulton, D. D., supplied for a 
year, and in November, 1888, the Rev. James L. Leeper, D. D., 
having accepted a call, entered upon his pastorate, which continued 
until he resigned in March, 1901. In 1889 the congregation demol- 
ished the frame church building and on the same site erected a new 
and larger one of stone and brick, at the cost of thirty thousand 
dollars. The exterior presents a handsome appearance on one of the 
principal residence streets of the city; its auditorium is capacious 
and tasteful in all its appointments and it is thoroughly and con- 
veniently equipped with additional rooms for all church uses. It 
was finished and occupied for worship in March, 1890. The present 
pastor is Rev. Jacob Budman Fleming, who having accepted a call 
entered upon the duties of the pastorate in June, 1901. 

In the promotion of the religious interests of the city, in work 
for and contributions to home and foreign missions and the other 
benevolent enterprises of the denomination, and also in local benevo- 
lences, the church has done and is doing its full share. It continues 
to grow and the number of its communicants is three hundred and 


The Third Presbyterian church is a daughter of the First. In 
the spring of 1865, responding to a call of Dr. Lowrie from the 
pulpit, a number of the members of the First church met and organ- 
ized a mission Sunday school in a frame chapel at the northeast 
corner of Calhoun and Holman streets. The site was given by Mrs. 
E. J. (Mrs. Allen) Hamilton and the chapel was provided by 
other members of the church. A subscription of twelve hundred 


dollars a year was secured for the salary of a suitable man to preach 
in the chapel and take charge of mission work in the city, and the 
late Rev. Nathan S. Smith, D. D., having been induced to come 
from Ohio to accept the position, entered upon its duties with en- 
thusiasm, taking charge of all the work connected with the mission 
chapel and establishing Sunday schools in various parts of the city. 
December 3, 1867, a colony of thirty-four volunteers, from the 
First church, having been regularly dismissed, and other persons 
gathered by Dr. Smith were organized into the Third Presbyterian 
church. Dr. Smith was chosen pastor. Next year, in the spring, 
by the encouragement of the First church, the chapel was moved to 
another location close at hand and a new, substantial brick church 
building was begun. It was finished in 1869 a ^ a cost of fifteen 
thousand dollars, the most of which was provided by the mother 
church. Under Dr. Smith the Third church grew steadily in mem- 
bership and strength every year, needing and receiving less finan- 
cial aid till at length he, judging that it ought to be entirely self- 
supporting, resigned and returned to Ohio. The church then, un- 
dertaking to walk alone, proposed to walk too fast and after the 
experience of a year, Rev. John Woods being the stated supply, 
broke down in debt and discouraged. When a few months more 
had demonstrated the need, members of the First church extended 
the helping hand in the form of a subscription of one thousand dol- 
lars a year for three years, and Rev. Harlan G. Mendenhall, D. D., 
then graduating from the Western Theological Seminary, having 
accepted a call, entered upon his pastorate in the spring of 1875 and 
the church took on new life. After three years he resigned to ac- 
cept a call to the Sixth church of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and was 
succeeded by Rev. William B. Minton, whose pastorate extended 
till the spring of 1881. Rev. J. V. Stockton was called and began 
his work in August next, but on account of ill health was obliged to 
give it up the following April. That same month Rev. S. F. Marks, 
a graduate of the same year from the theological seminary at Alle- 
gheny, entered upon his pastorate, remaining till November, 1885, 
when he resigned, accepting a call to Tidioute, Pennsylvania. Rev. 
David S. Kennedy, D. D., then a graduate of the class of 1886 from 
McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, being called, entered 


upon his pastorate in April of that year, which he resigned in No- 
vember, 1888, to accept a call to* the First church of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. During the pastorate of Mr. Kennedy the church, 
which again had been